Occurrence of Manganese in Drinking Water and Manganese Control

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American Water Works Association, 2006 - 184 Seiten
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Manganese in drinking water is an aesthetic problem, characterized by so-called black water, laundry spotting, and similar issues. The control of manganese in a water distribution system relates more to reducing consumer complaints than to protecting health. However, consumers often judge drinking water based on its appearance, odor, and color at the tap even if it is safe to consume. The control of manganese is complicated by its complex chemistry. The objective of this project was first to evaluate the occurrence, chemistry, and treatment methods associated with manganese (Mn) in ground and surface waters. Building upon these findings, a further goal was to study problems associated with manganese in water distribution systems and measure Mn in specific distribution systems. Another objective was to estimate achievable, cost-effective target levels for manganese below the current drinking water advisory standard of 0.05 mg/L. - taken from executive summary.
 

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Inhalt

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1
Highlights of This Reports Organization
2
BRIEF BACKGROUND ON MANGANESE IN DRINKING WATER Overview of Manganese Chemistry and Treatment
3
The Problem with Manganese
4
OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH TASKS
5
Detailed Surveys
6
Distribution System Occurrence Sampling
7
PilotScale Research
8
References for the Cost Model
66
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
67
Demographics of Utilities Participating in Initial Survey Geographic Distribution
68
SelfReported Mn Concentrations
71
Utility Responses to Other Questions in Initial Surveys
75
DETAILED SURVEYS
77
Demographics of Utilities Participating in Detailed Surveys
78
SelfReported Water Quality and Mn Concentration Data
80

Cost Analysis
9
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
11
REDUCTION IN DRINKING WATER QUALITY
12
Regulation of Mn in Drinking Water
13
NonDrinkingWater Regulation of Mn
14
HEALTH EFFECTS
16
Acute SubChronic and Chronic Toxicity
17
Central Nervous System Toxicity
18
Epidemiological Studies
19
CHEMISTRY
20
Biochemical Phenomena
23
Speciation
24
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
26
TREATMENT AND REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY
28
In Situ Treatment
29
Biological Treatment
31
Chemical Oxidation Followed by Physical Separation
33
OxideCoated Media
40
Physical Separation
43
Ion Exchange
46
Miscellaneous Issues Regarding Treatment Technologies
47
CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND MATERIALS
49
Initial Survey Instrument
51
Analysis of Initial Survey Data
52
Purpose of Sampling
53
Sampling Methodology
54
General WQ Parameters Sampling and Analysis
55
Metals Analysis
57
Comments on Handling of NonDetect ND Data Values aka the Playbook
58
PILOTSCALE RESEARCH FOR MANGANESE CONTROL Purpose of Pilot Testing
59
Pilot Plant Description and Standard Operating Procedures
60
COMPARISON OF ANTHRACITE AND GAC FILTERS FOR MANGANESE REMOVAL IN A FULLSCALE WTP
62
COST MODEL
63
Utility Costs
65
Customer Complaint Tracking and Assessment
92
Overall Findings
93
Introduction
94
Distribution System Seasonal Sampling Results
95
Distribution System Seasonal Sampling Correlation Analysis
106
PILOTSCALE RESEARCH FOR MANGANESE CONTROL
118
IOCME Mn Control
119
The Ability of an OCM Filter IOCME to Control Mn after Loss of Chlorine
123
Mn Migration in an OCM Filter Media
135
Using Percent Removal to Analyze Case Study I Data
136
Control of Oxidized Mn via Ozone with pH
137
EH as Predictive Tool for Reduction of Mn
138
COST MODEL
142
Significance of Benefit Relative to Manganese Concentration
143
INTRODUCTION
151
DETAILED SURVEY
152
SEASONAL OCCURRENCE SAMPLING
153
CASE STUDY I
154
COST MODEL
155
OPERATIONAL Treat Mn at the Source
157
Induced Oxide Coated Media Effect
158
Water Quality Goal
159
MDL or RL
160
REFERENCES
163
ABBREVIATIONS
179
APPENDIX A INITIAL AND DETAILED SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
185
PROTOCOL FOR SEASONAL DISTRUTION SYSTEM TESTING CASE STUDY I AND CASE STUDY II
195
APPENDIX C DETAILED SURVEY DATA
221
APPENDIX D DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SEASONAL TESTING DATA
227
APPENDIX E CASE STUDY I DATA
391
2006 AwwaRF All Rights Reserved
415
APPENDIX G COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS MODELS
425
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