From P2P and Grids to Services on the Web: Evolving Distributed Communities

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Springer Science & Business Media, 11.12.2008 - 463 Seiten
Over the past several years, Internet users have changed in their usage p- terns from predominately client/server-based Web server interactions to also involving the use of more decentralized applications, where they contribute more equally in the role of the application as a whole, and further to d- tributed communities based around the Web. Distributed systems take many forms, appear in many areas and range from truly decentralized systems, like Gnutella, Skype and Jxta, centrally indexed brokered systems like Web s- vices and Jini and centrally coordinated systems like SETI@home. From P2P and Grids and Services on the Web Evolving Distributed Communities provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging trends in peer-to-peer (P2P), distributed objects, Web Services, the Web, and Grid computing technologies, which have rede ned the way we think about d- tributed computing and the Internet. The book has four main themes: d- tributed environments, protocols and architectures for applications, protocols and architectures focusing on middleware and nally deployment of these middleware systems, providing real-world examples of their usage.
 

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Inhalt

Introduction
3
11 Introduction to Distributed Systems
5
12 Terminology
7
13 Centralized and Decentralized Systems
9
131 Resource Discovery
10
132 Resource Availability
11
133 Resource Communication
13
14 Taxonomy Dependency Considerations
14
115 Conclusion
211
Freenet
213
121 Introduction
214
1222 SelfOrganizing Adaptive Behaviour in Freenet
215
1223 Requesting Files
217
1224 Similarities with Other Peer Organization Techniques
218
123 Freenet Keys
219
1232 SignedSubspace Keys
220

15 Examples of Distributed Applications
17
Centralized
18
Centralized
20
Brokered
21
16 Examples of Middleware
23
Brokered
24
Decentralized
25
17 Conclusion
26
Discovery Protocols
27
22 Unicast Addressing
29
221 UDP
30
23 IP Multicast Addressing
32
231 Multicast Grouping
33
232 Multicast Distribution Trees
34
24 Service Location Protocol
35
25 Conclusion
37
Structured Document Types
38
31 HTML
40
32 XML
43
33 XHTML
46
34 Document Modelling and Validation
48
342 XML Schema
51
343 RELAX NG
56
35 Conclusion
60
Distributed Security Techniques
61
41 Introduction
62
42 Design Issues
63
421 Focus of Data Control
64
422 Layering of Security Mechanisms
65
423 Simplicity
66
43 Cryptography
67
432 Types of Encryption
68
433 Symmetric Cryptosystem
69
435 Hash Functions
70
44 Signing Messages with a Digital Signature
71
45 Secure Channels
72
451 Secure Channels Using Symmetric Keys
73
452 Secure Channels Using PublicPrivate Keys
74
Creating a Sandbox
75
47 Conclusion
77
Distributed Environments
78
The Web
79
52 The Dawn of the Web
82
53 Naming Things in a Uniform Way
83
531 URI Templates
86
54 A Shared Representation of Things
89
55 Hypertext Transfer Protocol
90
551 HTTP and Security
92
56 Representational State Transfer
94
561 ClientServer
95
563 Caching
96
564 Uniform Interface
97
565 Layering
100
57 The Semantic Web
101
58 Conclusion
105
Peer2Peer Environments
107
61 What Is Peer to Peer?
108
612 The Shift to New Internet Users
109
62 Modern Definition of Peer to Peer
110
621 Social Impacts of P2P
113
63 The P2P Environment
115
632 NAT Systems
117
633 Firewalls
118
634 P2P Overlay Networks
119
641 MP3 File Sharing with Napster
120
642 File Sharing with Gnutella
121
65 True P2P and Good Distributed Design
122
Volunteer Computing
123
661 Distributed Computing Using SETIhome
124
67 Conclusion
125
Web Services
127
What Do We Need?
128
712 Representing Data and Semantics
130
72 Web Services
132
722 Web Services Architecture
133
723 Web Services Development
135
73 ServiceOriented Architecture
136
74 Conclusion
138
Distributed Objects and Agent Technologies
139
81 What Are Distributed Objects?
140
82 CORBA
141
83 Mobile Agents
143
84 Objects Services and Resources
145
842 Resources
146
85 Distributing Objects Using Java
148
851 Remote Method Invocation
149
852 Java Serialization
150
86 Conclusion
153
Grid Computing
154
92 Social Perspective
156
93 History of the Grid
157
931 The First Generation
158
932 The Second Generation
159
933 The Third Generation
161
94 The Grid Computing Architecture
162
941 Virtual Organizations and the Sharing of Resources
163
These Are the Criteria
166
952 Standard Open GeneralPurpose Protocols
167
953 Quality of Service
168
97 The Globus Toolkit 2x
169
971 Globus Tools
170
972 Security
171
973 Information Services
172
974 Data Management
174
98 Comments and Conclusion
176
Protocols and Architectures I P2P Applications
178
Gnutella
179
102 What Is Gnutella?
183
103 A Gnutella Scenario
185
1032 Gnutella in Operation
186
1033 Searching Within Gnutella
187
1041 Gnutella Descriptors
188
1042 Gnutella Descriptor Header
189
Ping
190
Query
191
Push
192
105 File Downloads
193
106 Gnutella Implementations
194
107 More Information
195
Scalability
197
111 Performance in P2P Networks
198
112 Unstructured P2P
199
1121 Social Networks
200
1122 Combining Network Topologies
202
1123 The Convergence of the Napster and Gnutella Approaches
204
1124 Gnutella Research Experiments
207
113 The Structured P2P Approach
208
1131 Structure of a DHT Network
209
114 Further Reading
210
1233 ContentHash Keys
221
1234 Clustering Keys
223
125 Conclusion
224
BitTorrent
226
131 What Is BitTorrent?
228
132 The BitTorrent Protocol
229
1322 Entities in a BitTorrent Application
230
1323 Bencoding and Torrent Metafiles
231
1324 The Tracker and File Downloading
232
133 BitTorrent Inc
234
134 Conclusion
235
Protocols and Architectures II Middleware
236
Jini
237
141 Jini
240
142 Jini Architecture
241
1421 Jini in Operation
242
143 Registering and Using Jini Services
245
Registering a Service Jini Service
246
Finding and Using Services Jini Client
247
Tying Things Together
249
145 Organization of Jini Services
250
146 Conclusion
251
Jxta
253
1511 Interoperability
254
1513 Ubiquity
255
152 Jxta Overview
256
1521 The Jxta Architecture
257
1523 Identifiers
258
1524 Advertisements
259
1526 Modules
260
1532 Rendezvous Nodes
261
1533 Pipes
262
1534 Relay Nodes
264
1542 The Peer Resolver Protocol
265
1543 The Peer Information Protocol
266
156 Jxta Environment Considerations
267
1562 NAT and Firewalls
268
Web Services Protocols
269
161 SOAP
270
1612 Web Services Architecture with SOAP
272
1613 The Anatomy of a SOAP Message
273
162 WSDL
275
1621 Service Description
276
1622 Implementation Details
277
1623 Anatomy of a WSDL Document
278
163 UDDI
281
164 WSExtensions
284
1642 WSPolicy
286
1644 WSTransfer
287
1645 WSEventing
288
1647 WSCoordination
289
OGSA
291
171 OGSA
292
1712 Virtual Services
294
1713 OGSA Architecture
295
172 OGSI
296
1721 Globus Toolkit Version 3
298
173 WSRF
299
1731 Problems with OGSI
300
1732 The Specifications
301
1733 WSResources
302
1735 WSNotification
305
1736 The Future of WSRF
306
174 Higher Level Interfaces
307
1742 Basic Execution Service
309
175 Conclusion
312
Web 20
313
181 The Web as Platform
314
1811 The Long Tail
316
182 Technologies and APIs
318
1822 Application Programming Interfaces APIs
322
1823 Microformats
325
1824 Syndication
327
1825 Web Application Description Language
334
1825 Web Application Description Language
336
183 Conclusion
337
On the Horizon
338
192 Ubiquitous Computing
341
1921 Everyware
343
1922 Spimes
345
193 Conclusion
346
Deployment
347
Distributed Object Deployment Using Jini
349
202 An RMI Application
350
2022 The Server
351
2023 The Client
353
2024 Setting Up the Environment
355
2031 The Remote Interface
356
2033 The Client
358
204 Running Jini Applications
360
2042 RMID Daemon
361
205 Conclusion
362
P2P Deployment Using Jxta
363
Starting the Jxta Platform
364
2111 Peer Configuration Using Jxta
365
2112 Using the Jxta Configurator
366
Using Jxta Pipes
369
2121 Running the Examples
377
The Jxta Approach
378
2132 Expiration of Adverts
379
214 Conclusion
380
Web Services Deployment
381
221 Data Binding
382
222 Setup
383
223 Container Classes
384
2232 VCard Class
387
224 Server Implementation
390
225 Service WSDL
395
226 Client Implementation
397
2261 Standard Client
398
2262 Dynamic Client
404
227 Conclusion
409
Web Deployment Using Atom
410
231 Setup
412
232 Utility Classes
413
233 The Atom Server
414
234 Atom Client
421
235 Running the Service and Client
425
236 Conclusion
428
Want to Find Out More?
435
A2 Web 20
436
A4 Grid Computing
437
A5 P2P Tools and Software
438
A6 Distributed Object Systems
440
RSA Algorithm
441
References
443
Index
454
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