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to this mode of training to single stakes or posts which should be mentioned; and that is, when the young succulent laterals have pushed out a foot or more in length, and before they have much substance, the wind is quite likely to blow some of them off, causing a loss of the fruit from that branch for the season. The same difficulty is experienced, to some extent, on a wire or wooden trellis, unless they are kept tied up, which is hardly possible in a large vineyard. From some years of experience with different methods of training, we are strongly inclined, for the reasons given, to prefer the spiral system; and can safely recommend it to others.
The Iona Grape. — This new grape, which has been so highly praised by its friends, and especially by its originator, fruited in different parts of the country last year, and gave the public opportunity to judge of its merits. There can be no question that it is a grape of very high quality; in fact, we regard it as the best hardy grape yet introduced: but there is still some doubt as to its proving early enough for a large portion of our country.
The vine is a good grower, with good foliage, that remained free of mildew in the same vineyard where the Delaware was nearly a failure on account of the mildew of the foliage; gives good-sized bunches and berries which failed to ripen. It is true that last season was an unfavorable one all over the country for the ripening of the grape-crop; yet the Concord and Creveling ripened, and a large crop was sold from the same vineyard in which the Iona failed. Now, the Concord is full late enough for the North; and any variety that will prove considerably later than that will be of little value, however good its quality. It is fully as late as the Rebecca and Allen's Hybrid, which did not ripen with us last year.
It is fair to presume that the Iona is destined to rank very highly in the West, and we doubt not it will prove the best wine-grape yet known; but there can be little hope of ever producing wine from it in the Eastern States, surely, when it will not ripen sufficiently to be palatable. We hope better results in more favorable seasons, and when the vines become older and more fully established. Those who admire the Catawba will admire the Iona still more; for it has all the good flavor of that old and favorite sort, intensified, but still delicate and refined.
The Adirondack Grape.—This new variety has fruited in many collections, and has been tested, to some extent, in various parts of the country. We expected from its origin, or birthplace, if we may use such an expression, that it would prove quite hardy. It was claimed, by those most interested, to be very early. Of its size and quality, many of us had an opportunity to judge before we were permitted to purchase the vines. We are often asked the question, " What do you think of the Adirondack now?" We answer, that it strongly resembles the Isabella in foliage and habit, and very likely is a seedling from it, and is not very hardy. It should receive protection in the North, certainly ; for there is danger in leaving it upon the stakes or trellises entirely unprotected through the winter. For hardiness, we class it with Rebecca and Allen's Hybrid ; though possibly, when the foliage does not mildew, it will stand the succeeding winter a little better than the last-named variety. The young vines mildew quite as badly as the Delaware, and rather more so than the Isabella. It is not a very strong grower, but perhaps sufficiently so ; though the wood does not harden up well, and in this respect is open to the same objection as the Isabella ; and hence its need of protection. The fruit begins to color very early ; and it really ripens by the middle or last of September, and in this particular fulfils the promises made respecting it. When we tasted the fruit purporting to be from the origitial Vine, we set it down as nearly or quite first-rate'; but we have seen no fruit of this variety raised elsewhere that has ever equalled that. The fact that this fruit, of inferior quality, was raised on young vines, and that it was grown last year, which was not a favorable one for the most perfect development of the good qualities of a grape, are perhaps sufficient reasons to account for its failure to meet the public expectation. Enough certainly is known in its favor to justify planting it in every city or village garden when it can be sure of protection, and in the country when it can have a favorable location, and be covered in the winter. It is really a great acquisition if it shall give us good crops under such circumstances; and the gentleman who introduced it deserves and will receive the hearty thanks of all lovers of fruits.
The Benefits Of Protection. — Since our forests have been stripped off, allowing the cold winds of winter and spring to sweep over the country so fiercely, some of our finer fruits fail. Time was when the peach-crop of New England was about as sure as the apple-crop ; but latterly it has failed twothirds of the time. The pear often fails for a similar reason,— want of protection. This was fully proved to my mind, two or three years ago, by seeing in a garden, protected on the north and east by a fence some twelve feet in height, a large crop of the best varieties of pears, as fair and handsome as ever, grown during the season when there was a short crop of this fruit generally ; and it was a noticeable fact, that, the farther one went from the fence to where the trees were in some degree exposed, the less the crop.
