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10,000 cadi), Lesbium i (of this, as well as of the preceding kind, an immense quantity was used on the occasion of Caesar's triumph), Cyprium, Sicyonium, and others. These wines were, in Greece, generaliy mixed with salt water, which the Romans did not at all like ; but they, nevertheless, oftem imitated it, in order to give their wines the taste of the Greek ones. The worst kind of wine was vappa, being the general term for every kind of spoiled or turned wine which had become thick and tastéless. In order to obtain a greater variety, the wine was mixed with various aromatic and bitter ingredients, such as aloes, amomum, cassia, saffron, sweet cane, or even with precious volatile oils. Vinum myrrhinum or murrina, a wine mixed with resin of myrrh, which. from its mild taste, was a favourite beverage of women, is often particularly mentioned. Another favourite artificial wine which was generally taken at lunch (prandium) was mulsum, a mixture of a mild wine,* or fresh must (according to others, also of old Falerniam wine), with honey. The mixture contained four-fifths of wine, and one-fifth of honey; or tenelevenths of must, and one-eleventh of honey. The calda, a kind of mulled wine, was composed of wine, and warm water (perhaps, also, with the addition of some spices); it was the only warm beverage used by the ancients, and was taken chiefly in winter, or in general when the air was cold. To prevent an immoderate use of it, it was frequently forbidden, in the time of the emperors, to sell it in taverns. Peculiar vessels for preparing the calda and keeping it warm have been found among the Italiam antiquities ; one, which is exceedingly graceful, deserves special notice. It is made of bronze, and has the shape of a bowl. In the middle, there is a cylinder reaching down to the bottom, and designed to hold the coals, by which the fluid which filled the surrounding space was to be heated. This accounts for the four holes in the bottom under the cylinder, to let the ashes fall through. The coniform cover on the top of the cylinder cannot be taken off, but opens like a lid. Under this cover there is another which may be taken off. It covers only the space containing the fluid, leaving the cylinder open. At the upper end, to the right, there is a kind of bowl which is connected by a pipe with the cavity of the vessel, and through which the vessel may be filled without being uncovered. On the opposite side, about the middle, there is a tap, to be shut or opened by a cock for letting out the beverage. Both the border and handle are very neatly chiselled. The wine was prepared in the following manner:—The ripe grapes which hung from the vines, and therefore received the mame of vinum pendens, were gathered (legere, cogere) in baskets (corbulae, fiscellae), or perhaps also in bags (utres). The grapes, when gathered, were then crushed (calcare) with the bare feet. When this had been done twice, the residue was brought under the wine-press (torcular). A distinction was, therefore, made between vinum or mustum, calcatum
1 Sat. 1, 5, 16; 2, 3, 144. 3 Sat 2, 4, 24, sq.
and pressum. The wine obtained after the first treading was used for mulsum; the remainder which came from the press was mixed with water and sweetened, and improved by various ingredients; but if would keep only for a year at the most, and was drunk by slaves and poor persons, perhaps also by women. The must which came from the lacus torcularis was immediatelv poured (condere) into large, coniform vessels of clay (dolia), to undergo fermentation. The dolia had been previously pitched. They were either altogether fixed in, or simply stood on, the floor of the cella vinaria, a cool room lying to the north. A year after, the wine was fit for use, and could at once be drawn from the dolia or cupa (vinum doliare or de cupa). This was, however, done only with the inferior kind, which would not stand a great age (aetatem ferre). As for wine which was to be kept longer, it was either left in the dolia (especially when it was of a common quality) until it was sold, or poured into smaller vessels to be used ; or sometimes it was poured (diffundere) into these smaller vessels (amphorae and cadi), immediately after fermentation had ceased. So it remained until it was used. These pitchers were corked, sealed with pitch or gypsum,1 and provided with labels (tesserae, notae, pittacia), on which the names of the wine* and of the consul for the year then current were written.8 If the vessels were made of clay, both were written on the vessel itself, in a white or different colour (superscriptio). Both the vessels and labels became very much defaced through age, a circumstance which greatly enhanced their value. The amphorae, when thus filled with wine, were no longer plaeed in the cella vinaria, but in the apotheca, i. e., a store-room in the upper storey, generally above the fumarium of the bath, in order to be exposed to the smoke, and thus to grow sooner mellow. When the wine had been sufficiently smoked, it was removed to amother room. As the wine, owing to this manner of treatment, retained a great quantity of dregs, it had to be cleared (defaecare, saccare, colare, eliquare, liquare) before being used, and this clearing process was sometimes effected with eggs, or by exposing it to the open air at night, but generally by straining it. A metal strainer or sieve (colum), with a linem bag inside, was put over another vessel, into which the straimed fluid was poured. Horace finds fault with this mode of clearing the wine,4 because the linem had the effect of turning the best wine into vappa. Several such cola have beem found in Pompeji. The saccus mvarius or colum nivarium served another purpose. It was filled with snow and the wine poured over it, in order both to cool it and to diminish its imtoxicating power. It is well known that the ancients always drunk their wine mixed with water. Cold water was preferred in summer. The quantity of water used for this purpose varied very much, according to the habit of the drinker. A homo frugi took his wine much diluted (dilutum); to drink it altogether unmixed (nerum), was thought a high degree of intemperance. Crater or cratera was a vessel used for mixing wine
for a whole company ; the guests afterwards altered it according to taste. 3. Wine-vessels.—The dolium was generally fastened in the floor; the cupa (cask) was portable, though it was sometimes also fixed in the ground. Both these vessels were made of clay. Evem in the time of Pliny the Romans had no woodem casks, which were afterwards introduced into Italy from the Alpine distriets. Different from these large and round vessels were the amphora and cadus, which were of a long thin shape, with handles, and a marrow neck. They were pointed towards the bottom, and made of clay, rarely of stone, afterwards of glass. The wine was poured from them for use, and sometimes also was preserved in them. The wessel for measuring out a certain quantity to each individual guest, was called cyathus. The drinking-cups were of different sizes, shapes, and names. The general term was poculum or scyphus, the latter taken from the Greek. The following distinctions are generally made:—1. flat saucers ; 2. cups vith handles ; and 3. regular cups. The first kind was called patera; of the second kind is cantharus, a large rummer with two handles, and scyphus; the third kind, called calices, were made of various materials, such as clay, glass, precious stones, &c., in a variety of curious shapes, such as horns, shoes, heads of animals, little boats, &c. Sometimes these cups and jugs had certain inscriptions, e. g. : SITIO —BIBE—REPLE—ILVDE—VALEAMVS, &c., or the name of the owner. Entire verses were seldom engraved upom them.
A Hymn to Apollo and Diana, in which, as in the Carmen Seculare, they are conjointly invoked as the Dii Averrunci, the averters of evil, and the orotectors of the Romam state.
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Vos laetam fluviis et nemorum comâ, 5
Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus
Hic bellum lacrimosum, hic miseram famem
CARM. 21.—5. comam, some Codd.—8. Graji, some Codd.—14. a populo, principe some edd.
Horace, when strolling in his Sabine farm, was met by a large wolf, which fled at his approach, though he had nothing with which to defend himself. He ascribes his deliverance to the respect which savage animals were believed to entertaim for the innocent and virtuous; and concludes with two beautiful stanzas, expressive of his devoted attachment to his favourite, Lalage.
INTEGER vitae scelerisque purus
Non eget Mauris jaculis neque arcu
Nec venenatis gravidâ sagittis,
Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas, 5
Sive facturus per inhospitalem
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus