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“In thirty-three missionary stations, in in aid of the missionary fund. Still an Greenland, Labrador, North America, annual sum of 20001. remains to be prothe West Indies, Surinam, South Africa, vided for; to which are to be added, unand Tartary, there are about 32,000 liquidated deficiences of former years; Christian converts under the care of one and during the present year this defi. hundred and sixty-eight missionaries, ciency has been greatly augmented, owing whose attention, however, is not ex. to the dreadful devastations produced by clusively confined to them; for they hurricanes on two of the South-African preach the Gospel also to many thousands stations." of heathens, in their respective vicinities. Since sending the above to press, we

“The direct expenses of all these mis. have received an account of another resions amounted, in 1820, to 66771. 9s. 9d.; cent visitation which has befallen one of & sum incredibly small, in proportion to the Moravian settlements; the settlethe magnitude and extent of the good ment of Sarepta, in Russian Asia, near effected. But there were arrears and Czarizin, on the Wolga Sarepta was contingencies to be added, partly for the first established in the year 1765, by five maintenance of aged missionaries, worn of the Moravian Brethren from Hernhutt, out in the service, or of the widows of in the hope that it might be the means of the deceased missionaries, or for the edu- bringing the Calmucks and other tribes in cation of their children: these arrears, the vicinity to the knowledge of Christian when added to the preceding sum, pro- truth. The population has by degrees duced a total of 94311. 17s. lld., increased to nearly 500 inhabitants; and

« The smallness of this expenditure is a small number of converts (Calmueks) to be accounted for, not merely by the have, of late years, been gathered from rigid economy, and self-denying habits of among the heathen. The calamity to the missionaries, but also by the gratifying which we allude, and which forms a new fact, that in some of the stations, trades claim to Christian sympathy, is thus deor manufactures, carried on under their scribed by the conductors of the Brethren's superintendance, have been so productive missions :as nearly to cover the whole of their “ It has pleased the Lord our God, respective expenses. In the Danish West- whose ways are often inscrutable, but India islands, containing 12,000 Negro always righteous and full of love, to visit converts, the missionaries have exerted our congregation at Sarepta in Russia with themselves so effectually as even to remit a very heavy disaster. On the 9th of 7501. during the year 1820, towards the August last, a fire broke out in one of the maintenance of other missions.

outhouses of the tobacco manufactory " The congregations of the Brethren on and as all the premises were built of the continent and elsewhere, amount not, wood, and by the long continued drought on an average, to more than 8000 per- and heat had become like tinder, the sons, and these belong chietly to the flames spread with such rapidity, that all humbler classes of society; so that their human help proved vain; and in four means of contributing to the expenses of hours and a half, the shops, with all the the missions are very small: yet they were buildings belonging to the manufactory, able, in a great measure, to meet it, until the apothecary's shop, the large distillery, the difficulties and devastations attendant the warden's house, the two large houses on the late war had so much impoverish- of the single brethren, with all their shops ed the continental congregations, as to and farming premises, and twenty-four throw the burden almost exclusively on dwelling-houses (comprising three-fourths those of Great Britain. With every ef- of the whole settlement) were laid in fort, however, on their part, they are not ashes. Thus twenty-eight families, all able to raise above 20001. per annum; less the single brethren, seventy in number, than a fourth part of the whole annual and about twenty families of workmen expenditure. The Society labours, in and servants, were bereft of their habiconsequence, under heavy pecuniary em- tations. When the fire had reached the barrassments, and must have long since re- most dangerous place, between the single linquished a great part of the missionary brethren's house and the closely adjoining stations, and yielded up these Christian out-buildings of the minister's house, it enclosures a prey to the powers of dark- pleased God to grant success to the unness, but for the spontaneous bounty of wearied exertions of those who came to benevolent friends, chiefly in England our assistance, and to put a stop to the and Scotland; by whose aid and exertions progress of the devouring element, otherupwards of 40007. have been collected wise in half an hour more the whole seta

tlement of Sarepta would have been con- graduates became preachers; at the comverted into a melancholy heap of ruins, mencement of the present century, only and all its inhabitants left without a home." one in six. We are rejoiced to see that

Two lives were lost in consequence the religious part of our transatlantic of fatigue and agitation of mind. All brethren are earnestly exerting themselves who have retained their houses have most to supply these alarming deficiencies. cheerfully accommodated the sufferers in Would that all governments would bear in the best manner in their power. The mind the so-far-excellent model of some church was saved, and has been re-open of the States, founded by expatriated Pued.-Contributions for the relief of the ritans, in which no parish was lest destisuffering congregation will be thankfully tute of a resident minister, and of a fixed received by the Rev. C. I. Latrobe, Nevil's provision for the education of all classes Court, Fetter Lane; Messrs. Hoares, of the population ! Bankers; Seeley and Son, 169, Fleet street; Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly. PARIS SOCIETY FOR CHRISTIAN