It is true that want of protection is not the sole cause of the failure of the peach; but it would, without doubt, prove a much surer crop if it received protection as of old.
Not only does this apply particularly to the spring and fall months; but shelter is a great advantage all through the year in the protection from winds, by which much fruit will be saved from being blown down.
Most emphatically would this be true of the open prairie country of the West. Protection is absolutely demanded, and positively necessary to successful fruitgrowi ng.
For this purpose, many things have been recommended; but evergreens are doubtless the best. Norway spruce, white pine, American spruce, red cedar, or hemlock (though the latter is of rather slow growth), or most any other good evergreen, will answer the purpose. If a deciduous tree and a rapid grower is required, use the silver-maple, or locust at the West, if it can be grown free from borers. In short, any decent tree that will come up quickly, and form some protection, will answer.
Few persons are aware of the beneficial results arising from such hedges or screens, unless they have tried the experiment. We have planted, on two sides of our pear-orchard and vineyard, the arborvitae, white spruce, and white pine, for this purpose, — not the very best, but the cheapest to us, because we had a surplus of those trees. It is not yet too late to plant evergreens; and, if your orchard is in an exposed location, try the effects of protection.
The Editors of "The American Journal of Horticulture " cordially invite all interested in horticulture and pomology, in its various branches, to send questions upon any subject upon which information may be desired. Our corps of correspondents is very large, and among them may be found those fully competent to reply to any ordinary subject in the practice of horticulture. Any questions which may be more difficult to answer will be duly noticed, and the respective subjects fully investigated. Our aim is to give the most trustworthy information on all subjects which can be of interest to horticulturists.
We would especially invite our friends to communicate any little items of experience for our " Notes and Gleanings," and also the results of experiments Such items are always readable, and of general interest.
We must, however, request that no one will write to the contributors to our columns upon subjects communicated to the Magazine.
Any queries of this nature will be promptly answered in our columns.
Anonymous communications cannot be noticed: we require the name and address of our correspondents as pledges of good faith.
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W. H. — The daffodil is a narcissus. Yours is probably the common kind, botanically known as N. pseudo narcissus, but annually imported from Holland, and sold at auction in great quantities under the name of N. orangephaonix. A popular name is butter and eggs, from the lemon and orange colored petals. There are, however, many varieties, differing in the color of the flowers, and both single and double. All are hardy, and need only be planted in a deep garden soil to flower well year after year.
The jonquil is a narcissus, botanically N. jonquilla, a native of Spain, but perfectly hardy.
J. W. T., Natick. — Buerre- d'Anjou, Lawrence, Seckel, will satisfy you in every respect. There are no better pears, and we much doubt if there ever will be.
C. L. M., Vineland, N.J. — The yellow thread-like masses which you enclose, as found in an old garden, seem to be some form of Usnea: the only thing which would conflict with this is their being subterranean. That they are not roots, you can readily see by breaking them. All roots have some woody tissue, which these have not, being homogeneous in substance. They are evidently of lichenose growth. Investigate further if you please, and report whether they are found in masses, or threading the soil. They cannot be beneficial; and, though we cannot certainly pronounce them injurious, we should prefer not to have them in a garden. •
We are in receipt of reports of the meetings of the Alton (Ill.; Horticultural Society, which show the progress yearly making in floriculture and pomology. The reports have the ring of true metal about them, and show that the members are active, wide-awake, and earnest, zealous in experiment, and ready to communicate for the information of others.
With such elements, success is certain ; and that the future may amply fulfil the bright promise of the present, is our earnest wish. Many Eastern societies would improve in usefulness, if, like the Alton Horticultural Society, they would hold regular meetings for discussion, and the reading of essays, in which every member is expected to take a part.
