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AD CAESAREM AUGUSTUMI.
Dated variously from A.U.C. 727 to 733. In this Ode, inscribed to Augustus, the poet extols the virtues of integrity, firmness of purpose, perseverance, and courage; and shows that, by the exercise of these virtues, Pollux, Hercules, and Bacchus, had achieved immortality, and obtained admission to the society of
Romulus, as the founder, and Augustus, as the restorer of the city,
owed their apotheosis also to the energy and decision of character which they had respectively displayed ; and the goddess Juno herself, notwithstanding her inveterate enmity to Æneas and his descendants, is described as proposing to the gods in council that Romulus be admitted to Olympus, and enrolled in the rank of deities, on condition that no attempt should thereafter be made to rebuild the city, and restore the kingdom of Troy.
Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Gratum elocuta consiliantibus
* In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos * Mercede pactâ Laomedon, mihi * Castaeque damnatum Minervae * Cum populo et duce fraudulento. /
* Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae
* Nostrisque ductum seditionibus
12. bibet, some Codd.
latum et aethere cinctum, *the fiery, starry citadel' (of heaven). 11. quos inter, Anastrophe, = inter quos (comp. above C. 1, 2, 34: quam circum). 12. ore =1abro (not vultu)—bibit (not bibet), as it were, already in his lifetime enjoying divine honours. 13. hac, sc. arte (from v. 9)—pater, usual epithet of the gods (comp. thus of Bacchus below Ep. 2, 1, 5: Liber pater, and Virg. G. 2, 4 : pater o Lenaee). 15. collo, poetic. for the plur. collis (as joined together under the same yoke). 17. gratum, accus. neutr. objecti, be- !
longing to consiliantibus, * Juno having uttered what was agreeable to the deliberating gods.' 19. judear, i. e. Paris. 21. destituit deos, i. e. * has defrauded the gods (Apollo and Neptune) of their stipulated reward' (for having assisted him in building the walls of Troy). 28. mihi (= a me) damnatum, sc. Ilion. 24. duce fraudulento, i. e. Laomedonte. 25 and 26. construe: famosus hospes Lacaenae adulterae (genit.) 28. refringit, pcetic. = frangendo reprimit, retundit, * breaks, destroys.' 29. ductum = productum, * protract
* Iras et invisum nepotem,
* Marti redonabo; illum ego lucidas
* Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion
* Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40
* Insultet armentum et catulos ferae
* Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 45
* Aurum irrepertum et sic melius situm,
* Quicumque mundo terminus obstitit,
* Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus
* Trojae renascens alite lugubri
* Ter si resurgat murus aheneus 65
* Auctore Phoebo, ter pereat meis
* Capta virum puerosque ploret.'
Non hoc jocosae conveniet lyrae: • ' • • •
Quo, Musa, tendis?
Desine pervicax 70
Referre sermones deorum et
53. quacumque, Bentl. conj.—54. tanget, some Codd.—55. debacchantur, Cod. Turicens.—66. ductore, some Codd.
53. obstitit, aoristically, i. e. a primis temporibus obstitit, et nunc quoque obstat, finem ponit mundo (άative = orbi terrarum). 54. hunc, sc. termínum. 56. rores, like the Greek 8p6oros, poetic. in general of every kind of moisture (comp. below C. 3, 4, 61: Apollo, qui rore puro Castaliae lavit). 58. hac lege, poetic. = hac condicione —nimium pii, sc. in patriam Trojam. 61. sq. construe: Fortuna Trqjae frenascens (= fortuna Trojae renascentis) alite lugubri (= malâ avi)iterabitur tristi clade (= Troja iterum delebitur). 63. sq. construe: me, conjuge et sorore Jovis, ducente victrices catervas— victrices, i. e. quae semel jam vicerunt et iterum vincent—conjuge, &c., expres
siom of pride (comp. Virg. A. 1, 46: Ast ego, quae divôm incedo regina Jovisque Et soror et conjux). 65. aheneus, i. e. fortis, * strong.' 66. Phoebo, asthefirst builder ofTroy (comp. the above note to v. 21, and Virg. G. 3, 86: Trojae Cynthius auctor)—Argivis meis, active dative, * by my Argives' (the goddess had a most celebrated temple at Argos). 69. sq. Non hoc, &c., a turning similar to that C. 2, 1, 37: Sed ne relictis, Musa procax, jocis, Ceae retractes munera meniae, the poet exhortinghimself mot to transgress the limits of his poetical talent. 72. tenuare = extenuare, elevare, * debase, degrade.'
This Ode, though nominally addressed to Calliope, is in reality a panegyric of
Augustus. Its entire scope and meaning are admirably exhibited in the condensed paraphrase by Orellius: “ The Muses, to whom I also am indebted for the greatest benefits, not only afford us pleasure, but improve and refine our characters, and in this way become our pleasing instructresses in moderation and wisdom; of which virtues, in particular, Augustus, the pacifier of the Roman empire, and likewise a sincere lover of the Muses, presents to us a signal example. The Muses, om the other hand, and all minds thoroughly trained by liberal culture, are as far averse as possible from a savage abuse of strength, and from tyranny, and every kind of misdeed or outrage, to which barbarism is wont to impel men." Having displayed consummate dexterity in citing, as a living witness of this truth, the Emperor Augustus himself, who was formerly inclined to cruelty, the poet so praises self-command and clemency, when combined with the earnest study of liberal accomplishments, as to show that, in these qualities, the highest merit and real power of a great ruler consist.
DESCENDE coelo et dic age tibiâ
Auditis, an me ludit amabilis 5
Me fabulosae Vulture in Appulo -
CARM. 4.—4. citharave, some Codd.— 10. nutricis, some Codd.
Carm. 4. — 2. regina, so called as deity.
4. fidibus citharâque, poetic. for fidibus citharae; on fides amd cithara as stringed instruments, see Excurs. ii. to C. 1, 1.
5. auditis? sc. Musam or cantum Musae — amabilis insania, i. e. gratus furor poeticus, the poetical enthusiasm, inspiration, “pleasingphrensy'—audire,
&c., construe : videor (mihi) audire