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as a companiom to honoured and experienced statesmen, in order to gain experience in their society, and to receive his first enlarged idea of publie life. He was, at the same time, watched by his father's eye; and even in the field, was, for some time, under constant superintendence. In this manner, the boy soon became accustomed, both in word and deed, to strict moral conduct ; inured by this process to constant discipline, he was impressed through life with a lasting reverence for old age, honourable offices, and lawful institutions; and whem he had grown up to manhood, he was easily checked by the principle of subordination and by religious feeling, however much he might be elated by glory and renown. The young Roman was thus almost involuntarily rendered capable of entering the ranks of the magistrates, by a system of education which enabled him to combine patriotic virtue with a mature intellect. Even for the termination of a political career a last impressive act had been reserved: the solemnity of a funeral, already enhanced by the splendid procession of the images of ancestors, became more imposing, in a moral point of view, by funeral songs and eulogies pronounced on the forum, where the surviving relatives celebrated with pride the glory of their race, and held it up to others as an example worthy of imitation. In the time which elapsed between the second Punic war and the third, when Greek literature had begum to spread in Italy, and tbe Romans had also begum to cultivate their literary talent, the system of instruction was materially improved and extended. The grammarschools increased in number, the philosophy of the Stoics came into vogue, and the study of political eloquence was soon added. From the middle of the seventh century, after the foundation of Rome, both education and instruction assumed a fixed and more perfect form. Although the boy spent the first years of his childhood with his mother, aceording to the ancient custom, and under the superintendence of his nurse (nutria), yet pedagogues began to make their appearance in the houses of the noble Romans. The office of the pedagogue was, to superintend the morals of the boy entrusted to his care. He tried to guide the mind of the pupil (whom he had to accompany everywhere) in a right direction, and to guard it against injurious influences, bad manmers, and unmanly habits. In regard to instruction, a decided distinetion was now made between gram:natista or literator, and grammaticus or literatus. Primary instructiom (hence called prima literatura) was obtained in the elementary school of a literator, and comprised the following branches, namely, reading, taught by the method of spelling; writing, in teaching which the master began by guiding his pupil's hand; instructive sayings and passages committed to memory from school-books compiled for the purpose; arithmetic, taught on slates by means of strokes, or, in a practical manner, by counting with the fingers; and lastly, easy and popular poems were explained, while particular attention was paid to pronunciation and

he relates, in consequence of the fact, that a mother had urged her son to reveal to her the secret transactions of the senate, and that the boy, in order not to commit this wrong, had taken refuge in a lie.

proper accentitatiom. The more apt and promising scholars were sometimes sent to the school of a grammaticus, where the poets especially were more fully interpreted. The Greek language also gradually became a regular branch of educatiom. When the boy had reached a more mature age, he entered upon a second eourse of instruction. Grammar and rhetoric were taught by a grammaticus or literatus, who interpreted the principal authors, trained his pupils in declamation and disputation by practical exercises, and made it his chief object to accustom his pupils to elegance of expressiczi and euphony of pronunciation. At a later period, phonasci were employed for developing the voice, and giving it a proper modulation. Causae controversiae, and suasoriae, were constantly practised under the direction of a rhetor Latinus. The rhetor Graecus assisted his pupils in acquirimg a mastery of elegant Greek, by translating and amitating the Greek authors. Declamatory exercises in Greek were also performed. Having been thus prepared, the pupils were led to hear the public speakers in the forum. After the extinction of Republican freedom, education also underwent various changes. Little attention was paid to public affairs or political transactions, and the desire for a learned education became more prevalent. It was now that the reign of the grammarians commenced. The Emperor Vespasiam was the first who appointed a teacher of grammar and rhetoric with a state-salary; ome of the number was the celebrated rhetoriciam Quintilian. The Greek encyclopaedic education (éyκύκλιοs Tavöeta, which Quintiliam calls orbis doctrinae), was chiefly attempted to be realized. Under the reign of Hadriam, instruction was made publie by the foundation of the Athenaeum, which became the pattern of the later imperial schools, and by the appointment of teachers with salaries from the state. Gymnastic exercises, such as were practised by the Greeks, were not equally valued by the Romans; they, on the eontrary, considered the Greek gymnasia as the general resort of idleness, and the Roman sense of decorum was shocked by the gymnastic nakedness of the Greeks. Under the republie, therefore, gymnastic exercises were very seldom engaged in; but the Romans, even when grown up, were very fond of playing at ball. The more ancient Romans tried to exercise their bodies, and render themselves hardy and fit for the enduranee of fatigue, by praetice in arms, in the camp, in the tirocinium of military service, and otherwise. In the time of the emperors, however, the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks were more favourably received. Various exercises of this kind were latterly practised by the young Romans on the Campus Martius, and the city itself was provided with gymnasia and palaestrae. Such exercises were continued to a great extent in the reign of the Emperor Alexander Severus.