B. T. writes us as follows: "I made a little experiment last year with peas, planting some two or three inches, and others five inches deep: the result was in favor of the latter, which yielded threefold more than the others, and continued in bearing twice as long."
Experience will generally confirm the truth of this. The general mistake is, that peas are not planted deep enough. They may, however, be planted about three inches, and hilled up as they grow. Sweet-peas, planted and treated thus, give ten times more bloom than when grown as they ordinarily are.
Dr. Benjamin F. Ling, in an essay read before the Alton Horticultural Society, writes as follows (and truer words were never written): —
"One point only will I make on this branch of horticulture; viz., that the time of day for cultivating gardens is important: the reasons why may be left to science. All of the vegetables of the garden may be cultivated at any hour of the twenty-four forming the day, except beans; and generally for their benefit. If bsans are cultivated when there is moisture upon their leaves, the earth adheres to them, and they rust; or they are killed in part or outright, according to the amount of dirt upon their surface. Not so with other plants. If you wish to succeed, and have the garden pay a rich reward for all of your labor, in dry seasons as well as wet, trench deep ; manure moderately every year to the point just alluded to; work the ground while the dew is upon it, with the exception above noticed. I know of no plant that we depend on among those of the garden that is not made much better in quality, and more productive, by working the ground when it is moist with dew. When you have thinning of plants to do, be up early in the morning, as soon as you can see, and go at it; and, as far as you thin out, hoe between the rows, and protect those plants which have been disturbed. If there is no thinning to be done, still I would say, Out early in the morning, as soon as you can distinguish the plants from the weeds, or the rows of plants where there are no weeds, and ply the hoe, sometimes shallow, and others deep; and, my word for it, you will not regret the pains yon have taken."
In the proceedings at the Warsaw (Ill.) Horticultural Society, we find the following apples recommended by a committee appointed for the purpose : —
Beginning with the winter class, they unhesitatingly unite in recommending the Ben Davis, Winesap, and Rawles's Jannet, as the three that must take precedence. They place the Ben Davis first, because they find, that for hardiness, growth of tree, bearing qualities, and ready sale in the market, it does stand preeminently in the front rank. The Winesap they place second, and the Rawles's Jannet third, though believing them to be about equal in point of value, and both superior to the first in point of quality alone.
In regard to the other three winter apples, they are not quite so decided. The Rome Beauty, Jonathan, Peck's Pleasant, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Pryor's Red, Westfield Seek-no-farther, and White Bellefleur, are all good apples, —quite as good as the three named, — and have all been more or less tested in this vicinity, and prove to be generally hardy and good bearers.
Of fall apples, they name Fall Wine, Rambo, Maiden's-blush, Snow or Fameuse, and Red Bellefleur. The Snow has not been tested, that they can learn, in this legion, but has a fine reputation in other parts of the State. The Red Bellefleur is perhaps a local name for a fine and handsome red apple, grown by several persons in this locality. The tree is hardy, and an early and a constant bearer; the fruit good, and very salable.
Of summer apples, they freely unite in placing the Carolina, Red June, and F.arly Harvest in the front rank. After these come the Red Astrachan and Keswick Codlin.
A fair supply of sweet apples should not be forgotten, as no list is complete without them. They name three, — for summer, Sweet June; fall, Jersey Sweeting; winter, Ladies' Sweeting.
Cherries. — Of cherries, they can only recommend the planting of the Early Richmond and English Morello; though the Governor Wood, May Duke, Yellow Spanish, and a few others of the finer sorts, sometimes give partial crops.
The present number of "The Journal Of Horticulture" contains SixTeen pages more than any number previously issued. The publishers thus more than fulfil the promises made at the beginning of the year, that each number should improve upon the preceding in value and interest.
No magazine issued in the country has in so short a space of time presented so much valuable matter of horticultural interest, embracing so vast a field, and upon such a variety of subjects. Both publishers and editors aim to make the Journal American. Undue prominence will not be given to any section of our common country; but we work for the interests of all, and to advance the cause of horticulture.