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THorace describes to Tyndaris the delightful situmtion and rural quiet of his Sabine farm; invites her to visit it, and enjoy its beauty and retirement, where she should be protected from the rudeness of her lover Cyrus.

VELox amoenum saepe Lucretilem
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus et igneam
Defendit aestatem capellis
Usque meis pluviosque ventos.

Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 5
Quaerunt latentes et thyma deviae
Olentis uxores mariti,
Nec virides metuunt colubras

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Carm. 17.—1. sq. Velor, corresponding to the Greek'opev£ó rms, (mountainranging), as epithet of Pan; comp. of the same Ov. Fast. 2, 285: Ipse deus velox discurrere gaudet in altis montibus—Lucretilem mutat Lycaeo (ablat.) here in the sense of: ' he exchanges Lycaeus for Lucretilis = i. e. he leaves Lycaeus and goes to Lucretilis (that which is received in exchange put in the accus., and that which is given for it, in the ablat). 3. defendit (= arcet) aestatem (= calorem) capellis (dative), * he wards off the heat from the flocks.' 4. usque, poetic. = semper. 6. latentes, belongs to arbutos.

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Manabit ad plenum benigno


Ruris honorum opulenta cornu.

Hic in reducta valle Caniculae
Vitabis aestus, et fide Teià
I)ices laborantes in uno
Penelopen vitreamque Circen. 20

Hic innocentis pocula Lesbii
IDuces sub umbra, nec Semeleius
Cum Marte confundet Thyoneus
Proelia, nec metues protervum , , ,

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 25
Incontinentes injiciat manus
Et scindat haerentem coronam
Crinibus immeritamque vestem.



This short poem is addressed to Varus, who is supposed by some to have been am Epicuream, and a friend of Augustus. Others identify him with Quinctilius Varus, whose death is lamented in the twenty-fourth Ode of the First Book. But whosoever he may have been, the nature of his occupation at the time when these lines were inscribed to him is not doubtful. He was then employed in planting trees upon his Tiburtine property, and the poet advises

him to give the place of honour to the “ sacred vine.”

Horace then proceeds

to recommend a moderate use of wine, as the best antidote to care, hardship, and privation; but warns men against the evil consequences which often arise

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NULLAM, Vare, sacrâ vite prius severis arborem
Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili.
Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit, neque
Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines.
Quis postvina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat? 5
Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus?
At ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi,
Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero
Debellata, monet Sithoniis non levis Evius,

Quum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum


IDiscernunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu,

Invitum quatiam, nec variis obsita frondibus
Saeva tene cum Berecyntio

Sub divum rapiam.

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Cornu tympana, quae subsequitur caecus amor sui,

Et tollens vacuum plus nimio gloria verticem,
Arcanique fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro.


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10. sq. construe: quum avidi discernunt fas atque nefas eaeiguo fine (= discrimine) libidinum—avidi, absol., *they who are desirous of pleasure'—libidinum, genit, subj., ' by but a narrow boundary which limits the desires.'

11 sq. sense: I shall not profane thy worship.

12. quatiam, poetic. (in allusion to the brandishing of the thyrsus) = celebrabo orgia tua—obsita variis frondibus, poetic. * thy mysteries (contained in the mystical chests), covered with various leaves.'

13. tene = cohibe, * restrain, moderate.'

15. sq. construe : et gloria tollens vacuum (= vanum, inanem) verticem plus nimio, fidesque prodiga arcani, perlucidior vitro:—gloria, here in a bad sense, * boastfulness,' ' vanity,' * vainglory.'



Horace, expecting a visit from his friend Maecenas, at his Sabine farm, apprizes him that he will be treated to none of those generous wines which he was accustomed to drink at home ; but that he will find only some poor vin de pays,

and that, too, dealt out in rather scanty measure.

With delicate and well

turned flattery, however, the poet takes care to let his friend know that the wine dated its age from a day of which Maecenas must have been well pleased to be reminded—the day, namely, on which he was received with the warmest, acclamations in the public theatre, after his recovery from a dangerous illness.

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VILE potabis modicis Sabinum

Cantharis, Graecâ quod ego ipse testâ

Conditum lévi, datus in theatro
Quum tibi plausus,

Care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 5
Fluminis ripae simul et jocosa
Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani

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IN the most ancient times the Roimans used little wine, and libations were consequently made with milk and not with wine. 1 When the use of wine became more general, women were strictly forbidden to drink it, and the transgressors of this law were severely punished.* Besides, the country-wine which was obtained in Rome and its neighbourhood, “in vineis" (in vineyards), was of poorquality, and particularly tart (temetum). But the Romans soon became acquainted with the wine of southerm Italy, and, afterwards, of Greece, which was regarded as a great delicacy. The cultivation of the Roman vine, which had been very much neglected, was gradually improved, especially after the conquest of Campania, a country rich in wine, and was ultimately deemed the perfection of the art, as the vine-dressers prided themselves in the highest degree on their skill and experience. According to Pliny, vinum Caecubum,8 from the earliest times, held the first place among the occidental wines. This precious wine grew in Campania, which generally produced the best, at the sinus Cajetanus, near Amyclae. In the time of Pliny, these vineyards had sustained great injury from the canal constructed by Nero, so that the Setinum (growing above the forum Appii), to which Augustus had already givem the preference, was them accounted the best. The second rank was held by the vinum Falernum, which was exceedingly brisk, apparently of a light colour, and highly praised by the poets, especially by Horace.4 The third class comprised several kinds: Massicum,5 Albanum,6 Calenum,7 Surventinum.8 The Mamertinum, from the neighbourhood of Messana, was fourth in rank after the time of Julius Caesar. The Sabinum,° ASignìnum, Nomentanum, and others, were of inferior quality. The following were the least valued : Vaticanum, from the nefghbourhood of Rome, in very bad repute, was sour like vinegar ; 10 Vejentanum, growing near Veji,ll was sour, thick, and of a red colour (therefore called also rubellum); Pelignum, Caeretanum, &c. Wines imported from the provinces were also drunk, e. g. Raeticum, Laletanum (Spanish), IMassilitanum, &c. Among foreign wines, the Greek were greatly valued, especially vinum Chium i» (of which Hortensius left, after his death, more than

i Plin. 14, 12, 14. Sat. 2, 14, 51.

2 Plin. 14, 13, 14. 6 Sat. 2, 8, 16.

s Hor. C. 1, 20, 9; 1, 37, 5; 2, 14, 25. | 7 C. 1, 20, 9; comp. 4, 12, 14. Epod. 9, 1. Sat. 2, 8, 15. 8 Sat. 2, 4, 55.

* C. 1, 20, 10; 2, 3, 8; 2, 6, 19; 3, 8 C. 1, 20, 1; comp. 1, 9, 7. 1, 48. Sat. 1, 10, 24; 2, 2, 15; | io Martial, 10, 45: Vaticana bibas, si 2, 3, 115; 2, 4, 24; 55; 2, 8, 15. delectaris aceto. Ep. 1, 18, 91. ii Sat. 2, 3, 143. * C. 1, 1, 19 ; 2, 7, 21 ; 8, 21, 5. | 12 Epod. 9, 84.

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