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Lesbio primum modulate civi, 5
Horace, having witnessed a violent thunder-storm in a cloudless atmosphere, reproaches himself for having neglected the worship of the gods, and adopted the philosophy of Epicurus, which excluded divine agency, and referred everything to merely naturalor secondary causes. (See Lucretius de Rerum Naturâ vi. 245-248.) After stating that he felt himself compelled to return to the popular
8. navem, some Codd., Bentl.—15. mihi, cuique, salve, Bentl. conj.
belief of a superintending Providence, and describing the appalling of effect the storm, he concludes with am observation tending to show that the Deity manifests his power as well in the changes of the moral, as in the phenomena
of the physical world.
' PARcUs deorum cultor et infrequens,
Cogor relictos: namque Diespiter, 5
Mutare et insignem attenuat deus,
Portuna cum stridore acuto
Sustulit, hic posuisse gaudet.
CARM. 34.—5. relectos, Bentl.—13. insigne, Bentl.—16. hinc, some Codd.
Carm. 34. — 1. parcus (= exigua sacrificia afferens) et infrequens cultor, * a sparing and infrequent worshipper.' 2 and 3. consultus sapientiae insanientis, prop. * versed in unwise wisdom,' a beautiful Oxymoron, for * a follower of the Epicuream philosophy' (comp. below Ep. 1, 11, 28: strenua inertia, and ib. 1, 12, 19: rerum concordia discors.); sapientiae consultus, a free imitation of the usual expression juris consultus. 3. retrorsum vela dare, &c. poetic. for * to return ' (to the first faith). 5. Diespiter, old collateral form of Jupiter, and corresponding to Zeùs tratip, as the form Jupiter itself is contracted from Jovis-pater (Jovispiter, Jouspiter, Juppiter). 6. igni corusco, i. e. fulmine.
7. per purum, sc. coelum ; thundering during a serene sky was regarded as a prodigy (comp. Virg. G. 1, 487; Non alias coelo ceciderunt plura sereno Fulgura, and id. A. 8, 528: Arma inter nubem Coeli in regione serena Per sudum rutilare vident et pulsa tonare).
8. volucrem, poetic. = celerem.
9. bruta = iners, immobilis; remark the beautiful opposition of volucrem currum and bruta tellus.
13. insignem, poetic. for viros illustres, principes.
14. apicem, * the diadem ' (here as a badge of royal power).
15. stridore (sc. alarum) acuto, poetic. * with loud whirring, rustling, or flapping of her wings.
An Ode addressed to Fortune, in which the poet describes her great and universal power, and invokes her favour in behalf of the Roman armies—one division of which was on the point of setting out against the Britons, the other against the nations of the East.
O DIVA, gratum quae regis Antium, ...
J*raesens vel imo tollere de gradu
' Mortale corpus vel superbos
• Te pauper ambit sollicitâ prece 5
Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae,
Injurioso ne pede proruas
Carm. 35.—1. diva, i. e. Fortuna, see the Excurs. to this ode. 2. praesens = potens, valens, * powerful' (thus below C. 3, 5, 2; S. 2, 3, 68; Ep. 2, 1, 134); poetic. with the infin. tollere. 3. mortale corpus, poetic. = hominum genus caducum et infirmum, * mortal man.' 4. vertere triumphos funeribus (ablat. instrum. as in A. P. 226: vertere seria ludo); poetic. = mutare triumphos in funera, * to turn the triumphal pomp into a funeral.' 5. ambit, properly a term applied to a candidate for office, * solicits, supplicates.' 6. ruris colonus, the farmer who had
no property of his own, but cultivated amother man's land (comp. below C. 2, 14, 11: Sive reges, sive inopes erimus coloni, and S. 2, 2, 114: Videas metato in agello cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum). 7. Bithymâ, i. e. made of Bithymiam wood—lacessit, poetic. * excites, moves,' i. e. * navigates.' 9. prqfugi, poetic. = nomades, * wandering' (comp. below C. 3, 24, 9 sq.: campestres Scythae, quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos). 10. feroae, in good sense= animosum, bellicosum, * bold, spirited, courageous.' 13. injurioso, * hurtful, destructive.' 14. stantem columnam, poetic. image
Ad arma cessantes, ad arma
Te semper anteit saeva Necessitas,
Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit
Veste domos inimica linquis.
At vulgus infidum et meretrix retro 25
Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos
CARM. 35.—14. fremens, Bentl. conj.—17. serva, some Codd.—24. inimica vertis. Tum volgus, Bentl. conj.—29. ultimos, Oro, Britannos, Bentl. conj.
26. cadis cum faece siccatis, i. e. after having enjoyed the greatest hospitality; for the word siccatis comp. above C. 1, 31, 11: mercator exsiccet culullis vina. 28. dolosi (poetic. with the infin.) .ferre jugum pariter (sc. cum hospite Imisero), * faithless to bear calamity vwith him.' 29. serves, sc. tu, Fortuna—ultimos orbis, *the furthest people in the world;' the same epithet is applied to the Britanni and Britannia by the poet Catullus (11, 11 and 29); comp. also Virg. Ecl. 1, 67: et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos, and Tac. Agr. 30: Britannos terrarum ac libertatis extremos. 30 and 31. recens eramen, poetic. *the recent levy,' * the young warriors.'
Eheu! cicatricum et sceleris pudet
Metu deorum continuit? quibus
The goddess Fortuna was worshipped by the Romans from the remotest period, and to much greater extent than TÜχm was by the Greeks. This worship is said to have been instituted in Rome by Ancus Martius and Servius Tullius. There is a myth that the goddess, on entering Rome, took off her wings and shoes, and laid aside her ever-turning ball, thereby showing her intention to stay there for ever. Servius Tullius built two temples for her worship in the Forum Boarium, and on the Tiber. Other temples also were erected to the same goddess, under the names of Fortuna Publica, Fortuna Privata, Fortuna Muliebris. The temple of the last is said to have been built when Coriolanus raised the siege of Rome, at the entreaty of his wife and mother.1 From her various qualities, she was also called Conservatriae, Bona, Blanda, IReduae, Obsequens, Bomae Spei, Averrunca, Aequestris, Plebeja, &c. There was at Rome a sanctuary evem of Fortuna hujusce diei, in which Paulus Aemilius dedicated a statue to Minerva.* Out of Rome, Fortuna was worshipped chiefly in Antium and Praeneste. In both towns two sister-goddesses—Fortunae, called also Praenestinae Sorores, and Fortunae Victrices Antiates—had two temples, in which oracles were given by lots. This aceounts for the epithet veridicae sorores, which Martial applies to the two goddesses of Antium.
Fortuna was generally represented with a rudder in her right hand and a cornucopia in her left. For this reason, in the present ode the husbandmam and sailor especially implore her protection: