Pakistan: A Country Study

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DIANE Publishing, 1996 - 398 Seiten
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Describes and analyzes Pakistan's political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions. Examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors. Contents: historical setting; the society and the environment; the economy (finance, labor, agriculture, industry); government and politics (constitutional and political inheritance, early political development, political dynamics); national security (evolving security dilemma, the armed services; internal security). Extensive bibliography. Glossary. Index.
 

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Inhalt

Beginnings of SelfGovernment
18
The Two Nations Theory
22
Toward Partition
24
Independent Pakistan
27
Constitutional Beginnings
31
Early Foreign Policy
39
The Ayub Khan Era
40
Basic Democracies
41
The 1962 Constitution
43
Ayub Khans Foreign Policy and the 1965 War with India
44
Yahya Khan and Bangladesh
48
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and a New Constitutional System
52
Zia ulHaq and Military Domination 197788
57
Pakistan and the World During the Zia Regime
63
Chapter 2 The Society and Its Environment
69
Physical Environment
73
Topography and Drainage
76
Climate
81
Pollution and Environmental Issues
82
National Conservation Goals
84
Population
85
Population Distribution and Density
86
Migration and Growth of Major Cities
89
Impact of Migration to the Persian Gulf Countries
91
Repercussions of the War in Afghanistan
92
Social Structure
94
Linguistic and Ethnic Groups
97
Men Women and the Division of Space
112
The Status of Women and the Womens Movement
114
Religious Life
118
Basic Tenets of Islam
119
Islam in Pakistani Society
121
Politicized Islam
122
NonMuslim Minorities
124
Education
125
Structure of the System
126
Female Education
127
Reform Efforts
128
Health and Welfare
129
Maternal and Child Health
130
Health Care Policies and Developments
131
Smoking Drugs and AIDS
133
Zakat as a Welfare System
135
Prospects for Social Cohesion
136
Chapter 3 The Economy
141
Structure of the Economy
144
The Role of Government
146
Development Planning
152
Finance
154
Fiscal Administration
155
Foreign Economic Relations
159
Foreign Trade
160
External Debt
164
Labor
166
Irrigation
167
Drainage
170
Farm Ownership and Land Reform
171
Cropping Patterns and Production
173
Livestock
175
Fishing
176
Manufacturing
177
Construction
178
Ayub Khan 195869
198
Yahya Khan 196971
200
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 197177
201
Constitution and Government Structure
204
Provincial Governments
207
Political Dynamics
208
Muslim League
209
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad
210
JamaatiIslami
211
Pakistan Peoples Party
212
Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz
215
Awami National Party
216
TehrikiIstiqlal
217
The Caretaker Government of Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
221
The Government of Nawaz Sharif
223
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan as Power Broker
229
A Year of Political Struggle
230
The Caretaker Government of Moeen Qureshi
231
Benazir Bhutto Returns
232
The Media
235
Foreign Policy
237
India
238
Other South Asian Countries
240
The Former Soviet Union
242
Middle East
243
The United States and the West
244
International Organizations
247
Chapter 5 National Security
249
A Historical Perspective
251
The Formation of Pakistan
254
Pakistans Evolving Security Dilemma
257
The United States Alliance
258
The Army Assumes Control
261
Collapse of Pakistans Security System
262
The IndoPakistani War of 1965
263
The Military Reasserts Itself
268
Pakistan Becomes a Frontline State
270
The Armed Forces in a New World Order
274
The Armed Services
279
Defense Strategy
280
Ministry of Defence
281
Army and Paramilitary Forces
282
Navy
284
Air Force
285
Personnel and Training
286
Uniforms Ranks and Insignia
289
Budget
293
Foreign Security Relationships
294
The Role of Islam
296
Internal Security
298
Character of the Security Forces
300
Crime
302
Courts and Criminal Procedure
303
Prisons
304
Islamic Provisions
305
Emergency Provisions
307
Subversion and Civil Unrest
308
Appendix
313
Bibliography
327
Glossary
357
Index
361
Contributors
389

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Seite 124 - ... .Now, I think, we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state".
Seite 19 - The policy of His Majesty's Government, with -which the Government of India are in complete accord, is that of the increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire.
Seite i - ... historical antecedents and on the cultural, political, and socioeconomic characteristics that contribute to cohesion and cleavage within the society. Particular attention is given to the origins and traditions of the people who make up the society, their dominant beliefs and values, their community of interests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent...
Seite 200 - Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam, should be fully observed; Wherein the Muslims of Pakistan should be enabled individually and collectively to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam, as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah...
Seite i - Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the observed society, striving for a dynamic rather than a static portrayal. Particular attention is devoted to the people who make up the society, their origins, dominant beliefs and values, their common interests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent of their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward...
Seite 361 - Informal name used to designate a group of four affiliated international institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The...
Seite 362 - IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less developed countries.
Seite 360 - International Monetary Fund (IMF) — Established along with the World Bank (qv} in 1945, the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties.
Seite 117 - I wish to impress on you is that no nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners.
Seite 303 - These restrictions were documented in detail in the United States Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices and the statistics of Al Haq (Law in the Service of Man), a RamAllah-based human rights organization.

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