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This masterly satire, the prologue to a long series of similar compositions, is addressed by Horace to Maecenas, who received the first fruits of the poet's genius in the successive forms of epode, ode, satire, and epistle. The first of the epodes, the first ode of the first book, the first of the satires, and the first of the epistles, are each inscribed with the mame of the high-minded and accomplished knight, to whom posterity is, perhaps, mainly indebted for the finest poetry of Virgil, as well as of Horace. The date of this satire is fixed by Grotefend and other commentators at A. U. c. 719; and the subject of the poet's ridicule and invective is the unhappy dispositiom evinced by most of his coevals to complain of their own lot, and to cherish a feeling of envy towards those whose condition in life appeared to be more fortunate. This habitual discomtent, or μey.\|/uuoupio, which poisons the springs of happiness, he traces to that irrational avarice, which seeks to justify itself by the pretext of making provision for old age, but meanwhile prevents men from enjoying in any way the wealth they may have acquired. From the dedication of this satire to Maecenas, it may be inferred that he was entirely exempt from this popular failimg. The abruptness of the transitions at verses 13, 23, 108, and the closing lines of the poem, have led Orellius and others to the conclusion that the whole pieee was written in the style of Lucilius, whom Horace originally selected as his model in this department of his works.

QUî fit, Maecenas, ut nemo, quam sibi sortem
Seu ratio dederit seu fors objecerit, illâ

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renere) quam sortem seu ratio (= con- | studiis); the pronoum quisque to be silium, ' choice') dederit sibi, seu fors | understood from the preceding nemno.

Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequentes?
* O fortunati mercatores!* gravis annis c ,
Miles ait, multo jam fractus membra labore.
Contra mercator, navem jactantibus Austris, $.
* Militia est potior. Quid enim?
* Momento cita mors venit aut victoria laeta.'
Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus,
Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat.
Ille datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est,
Solos felices viventes clamat in urbe.
Cetera de genere hoc — adeo sunt multa — loquacem
Delassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi
Quo rem deducam. Si quis deus * En ego' dicat, +
* Jam faciam quod vultis: eris tu, qui modo miles,
* Mercator; tu, consultus modo, rusticus: hinc vos,
* Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus. Eja!

* Quid statis?'—nolint. Atqui licet esse beatis. +

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Concurritur; horae

10

15

4. armis, some edd.—6. navim, some Codd.—8. momento aut cita, some Codd.,

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15. quo rem deducam, i. e. qui sit finis disputationis meae, * at what (conclusion) I am aiming'—En ego = adsum, * well, here I am.'

17. consultus = juris consultus, the juris legumque peritus and consultor of lines 9 and 10, thus below Ep. 2, 2, 87 and 159)—hinc, &c., construe: vos discedite hinc, vos hinc (= illinc discedite), mutatis partibus (i. e. your parts, your positions in life being changed).

19. nolint, sc. discedere mutatis partibus—beatis, dative joined with licet (iis), the usual construction; also in classic prose, but only since the Augustan period without the dative of the person (comp. Ov. Met. 8, 406 sq.: licet eminus esse fortibus, and Liv. 26, 41, § 16: Hannibal nihil jam majus precatur deos, quam ut incolumi cedere atque abire ex hostium terra liceat. But comp. Cic. Tusc. 1, 15: Licuit esse otioso Them:Etrcli, and Off. 2, 18, 63: ut iis ingratis esse non liceat. Thus (w^ith the dative of the person) below, S. 1, 6, 25: tibi fieri tribuno.

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Quid causae est, merito quin illis Jupiter ambas

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Iratus buccas inflet neque se fore posthac
Tam facilem dicat, votis ut praebét áiirem?
Praeterea, ne sic, ut qui jocularia, ridens
Percurram — quamquam ridentem dicere verum

Quid vetat? ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi

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Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima—
Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo.
Ille gravem duro terram qui vertit aratro,
Perfidus hic caupo, miles nautaeque, per omne

Audaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem,. .

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Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, p. 7. *verav
Ajunt, quum sibi sint congesta cibaria: sicut

Parvula — nam exemplo est —

magni formica laboris

Ore trahit quodcumque potest atque addit acervo,

t Quem struit, haud ignara ac non incauta futuri.
7 Quae, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum, /, ,

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Non usquam prorepit et illis utitur ante
Quaesitis sapiens, quum te neque fervidtis aestiis :
Deffioyeat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ferrum,
Nil 6bstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. § 2 «. ?. a 40
Quid juvat, immensum te argenti pondus et auri
Furtim defossâ timidum deponere terrâ?
* Quod si comminuas, vilem redigatur ad assem.'—

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23. praetereo, some Codd.—29. perfidus hic campo miles, or pertigil hic campo miles, or perfidus hic cautor, miles, or pernoctans campo miles, some edd.—38. patiens, some Codd.—39. dimoveat, some Codd.—nec hiems, Bentl.

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'At ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus? p.

Milia frumenti tua triverit area centum, •

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Non tuus hòc capiet venter plus ac meus, ut si
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto
Forte vehas humero, nihilo plus accipias quam

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44. at, &c., Horace's reply. 45. construe: tua area triverit centum nilia (modiùm) frumenti—triverit = licet, quamvis triverit. 46. plus ac, instead of plus qttam. 47. inter venales, sc. servos, * among slaves; ' inter put last (comp. above C. 3, 3, 11; Epod. 2, 38; 7, 3; 16, 40). 49 and 50. quid referat, unusmally joined with the dative, viventi intra fines naturae, * what may it matter to him who is living within the limits prescribed by nature, whether,' &c. (comp. Tac Ann. 15, 65: non referre dedecori, si citharoedus demoveretur et tragoedus succederet = nihil interesse ad dedecus, si, &c.) 51. at suave, &c., a new objection of the miser. 52 haurire relinquas = concedas ut

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· Assideat, fomenta paret, medicum roget, ut te Suscitet ac gnatis reddat carisque propinquis ?

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Sic solitus: “ Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo
* Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca.'

Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat ® : ' ^

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Flumina—Quid rides? Mutato nomine de te

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Cogeris aut pietis tamquam gaudere tabellis. ca. -,
Nescis quo valeat nummus? quem praebeat usum?,

Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius, adde,
Quis humana sibi doleat natura negatis.

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An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque
Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos,
Ne te compilent fugientes, hoc juvat? Horum
Semper ego optarim pauperrimus esse bonorum.

At si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus • .• C

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Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius; omnes

Vicini oderunt noti, pueri atque puellae.

Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia ponas,
Si nemo praestet, quem non merearis, amorem? ^ ' *** **
At si cognatos, nullo natura labore

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