MORALS. RELIGIOUS WANTS IN THE This useful and rising Society has beUNITED STATES.

nevolently proposed a premium of a thouOur readers will have seen in our Num- sand francs for the best essay in favour of ber for August, pp. 487-490, some por- the Abolition of the Slave Trade, with partentous statements, from the pen of a ticular reference to the circumstances of highly respectable American Episcopalian France. The Society are anxious for a liclergyman, respecting the religious neces- beral investigation of the whole of this imsities of various parts of the United States. portant question; and to promote it, they He mentions, that on the general estimate have issued a circular, stating at consideraof one pastor to a thousand souls, there are ble length the chief points to which they not a sufficient number of ministers, at wish attention to be directed. They ask the present moment, in the United States what are the causes of the unsuccessful to supply three millions of the population; issue of the attempts hitherto made by the so that there are seven millions, either French government to interdict the trade? partially or wholly, deprived of the means Should it be said that the suppression of of religious consolation and instruction. the trade is unpopular in France, whence This grievous deficiency is loudly com- arises this unpopularity? Is it that the plained of in various other recent Ame abolition is a selfish project of England, rican publications. The last Report of the to favour its own colonies at the expense “ American Education Society" (a body of France ? Is it that England did not composed of Christians of various de abolish the trade till after she had taken nominations) states, that in every quar- precautionary measures to secure her own ter missionaries and pastors are earnestly colonies, and to injure those of her neighdemanded for vacant churches and new bours ? To refute this supposition, the districts. The necessities of some parts Society recommends attention to the foleven of the New-England States, are lowing points :- Who incited the aboliconsiderable; but these are nothing com- tion in this country? Was it the governpared with those of the South and West. ment? Was it the colonial or the merOn this subject, the Directors of the cantile interest ? Rather was it not the American Education Society, in addition disinterested friends of liberty, religion, to “the appalling statements and estic and philanthropy? Did not government mates of past years," mention the fole and the mercantile and colonial interests lowing facts:-"In the Michigan territory, oppose it? Did not there require a quarter where there are several organized churches, of a century to effect it? And is it not a and several important military posts, and fact that the present French colonies beabout 15,000 inhabitants, there is no mi- longed to England at the period of the nister, chaplain, or missionary.” Again; abolition, without any prospect, at that “ In the three States, Indiana, Ilinois, and time, of cession? Is it not also a fact Missouri, containing a population of more that no measures of precaution were ever than 300,000 souls, scattered over a ter- adopted in the old colonies, more than in ritory almost three times as large as New the conquered ones? With regard to the England, there are but sixteen or seventeen general apathy of the French public reCongregational and Presbyterian minis. specting the slave trade, may it not be ters." The proportion of ministers has de traced, either to the supposition that the creased with the increasing population of traffic cannot be extirpated, and may the States. At the commencement of the therefore be as well carried on by the last century, more than half the college French as by any other nation? or to the persuasion that the horrors of slavery various stages of the offence. It is further and the slave trade have been greatly ex- recommended to consider the plan of emaggerated? To refute these notions, it is ploying efficient cruizers and co-operating recommended to compare the present la with the flag of other nations for suppressmentable state of Western Africa with its ing the offence; and of perfecting a slave condition from 1808 to 1814; during which registration in the colonies. It is also period, England and America, dividing the proposed that an investigation should be empire of the seas, annihilated the traffic. made respecting the system of adminisIt is suggested also, that the writers tering justice in the colonies, in points should notice the methods of procuring connected with the interests of the slave the slaves; the degree of horror evinced population; and the best method pointed by them on being captured; their march out of disposing of re-captured Negroes. to the coast; their miserable deportation The friends of the abolition of the slave across the Atlantic; the mortality that trade in this country will rejoice to find takes place among them during their pase their allies on the continent sketching out sage; the short average duration of a Ne- so large and comprehensive a view of this gro's life in the West Indies as compared great question. The extensive circulation with Africa, and the causes of this fatal of the forcible hints, inquiries, and infeconsumption of human existence; and in rences in this paper must, we should think, what degree the sufferings of the slaves in of itself produce considerable effect indethe voyage are increased under the pre- pendently of the discussions to which it sent contraband system. All these de. may lead. Essays for the premium are to tails are to be authenticated by recent be sent in by the 1st of July with a sealed and well-proved facts. The next point to letter containing the author's name, adbe discussed is the argument of the plant- dressed to the President of the Society of ers, that slavery and the slave trade are in- Christian Morals in Paris, Rue Taranne dispensable for the culture of the colonies. (No. 12.) It is advised to inquire on this head, whe- While alluding to this subject, we venther slave cultivation has not retained ture to suggest to our literary countrymen, agriculture in a barbarous infantile state, whether a history of slavery in all ages to the exclusion of useful implements for and countries, would not furnish a theme lightening human labour; and whether highly interesting and important, and well the natural increase of population ought worthy of the pen of a Hume, a Robertson, not to be sufficient to keep up the number or a Gibbon. We are somewhat surprised of slaves without importation, and if, in that while subjects the most trite, such as point of fact it does not do so, what are the the crusades; or the most uninteresting, causes of the deficiency; and particularly, such as some point of mere historical litiare there any laws or usages which render gation ; have employed so many lives and the bringing up of the children of slaves pens, no complete history of slavery,-a onerous or inconvenient ? With regard topic fearfully copious in materials, and to the difficulties alleged by the French painfully replete with interest,-has yet government in suppressing the traffic, se- been given to the world. We confidently veral inquiries are suggested respecting recommend this theme to the rising race the present imperfect state of the French of historians, as well calculated to repay jaw on the subject, extending to all the their most elaborate researches.

