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and are willing to wait a few years for the reward of their labor. The meetings and exhibitions of the association have been quite spirited and instructive. They have also had very pleasant summer excursions among the islands, and points of interest, inspecting vineyards and discussing summer-pruning, &c. These have been participated in by many visitors of horticultural distinction, who have expressed much gratification.
The annual meeting of the association was held at Cleveland, Feb. 21 and 22, 1867; and, although the past season was quite unfavorable for the grape-crops, the attendance was large, and the confidence expressed in the business was as great as ever. It was determined to repeat the summer excursion, the coming season, on a grander scale than before; chartering a large steamboat, if possible, for the occasion, so as to accommodate the families or friends of the members, two or three hundred in all, with hotel conveniences on board for four or five days; starting, perhaps, from Dunkirk or Erie, and stopping at Cleveland, Sandusky, and any other points desirable; then inspecting the grape-islands, and having a grand picnic in the beautiful grove at Put-in-Bay; and afterwards taking a pleasure trip to Detroit, and back to Sandusky or Cleveland, as the company may desire.
President. — Dr. J. W. Dunham, Collamer, O. Vice-President. — Capt. John Brown, jun., Put-in-Bay. Secretary.— M. B. Bateham, Painesville, O. Treasurer. — Rev. R. H. Leonard, Cleveland.
Directors. — L. D. Griswold, Elyria ; S. B. Marshall, Cleveland; J. E. Mottier, North East, Penn.; J. H. Tryon, Willoughby; G. E. Ryckman, Brocton, N.Y.; M. H. Lewis, Sandusky; Addison Kelley, Kelley's Island.
The ditching-machine recently patented by Moon & Doan of Wilmington, O., was exhibited by a working model in the hall, and excited much interest, and a general expression in its favor. The patentees will soon be prepared to introduce the machine in the Lake-shore region, where it is expected to prove of much advantage to grape-planters.
Discussion was had on a variety of topics designated at a former meeting. The first was, "Soils, and their Preparation for Vineyards." Quite a variety of opinions was expressed on the question, What kind of soil is the best for grapes f most of the speakers being influenced by their own individual experience. Some were in favor of stiff clay, others clayey loam, and some gravelly and sandy loam, and a few had done well on real sandy soil; but the majority expressed a decided preference for clayey or strong soils over sandy or light ones, though gravelly and shaly soils, if not too sandy, were not objectionable. It had been found that the Catawba grape, especially, produced finer fruit and ripened better on clay than other soils.
Thorough drainig; of clayey soils, and others too if not based on porous subsoil, was deemed quite essential. Neglect of this had been the cause of much loss to beginners the past season.
Enriching the soil has not been found advantageous to vineyards in this region; but Dr. Spalding of Missouri said it was practised in that State with advantage after the vines have been in bearing for twelve or fifteen years, repeating the manuring every three or four years. Dr. Kirtland thinks our clay soils contain sufficient potash to keep up their fertility; but sandy soils may require an occasional dressing of ashes or plaster.
Trenching the soil by hand, as formerly practised, is not now deemed necessary, but simply deep ploughing, followed with the subsoil plough, mellowing the whole to the depth of eighteen or twenty inches.
Depth of planting was a point considerably discussed, as heavy losses of young vines had occurred the previous winter, owing to shallow planting. Setting the crown of the roots from six to eight inches below the surface was the rule urged by the majority.
The style of plants preferred by most present was "No. 1, single eye," as grown by Messrs. Griffith, Dr. Grant, and others; but these should have the stem left on, of sufficient length for the upper bud to be even with the surface of the ground when planted.
Pruning and training were discussed at much length, especially summer pruning. This was advocated and explained lucidly by Dr. J. A. Warder; but some doubted the propriety of the practice, except in a very modified and limited way.
Slakes and trellises had each their advocates; but the preponderance of opinion was in favor of the post-and-wire trellis as generally used on the islands, consisting of three wires of "No. 9" size, supported by strong posts about twenty-four feet apart. Dr. Dunham, Mr. Griffith, and several others, thought simple stakes cheaper and as good.
Quality of grape-must for wine was the subject of much interesting discussion, together with a report of tests of a variety of samples of grapes the past fall by a committee appointed for the purpose. This will have to be the text for a subsequent article in this Journal.
On the different varieties af grapes very little was said directly, as the subject had been so fully discussed at the meeting in October and previously: but, in connection with the report on must, it was claimed that grapes of the highest excellence for the table will be found to have the highest grade of must by the scale ; and for making good wine, as well as for eating, it was indispensable that grapes should be fully ripe. The samples of Catawba grapes tested when fully ripe (in November) gave must ranging from ninety-three to ninety-nine degrees, and Delawares (in October) about the same. In regard to the must of the Iona, Mr. Griffith and Dr. Grant stated that they had tested it repeatedly by the scale, and found its weight (in October) from ninety-three to ninety-four. Some testimony was given respecting the must of Concord and Ives grapes which was not deemed very flattering to their reputation for wine-making.