SATIRA VII.

Orellius regards this as the earliest of the Horatiam satires, and thinks that it was composed A. U. c. 713. When the incidents recorded in this poem occurred, Horace appears to have been serving as a military tribune at Clazomenae, under the command of Brutus, in whose camp the altercation between Rupilius Rex and Persius is said to have taken place. Publius Rupilius was born at Praeneste, a town in Latium, twenty-three miles from Rome. He belonged to the equestrian order, and at one time held the office of Master of the Publicani, or farmers of the public revenue in Bithynia. He was banished by his fellowcitizens of Praeneste, and afterwards served under Publius Attius Varus in Africa, A. U. c. 707. In 711, he was elected to the Praetorship at Rome; but having beem proscribed by the triumvirate at the imstance of Octavianus, he fled from Italy, and joined the standard of Brutus, at the time wbem Horace was acting as a military tribune in the republicam army. It is alleged by the Scholiasts, that he had often reproached Horace with the obscurity of his birth, and that the poet, in the present satire, scornfully retaliates by representing Rupilius as the butt of a scurrilous person called Persius, a native of Clazomenae, who is here termed Hybrida, because his father was a Greek, and his mother a Roman.

EROscRIPTI Regis Rupili pus atque venenum
Hybrida quo pacto sit Persius ultus, opinor
Omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse.
Persius hic permagna negotia dives habebat
Clazomenis, etiam lites cum Rege molestas, 5
Durus homo atque odio qui posset vincere Regem,
Confidens tumidusque, adeo sermonis amari,
Sisennas, Barros ut equis praecurreret albis.
Ad Regem redeo. Postquam nihil inter utrumque
Convenit—hoc etenim sunt omnes jure molesti,
Quo fortes, quibus adversum bellum incidit; inter

10

Sat. 7.—1. Proscripti, &c., i. e. * the filth and venom of outlawed Rupilius (surnamed) Rex.' 2. hybrida, * mongrel' (namely, a *Greek by his father, and an ltalian by his mother). 3. lippis, because these used to frequent the druggists' shops, where, as in those of the barbers, the gossip of the day was related. 6. durus = pervicax et morosns, * stubborm '—odio = molestiâ, * insolence.' 8. Sisennas, Barros, individuals of t*; at time, motorious for the virulence

of their railleries — praecurrere equis albis, poetic. = vincere, superare, * to excel;' white horses were yoked to triumphal chariots in triumphal processions.

9. nihil convenit, i. e. litem amice decidere non poterant, * could not be reconciled.'

10 and 11. construe: etenim omnes nolesti (= difficiles, contentiosi, * contentious ') sunt hoc jure (= eo, eodem modo agunt, ' behave in the samemamner as,' &c.) quo fortes, quibus adrersum bellum (= acerrimum certamen) incidit.

Hectora Priamiden animosum atque inter Achillem
Ira fuit capitalis, ut ultima divideret mors,
Non aliam ob causam, nisi quod virtus in utroque

Summa fuit; duo si discordia vexet inertes,

15

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi
Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultro
Muneribus missis—Bruto praetore tenente
Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non

Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacchius.

