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parts ;" a conclusion more applicable to the longifolia. A specimen imported from France, and now in my ground, was ingrafted on the stock of the purpurea. It forms a neat and healthy shrub of a dwarfish habit, and yields many fine flowers. Another, on a stock of the acuminata, is rapidly expanding into a tree, and furnishing blossoms in numbers proportioned to its size. Neither specimen has ever matured a seed; a defect arising, perhaps, from its hybrid character.
6. M. Tripetala (Umbrella-tree).—This species is distinguished for the size of its leaves and flowers. In this latitude, it is not inclined to send up one main trunk like the acuminata, but usually rises from the roots in several spreading branches. This habit can, however, be corrected by careful training and pruning. Two trees thus managed stood in the grounds of the- late Dr. Hildreth, in Marietta, O., twenty years since. They were straight-bodied, and symmetrical in form. When young, they were removed from their native locality in Western Virginia.
Another tendency is manifested by this species. The more central shoot is prone to perish by the laterals robbing it of nutrition; and they, in turn, will attempt to supply its place as leading shoots. This tendency would doubtless be corrected by propagation on the acuminata stock, and shortening from time to time all laterals assuming too rapid growth.
The odor of its flowers is never pleasant, and is repulsive when much concentrated.
It requires a tenacious clay-soil, thoroughly undcrdrained, and enriched with decayed vegetable matter. The cold of our severest winters it resists with impunity, but soon perishes under the impression of the sun in summer, unless partially shaded, and unless the roots are preserved in a uniformly moist condition. Careful attention to the latter precaution has, in some instances, enabled it to flourish in open grounds.
Seeds are occasionally matured, from which young plants can be raised.
It was formerly found native near Grave Creek, in Western Virginia; which was probably its most northern locality. Michaux indicated the "Western District " of "New York as such; but no other botanist has ever found it in that region.
In November, 1824, while travelling the Ridge Road, a few miles east of Lewiston, on the Niagara frontier, several clumps of the M. acuminata and
VOL. I. V)
of the papaw-bush (Asimina) were observed. Not expecting to meet with either so far north, they became subjects of attention and remark among my companions. The leaves having fallen, the bushy habit of the former, caused probably by climate, gave it the appearance rather of the tripctala than the stately acuminata of Ohio. This appearance doubtless involved Michaux in error.
7. M. Macrophylla (Large-leaved Magnolia). — The flora of the North can furnish no rival to this magnificent species. Its leaves and flowers are larger than those of any other magnolia; which, with its habit of growth, give it a tropical appearance. On its own roots it makes a rapid growth for a few years, and until it attains to the size of a small tree; but three or four years are previously required for seedlings to develop the roots. During that period, it is expedient to protect the young plants against cold and rabbits. It is as hardy when well established as the acuminata, provided it receive the requisite attention, but soon dwindles and dies under neglect. Old trees require as good cultivation as young plants, and thereby their existence can be preserved for a long time.
It produces a limited supply of seed in this vicinity, and seedlings can be reared by a due share of skill and patience. Loudon observes that "neither this species nor the tripdala can be readily ingrafted or inarched on each other, or on any other species, so far as experience has gone in Great Britain." Such authority is not to be disregarded; but it is equally true that half a dozen buds of this species, inserted into acuminata stocks in my garden early in the month,* took without one failure, and now look plump and promising. What the ultimate result will be, another season will determine. This experiment demonstrated that a rapid adhesion will" form between the bark and wood of an inoculate cut from the macrophylla and the sap-wood of the acuminata stock. Whether the chit or centre of the bud will survive the operation, is the only undecided point. Perhaps British cultivators have not discovered the necessity of forcing an extra-luxuriant growth of the stock, by means of high cultivation, before attempting the budding and ingrafting of the magnolias.
8. M. Auriculata (Ear-leaved Magnolia). — From some unexplained cause, this is, perhaps, the least cultivated and most rare of all the species. If plates and descriptions are reliable, it is entitled to more attention. It
has long been known. As early as 1786, it was sent to Great Britain by Bartram, who discovered it in Georgia; and it was also found by him on the mountains of North Carolina. It has never been introduced into Northern Ohio. For more than twenty years, I have repeatedly sent orders for it whenever I have seen it included in nurserymen's catalogues in France and this country. In response, I have either received nothing, or more likely some kind already in my possession. Meehan states that " the best Bartram specimen is seventy feet high, and five and a half feet in diameter." Other specimens are said to be growing in the lawn of a gentleman near Boston, and also on the banks of the Hudson River. Whether in either of these localities it matures seed, I am not informed; but, with the ready communication now open with the southern sections of the Union, cultivators might obtain supplies of seed, and stock their grounds with this species.
