Abbildungen der Seite
PDF

CARMEN III.

AD CAESAREM AUGUSTUMI.

Dated variously from A.U.C. 727 to 733. In this Ode, inscribed to Augustus, the poet extols the virtues of integrity, firmness of purpose, perseverance, and courage; and shows that, by the exercise of these virtues, Pollux, Hercules, and Bacchus, had achieved immortality, and obtained admission to the society of

the gods.

Romulus, as the founder, and Augustus, as the restorer of the city,

owed their apotheosis also to the energy and decision of character which they had respectively displayed ; and the goddess Juno herself, notwithstanding her inveterate enmity to Æneas and his descendants, is described as proposing to the gods in council that Romulus be admitted to Olympus, and enrolled in the rank of deities, on condition that no attempt should thereafter be made to rebuild the city, and restore the kingdom of Troy.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]

Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. ,
Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae
Vexere tigres, indocili jugum
Collo trahentes, hac Quirinus
Martis equis Acheronta fugit,

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus
Junone divis: * Ilion, Ilion
* Fatalis incestusque judex
* Et mulier peregrina vertit

* In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos * Mercede pactâ Laomedon, mihi * Castaeque damnatum Minervae * Cum populo et duce fraudulento. /

* Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae
* Famosus hospes, nec Priami domus
* Perjura pugnaces Achivos
* Hectoreis opibus refringit,

* Nostrisque ductum seditionibus
* Bellum resedit. Protinus et graves

12. bibet, some Codd.

15

20

25

30

latum et aethere cinctum, *the fiery, starry citadel' (of heaven). 11. quos inter, Anastrophe, = inter quos (comp. above C. 1, 2, 34: quam circum). 12. ore =1abro (not vultu)—bibit (not bibet), as it were, already in his lifetime enjoying divine honours. 13. hac, sc. arte (from v. 9)—pater, usual epithet of the gods (comp. thus of Bacchus below Ep. 2, 1, 5: Liber pater, and Virg. G. 2, 4 : pater o Lenaee). 15. collo, poetic. for the plur. collis (as joined together under the same yoke). 17. gratum, accus. neutr. objecti, be- !

longing to consiliantibus, * Juno having uttered what was agreeable to the deliberating gods.' 19. judear, i. e. Paris. 21. destituit deos, i. e. * has defrauded the gods (Apollo and Neptune) of their stipulated reward' (for having assisted him in building the walls of Troy). 28. mihi (= a me) damnatum, sc. Ilion. 24. duce fraudulento, i. e. Laomedonte. 25 and 26. construe: famosus hospes Lacaenae adulterae (genit.) 28. refringit, pcetic. = frangendo reprimit, retundit, * breaks, destroys.' 29. ductum = productum, * protract

* Iras et invisum nepotem,
* Troica quem peperit sacerdos,

* Marti redonabo; illum ego lucidas
* Inire sedes, ducere nectaris
* Sucos et adscribi quietis
* Ordinibus patiar deorum.

* Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion
* Romamque pontus, qualibet exsules
* In parte regnanto beati;

* Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40

* Insultet armentum et catulos ferae
* Celent inultae, stet Capitolium -
* Fulgens, triumphatisque possit
* Roma ferox dare jura Medis.

* Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 45
* Extendat oras, qua medius liquor
* Secernit Europen ab Afro,
* Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus,

* Aurum irrepertum et sic melius situm,
* Quum terra celat, spernere fortior 50
* Quam cogere humanos in usùs
* Omne sacrum rapiente dextrâ.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

* Quicumque mundo terminus obstitit,
* Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens,
* Qua parte debacchentur ignes, 55
* Qua nebulae pluviique rores.

* Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus
* Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii
* Rebusque fidentes avitae
* Tecta velint reparare Trojae. 60

* Trojae renascens alite lugubri
* Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur,
* Ducente victrices catervas
* Conjuge me Jovis et sorore.

* Ter si resurgat murus aheneus 65

* Auctore Phoebo, ter pereat meis
* Excisus Argivis, ter uxor

* Capta virum puerosque ploret.'