20

In jus

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque.
Persius exponit causam ; ridetur ab omni
Conventu ; laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem.
Solem Asiae Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres

Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; canem illum,
Invisum agricolis sidus, venisse.

25 Ruebat,

Elumen ut hibernum, fertur quo rara securis.
Tum Praenestinus salso multoque fluenti
Expressa arbusto regerit convicia, durus

Vindemiator et invictus, cui saepe viator

30

Cessisset, magnâ compellans voce cuculum.

SAT. 7.—15. verset, some Codd., Bentl.—20. compositus, some Codd.; compositi, Bentl. ex uno Cod. Magdal.—28. multumque, some Codd.—31. cucullum, some

Codd.

13. capitalis, * deadly '—ut ultima divideret mors, * that only death, at last, separated (could separate) them.'

15. veret = perturbet, * should shake, agitate' (two cowards).

16. sq. Diomedi cum Glauco, &c., a parody upom the well-known Homeric episode respecting the proposed combat, and the exchange of armour, between I)iomedes and Glaucus (Hom. Il. 6, 119 sq.)—pigrior, * the weaker' of the two.

20. compositum, * matched' — cum Bitho Bacchius, two gladiators.

23. cohortem, sc. amicorum et comitum Bruti, qui judices sedebant, * the judicial companions.'

27. quo, i. e. eo loco quo—rara securis /ertur, i. e. raro arbores caeduntur, * where the axe is seldom brought in ' (poetic. for ' through the densest forests').

28. sq. construe: tum Praenestinus (i. e. Rupilius Rex) regerit (present tense of regero = respondens ingerit) convicia earpressa arbusto (= prolata altissimo clamore ex arbusto) salso multoque fluenti (= amaro et maledico Persio), * hurls back invectives, shouted forth from the vimeyard, upon him (Persius) who, pungent and copions, flowed along'—durus vindemiatur, apposition to Praemestinus.

30. vindemiator, four syllables, as: vin-dem-ya-tor, by Synaeresis (comp. above C. 1, 35, 17; 1, 37, 5; 2, 7, 5; 3, 4, 4)—cui saepe viator, &c., referring to the invectives directed against the vinedressers by the passengers (when they saw them at work so late in the season that already the cuckoo's cry was heard), and the more vituperative amswers returmed by the latter, *to whom the traveller had often been obliged to

At Graecus, postquam est Italo perfusus aceto, E'ersius exclamat: “ Per magnos, Brute, deos te * Oro, qui reges consueris tollere, cur non * Hunc Regem jugulas? Operum hoc, mihi crede, tuorum est.' 35

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Dated A. U. c. 718 or 719. The later commentators, and among them Orellius, reject the notion that this celebrated satire was modelled upom one of the mimes of Sophron. It is now generally agreed that the poet's desigm in relating the incident which befel him om the sacred way, and in delineating the charactey of the intruder who there annoyed him, was not to exhibit a merely ideal sketch of a troublesome busybody, but to expose the impudence and meamness of a class ofidlers in Rome, who flattered themselves that, by assuming the literary character, parading their fancied merits, waylaying Horace or Virgil, and soliciting their interest with Maecenas, they could secure the approbation and friendship of that great patron of literature. It has been supposed by some, but not on satisfactory grounds, that the poet Propertius is here the subject of satirical exposure. At the same time, as Orellius justly observes, it is surprising, if not inexplicable, that Horace nowhere mentions Propertius, nor Propertius Horace, although the latter alludes in the most friendly terms to Virgil, Varius, and Tibullus, and Propertius refers in similar language to Virgil. The Via Sacra led from the southern gates of Rome to the Capitol. It was called sacred, according to some authorities, either because the priests with the sacrifice passed through it, or because the treaty was there concluded between Romulus.and Titus Tatius, King of the Sabines. The people who dwelt alomg this way were called Sacravienses.

IBAM forte Viâ Sacrâ, sicut meus est mos,
Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis.
Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum,

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