9. M. Conspicua ( Yulan-tret, Chandelier Magnolia). — A native of China, which proves hardy on the shore of Lake Erie. In warm exposures, it suddenly puts forth its blossoms before the approach of spring is hardly anticipated. A few crocuses and hepaticas are appearing; but the deciduous trees and shrubs are leafless. For a day or two, a southerly wind, with a warm sun, has cleared the blue waters of the lake from ice, when suddenly the naked limbs of the yulan-tree become shrouded with an investiture of flowers. Each floret is' of the size, form, and color of the common white. At this juncture, they present an imposing contrast with several large evergreen trees in the immediate vicinity.
It would be a useless attempt to count the flowers on each of my large trees. They are estimated at thousands. Their odor is slightly fragrant and aromatic; and the anthers abound with pollen, which is collected in large quantities for bee-bread by the honey-bees. As it is the first supply furnished at this season, it is collected with great avidity. In this locality, the cool weather seems to blast the germs; and no seed has been known to mature, though, according to Meehan, it occasionally ripens at Philadelphia.
It is reported on good authority that the pollen of the lily has been preserved in dry papers for a long time, and afterwards employed successfully in fecundating other species. If in that instance it was practicable, the same plan would probably succeed with magnolias.
The conspicua is a promising kind to cross with the purpurea, glauca, and acuminata. By resorting to this method, the pollen might be preserved till these later blooming kinds are fitted for its reception.
For the same purpose, and in the same manner, the pollen of thegrandiflora might be collected at the South, and conveyed to the North.
Who among our ingenious young people will test these suggestions?
10. M. Soulangeana. —This is a very distinct variety, raised, it is said, by Loudon, from a seed of a conspicua which stood near a purpurea; but, according to Meehan, it is a cross between the purpurea and acuminata. If either be correct, the fact is established that Nature has produced one hybrid in the vegetable kingdom; and it may be received as an assurance by the phytologist, that, by the appliances of art and science, he may produce others in unlimited numbers.
The leaves and flowers of this variety appear coincidently about ten days after the conspicua ceases its bloom; and, in favorable seasons, a succession of smaller and less perfect flowers are put forth even as late as the month of September.
Seeds in small quantities are produced, especially by trees exposed in open grounds. Several seedlings have been raised in this vicinity. They vary slightly from their parent and from each other.
Loudon says that the Soulangeana "can hardly rank as a tree, though of much stronger growth than the purpurea." Had he seen the sturdy specimens of both the Soulangeana and conspicua growing in my grounds, he would have considered them entitled to the appellation of trees. They are on acuminata stocks. Dr. Jarcd P. Kirtland.
(To be continued.)
Glvptostrobus pendulus. — A plant cultivated at Kew, side by side with Taxodium distichum. Was considered to be merely a variety of that species, to which it is strikingly similar; but Professor Oliver, having examined the flowers last year, observed some points of difference, by which he has succeeded in referring it to the Chinese Glyptostrobus pendulus. It forms an elegant, straight-stemmed, slender tree, forty feet high, with horizontal or slightly pendulous branches, which are deciduous in autumn. — Botanical Magazine.
SELECT VARIETIES OF PEAS.
We find in seedsmen's catalogues for the present season nearly one hundred varieties of peas. Of this numerous list, some are described as being the earliest known; others are recommended for their great productiveness; some are said to be of superior quality for the table; and, again, others are represented as being particularly valuable for the length of time the plants continue in bearing. Now, as four or five sorts are all that will be generally required for a home-garden, which shall we select?
In the first place, many of the kinds exist only in name; and, with many of the others, the marks of variation are trifling and unimportant. Of two hundred and thirty-five reputed sorts, carefully tested a few years since in the gardens of the London Horticultural Society, only twenty-seven proved to be well marked and truly useful; and this reduction, — great as it seems to be, — it was thought at the time, might safely have been brought down to scarcely more than half a dozen.
It would be difficult, and perhaps impossible, to prepare from our catalogue of a hundred kinds a list proportionally small and select; and we shall not attempt to do so. We only propose to give the names of a few, which, in our experience, have proved distinct and valuable.
As "first early," or "extra early," the Dan O'Rourkc, and Carter's First Crop, are desirable varieties. The former has been the longer known, and b, we think, the better pea. Dillistone's Early, originally sent out as being a week earlier than the Dan O'Rourke, has no merit over other early sorts, and is being dropped from catalogues.
Tom Thumb is a genuine dwarf. If the variety is true, the plants will not average more than ten inches high. By some it is considered as early as the Dan O 'Rourke, though our experience proves it a few days later. The pods should be plucked while quite young, as the peas harden quickly, and soon become unfit for the table. Beck's Gem is another of the class termed "dwarfs," and has been grown to some extent as a substitute for the Tom Thumb, not, it should be stated, because of its superiority, but on account of the limited supply, and consequent high price, of the seeds of the latter variety. McLean's Little Gem is one of the most promising