The tariff on imported wines was considered, and a memorial to Congress adopted, asking for an increase of duty, suggesting a uniform rate of one dollar per gallon. M. B. Bateham.
In a previous article, we have given some directions for the laying-out and planting of city gardens: in the present number, we propose to continue the subject.
Where the gardens face the south, there is great opportunity for display; but, where there is only a northern exposure, there are few plants that will thrive.
In many places, owing to constant dampness, and want of sun, it is almost impossible to keep even grass alive; and the bare ground is not ornamental. There are, however, some plants that will thrive in these northern exposures, and which, though they produce few flowers, will render the front-yard attractive.
First the common periwinkle, — often called, though erroneously, myrtle, botanically Vinca major and minor, — in its many varieties of single and double, blue and white, and with dark-green and variegated leaves. Of all these, however, the common variety, with dark-green evergreen leaves and blue flowers, is the best for our purpose; all the others being of rather delicate growth, and the variegated kinds a little tender in New England.
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Any nurseryman can furnish large clumps of this plant, which, being set out two feet apart every way, will soon cover the ground, and always present a carpet of green leaves, studded in spring with light-blue blossoms.
Dutch bulbs, such as crocus and tulips, will often make a rich spring show; but, without sun, they soon dwindle, and have to be annually replanted.
Lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis) will cover the ground with pretty foliage, and occasionally produce a few flowers. The clumps should be set about a foot apart, and they will soon run together.
Many of the ferns will thrive in such an exposure. Of these we may especially mention Dicksonia purutiiobula, a common but very delicate and pretty fern. The root-stalks are slender and creeping; and, once planted, it will soon cover the ground. It is easily obtained, being very common in moist, shady places.
If not too moist, the common Polypodium vulgare will thrive. As, however, it does best on rocks, a mixture of stones in the soil would conduce to the success of the experiment. Some other ferns, natives of cold, damp situations, might succeed; and the experiment is recommended to those interested.
Of shrubs there are many that will live, but few that will bloom.
Some of the hardier species of rhododendrons, such as Catawbiensc hybrids, Dauricum airovirens, hirsutum, and ferrugineum, would give a mass of foliage and occasional blooms. The same may be said of the varieties of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) and of Andromeda floribunda. Box, in its varieties, does well; and, farther south, Acuba yaponica, and Skimmia yaponica and oblata, are very valuable, but not hardy with us in New England. The mahonia (M. aquifo/ia), or holly-leaved barberry, does well if it can have a little sun, and is ornamental in foliage, flower, and fruit.
Evergreens (conifers) are not to be recommended for such a situation, as they soon grow ragged.
The only climber which does well in a northern exposure is the common woodbine, or Virginia creeper (Ampclopsis Virginica). This plant will soon cover a trellis; but, without sun, fails to so ripen its leaves as to exhibit the gorgeous autumnal coloring.
If the yard is to be used for flowers, care must be taken in winter not to make it a receptacle for superfluous snow, and to keep shrubs from HOUSE.
being broken by avalanches from the houses: only the snow naturally falling should be allowed to remain, or enough to protect the roots of the plants.
We would also add, that occasionally a few annuals may be planted. Tropaeolums often do well, and give abundance of bloom.
Where there is sun a portion of the day, Dioscorea batatas, the Chinese yam, and a fine morning-glory (Convolvulus panduratus), will succeed. These are herbaceous climbers, with fleshy, perennial roots ; perfectly hardy. The flowers of the former, though small, have a delicious cinnamon fragrance; and the latter gives a profusion of white flowers in July and August. Both are ornamental in foliage, and like a rich, sandy loam.
Outside measure, 16 by 20.
A. 1a Crocus, large yellow. L.
B. 12 Crocus, Queen Victoria (white). M.
C. is Crocus, David Rizzio (purple). N.
D. 12 Crocus, La Majesteuse (striped). O.
E. 12 Crocus, Scotch (white and purple). P.
F. 12 Crocus, Cloth-of-Gold (yellow). Q.
G. 12 Crocus, Queen Victoria (white). R.
H. 12 Crocus, Prince Albert (blue). S.
I. 12 Crocus, Caroline Chisholm (white). T.
on the outside, and red and yellow in W.
6 Hyacinth, Norma (red).
The above arrangement is very effective for a southern front exposure for early bloom. We will suppose the bed to be sixteen feet by twenty,