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

FOREIGN.

to make an unconditional surrender. SPAIN.—The Constitutionalists, be- The king was permitted to retire to trayed and deserted by many of their the French lines, whence he set out professedly warmest friends, unsup- in triumph for Madrid. His first ported by the mass of the peasantry, measure was, by one sweeping edict, dilapidated in their finances, bereft of to annul the Constitution, and all acts all their principal garrison towns, and done under it, and by its authority, unable, amidst internal discord and from its formation on March 7, 1820. the presence of a powerful enemy, Forgetting his solemn oath to obey this to hold out any longer, even in Cadiz very Constitution, not only has he vioitselt, have at length been constrained lated and rescinded it, but has de. nounced its friends, abettors, and norant and unthinking against that even its most innocent functionaries, holy faith which they see so awfully Not the least shadow of doubt is in- abused. timated in the king's edicts, as to his The conduct of the king, since his full prerogative to mould, re-mould, liberation, appears to be as impolitic or abolish, the laws, government, and as it is over bearing. It must necesusages of the kingdom, without the sarily disgust and repel all the talent, smallest reference or appeal to the intellect, and public spirit of the coulwishes or the voice of the Nation. In try, The peasantry, indeed, may not all the proceedings since his liberation, at once feel the full effects of a desan uudisguised uomixed spirit of des- potic system of government, or bepotism is evinced, most grating in its come prepared to repel it. To thena aspect, and portentous in its conse- the Constitution was a matter of inquences. The most enlighened, in- difference, perhaps of dislike; for they dustrious, and enterprising classes of were not qualified, either by habit or Spanish society are placed under a education,' to discover the full value general ban of odium or proscription of civil liberty, and much less to weigh No member of the last two sessions of the merits or defects of any particuthe Cortes is allowed to approach lar form of goverument. Years must within five leagues of the road to have elapsed before the indirect effects Madrid; and all the chief civil, as well of a liberal system should have been as military, officers under the late adequately felt in the remote agriculConstitution are banished for ever tural districts, and before the moral fifteen leagues from the capital and and intellectual elevation of the peathe royal residence. The only pro- santry, arising froin more liberal' inmise held out to the country is, ibat stitutions and an improved education, the king, by his own sole intelligence should have enabled them to value and authority, will beslow such laws the just-not the Utopian and revoand adopt such reasures as shall be lutionary-rights of man. But the calculated to secure the national pros- active, intellectual, commercial classes, perity and welfare. And all this has the inbabitants of towns and cities, occurred immediately after issuing, accustomed to the intercourse of mind before he left Cadiz, a proclamation, with mind, initiated in the science of declaring solemnly his intention to politics, and apprized of the state of model a good governinent, to bury affairs in foreign lands, are very difpast animosities in oblivion, to gua ferently circumstanced.' To them the rantee the payment of the debts con- ultra-royalist system must appear an tracted under the constitutional sys- insofferable burden, and the recoil of tem, and to ensure to all officers, civil opinion is but too likely wholly to reand military, their rank, pay, and publicanise their already democratical honours. The king professes, indeed, ideas. These classes must continue, that whatever he did under the late secretly or avowedly, enemies to the system was by duress and constraint; restored order of government, the but what can be thought of the prin- early measures of which seem most ciples of a man who can be tbus in- impoliticly calculated to induce them duced to consult a temporary conve- to coinbine in opposing it. Nor are nience by the expedient of issuing all their resources, even of a milisolemn declarations, and uttering, in tary kind, wholly destroyed. Mina the sight of God, the most sacred remains entrenched in Catalonia; engagements, which he is ready, as Lopez Banos, who has never subsoon as the tide turns, to disclaim and mitted, has still an army in Estrerecant? Yet, amidst all this, the new madura ; and the harshness of the edicts and proclamations are couched king is driving Morillo and his other in the inost disgusting style of reli- new friends into the arms of their gious bypocrisy; and one of the most former connexions. joyful occurrences of the revolution is, On reviewing the whole of the cirit seems that his majesty has regained cumstances of the war, we do not alhis faithful father-confessor, who, we together attribute to the mass of the conclude, will absolve him from these Spanish Nation so great a degree of and all other sins; and the splendid moral blame as their supine conduct mummeries of Popery are to be em- would, at first sight, seem to deserve. ployed to perform a lustration for the For, tú say nothing of the actual faultikingdom. We sicken while we reflect less of the late Constitution, it doubt how strongly circumstances such as less appeared, in their eyes, identified these prejudice the minds of the iy- with ideas of anarchy in government and atheism in religion. The priest- condition of the public finances. The lood, almost to a man, were hostile to Dutch, with their usual commercial it; and the increasing infidel party, wisdom, have decided on the national almost to a man, were in favour of it. policy of buying their corn where they The mass of the agricultural popula- can procure it best and most cheaply. tion, and the more bigoted of the SWITZERLAND.—The Council of Gelower orders in the towns, could not neva have established a censorship of disunite this unhappy association, of the press, nominally for one year. But which such powerful use has been when did such a measure, unless from made by the ultra-royalists. Long, extraneous force, determine its own we fear, will it be before the Spaniards existence at the expiration of its first and some other of our continental appointed period ? It is with pain neighbours, shall learn to understand that we witness the cautious lines of the true Christian character of liberty, circumvallation which the continental connected neither with licentiousness powers are gradually drawing more in matters of temporal import, nor closely around that bulwark of freewith latitudinarian principles in the dum, the Press. Must Switzerland concerns of religion. Let us, at least, also submit to the fate of Naples and who are placed by a gracious Pro- of Spain? vidence under more favourable cir. Demerara.-.We deeply lament to 'cumstances, learn to profit by their say, that the newspapers have of late monitory example !