Non hoc jocosae conveniet lyrae: • ' • • •

Quo, Musa, tendis?

Desine pervicax 70

Referre sermones deorum et
Magna modis tenuare parvis.

53. quacumque, Bentl. conj.—54. tanget, some Codd.—55. debacchantur, Cod. Turicens.—66. ductore, some Codd.

53. obstitit, aoristically, i. e. a primis temporibus obstitit, et nunc quoque obstat, finem ponit mundo (άative = orbi terrarum). 54. hunc, sc. termínum. 56. rores, like the Greek 8p6oros, poetic. in general of every kind of moisture (comp. below C. 3, 4, 61: Apollo, qui rore puro Castaliae lavit). 58. hac lege, poetic. = hac condicione —nimium pii, sc. in patriam Trojam. 61. sq. construe: Fortuna Trqjae frenascens (= fortuna Trojae renascentis) alite lugubri (= malâ avi)iterabitur tristi clade (= Troja iterum delebitur). 63. sq. construe: me, conjuge et sorore Jovis, ducente victrices catervas— victrices, i. e. quae semel jam vicerunt et iterum vincent—conjuge, &c., expres

siom of pride (comp. Virg. A. 1, 46: Ast ego, quae divôm incedo regina Jovisque Et soror et conjux). 65. aheneus, i. e. fortis, * strong.' 66. Phoebo, asthefirst builder ofTroy (comp. the above note to v. 21, and Virg. G. 3, 86: Trojae Cynthius auctor)—Argivis meis, active dative, * by my Argives' (the goddess had a most celebrated temple at Argos). 69. sq. Non hoc, &c., a turning similar to that C. 2, 1, 37: Sed ne relictis, Musa procax, jocis, Ceae retractes munera meniae, the poet exhortinghimself mot to transgress the limits of his poetical talent. 72. tenuare = extenuare, elevare, * debase, degrade.'

[merged small][ocr errors]

This Ode, though nominally addressed to Calliope, is in reality a panegyric of

Augustus. Its entire scope and meaning are admirably exhibited in the condensed paraphrase by Orellius: “ The Muses, to whom I also am indebted for the greatest benefits, not only afford us pleasure, but improve and refine our characters, and in this way become our pleasing instructresses in moderation and wisdom; of which virtues, in particular, Augustus, the pacifier of the Roman empire, and likewise a sincere lover of the Muses, presents to us a signal example. The Muses, om the other hand, and all minds thoroughly trained by liberal culture, are as far averse as possible from a savage abuse of strength, and from tyranny, and every kind of misdeed or outrage, to which barbarism is wont to impel men." Having displayed consummate dexterity in citing, as a living witness of this truth, the Emperor Augustus himself, who was formerly inclined to cruelty, the poet so praises self-command and clemency, when combined with the earnest study of liberal accomplishments, as to show that, in these qualities, the highest merit and real power of a great ruler consist.

DESCENDE coelo et dic age tibiâ
Regina longum Calliope melos,
Seu voce nunc mavis acutâ,
Seu fidibus citharâque Phoebi.

Auditis, an me ludit amabilis 5
Insania? Audire et videor pios
Errare per lucos, amoenae
Quos et aquae subeunt et aurae.

Me fabulosae Vulture in Appulo -
Altricis extra limen Apuliae '° 10

CARM. 4.—4. citharave, some Codd.— 10. nutricis, some Codd.

Carm. 4. — 2. regina, so called as deity.

4. fidibus citharâque, poetic. for fidibus citharae; on fides amd cithara as stringed instruments, see Excurs. ii. to C. 1, 1.

5. auditis? sc. Musam or cantum Musae — amabilis insania, i. e. gratus furor poeticus, the poetical enthusiasm, inspiration, “pleasingphrensy'—audire,

&c., construe : videor (mihi) audire
(eam), et errare per pios lucos.
6. pios per lucos, i. e. sacras Musarum
sedes.
8. aquae = rivuli, fontes. ·
9. sq., the same prodigy was related
of Stesichorus, Pindar, Aeschylus and
Plato.
10. altricis, poetic. for ' native.'

« ZurückWeiter »