been filled with accounts of an insurFRANCE.-A partial change has taken rection among the slaves on some place in the French ministry. The plantations in the Mahaica district of duc de Belluno (Victor), one of Bona- this colony; which happily, however, parte's generals, has been removed was speedily suppressed. The adfrom the war department, and ap. vices wbich have been laid before the pointed ambassador at Vienna; and public are not official; and they bear his post is to be filled by the count de the most decisive appearances of exagDamas, a young ultra-royalist officer. geration, originating either in fear or The causes of this removal have fur- worse causes. As for the statement nished ample materials for conjecture, that the slaves were instigated to inbut are not known to the public. The surrection by what had passed in the ultra party congratulale themselves British Parliament, on the subject of upon the change, and produce it as a mitigating the severity of their condiproof of their increasing preponde- tion, we not only conceive it lo be unrance. The affairs of government true in point of fact, but we believe it are completely in their hands.-ireat to be contrary to the principles which public rejoicings have taken place in usually influence human conduct. Had Paris on the result of the events in the West Indians, however, limited Spain; but, shackled as is the French their statements to this single point, press, enough is still suffered to tran they might have gained credit with spire to shew that these rejoicings are many persons who are necessarily too mot universal, notwithstanding that little acquainted with the extent of feeling of vanity with which Freuch- information among the slaves in Demen inust naturally regard the mili- merara, not 10 perceive the improtary successes of their country.

bability of their becoming so soon acTHE NETHERLANDS. The kingdom quainted with what was passing on of the Netherlands presents a far more this side of the Atlantic. * But they peaceful and hopeful scene. Enjoying, have gone farther : they have not like ourselves, the blessings of a lie even hesitated to assert that the mited hereditary monarchy, and the insurrection was actually planned in Tights of freedoin and national repre- England, and that the Missionaries in sentation secured to it by the Consti- the colony were the agents and sotution of 1814, it continues to advancementers of it; assertions so palpably in public security and prosperity. The absurd as to carry their own refutaking has just opened the two cham- tion along with them. It is not a little bers with a speech, congratulating remarkable that the Guvernor of the them on the friendly fouting main- colony, though himself a planter, was tained with foreign states; the in- so far from conceiving that the inten, creasing bappiness of the people; the tion which had been expressed by the progress of education both among the Government at home to alleviate the rich and the poor; the flourishing rigours of slavery was likely to bave state of the fine arts; the blessings of produced the disaffection, that, in his a bountiful harvest; and the hopeful proclamation, he brings it forward,

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