of the wall in which they are placed, and a distinct charge must be made for window heads, sills, quoins, &c. = A rod of brickwork of standard thickness contains about 305 cubic feet, and 4,500 bricks, making due allowance for mortar joints, &c. Assuming the cost of bricks at the kiln to be 36s. per thousand, the cost of bricks per rod will be 36s. × 43 = £8 28. The cost for building a rod of brickwork may be taken at 36s. The cost of cartage and mortar varies with the locality of the building, this may be taken to average about 20s. per rod. These items being collected, there results— £ 8. d. NOTE. The student must, of course, make his estimation according to the locality of the building, this being only a specimen of the method adopted by intelligent architects and builders. EXAMPLES. 1. How many rods of standard brickwork are in a wall whose length or compass is 57 feet 3 inches, and height 24 feet 6 inches; the walls being 2 bricks, or 5 half bricks thick? 2. A triangular gable is raised 174 feet high, on an end wall whose length is 24 feet 9 inches, the thickness being 2 bricks; required the reduced content in square yards. Ans. 32°084 yds. 3 The end wall of a house is 28 feet 10 inches long, and 55 feet 8 inches high to the eaves, 20 feet high is 2 bricks thick, other 20 feet high is 2 bricks thick, and the remaining 15 feet 8 inches is 1 brick thick, above which is a triangular gable of 1 brick thick, which rises 42 courses of bricks, of which every four courses make a foot. What is the whole content, and cost 248·018 yards, or 8·199 rods. at £12 per rod? Cost £98 78. 9d. Ans. MASONS' WORK. To masonry belongs all sorts of stone work; and the measure made use of is a square foot or square yard. Walls, columns, blocks of stone or marble, &c., are measured by the cubic foot, and pavements, slabs, chimney-pieces, &c., by the superficial or square foot. Cubic or solid measure is used for the materials, and square measure for the workmanship. In the solid measure, the true length, breadth, and thickness, are taken, and multiplied continually together. In the superficial, there must be taken the length and breadth of every part of the projection, which is seen without the general upright face of the building. The cost of stones for walling varies with the locality, as already noticed in bricklayers' work. A square yard of rubble walling 2 feet thick weighs 1 tons, and assuming the cost of rubble stones at the quarry to be 6d. per ton, the cost of cartage 1s. per ton, the cost of mortar 4d., and that of labour 18. 8d. per square yard, we shall have the following Estimate for a square yard of rubble walling 2 feet in thickness. d. 7 = 18. × 1 = 1 3 Total cost per square yard. = 1 8 = 0 4 3 10 = 0 4 == 4 3 An additional charge must be made for quoins, window heads and sills, when used in houses constructed of rubble work: also, when the fronts of houses are constructed entirely with Ashler work, a separate estimate must be made for it. Ashlers usually average 9 inches in the bed, this width must, therefore, be deducted from whole width of the wall, and the remainder estimated as rubble work, to which the additional cost at the quarry, and of hewing the ashler, must be added. EXAMPLES. 1. Required the square yards and cost of a rubble wall of the specified thickness, the length of which is 53 feet 6 inches, and the height 12 feet 3 inches, at 4s. 3d. per square yard. 53.5 × 12.259 72.82 square yards, and 72.82 x 48. 3d. = £15 98. 5 d. cost. 2. Required the value of a marble slab, at 88. per foot; the length being 5 feet 7 inches, and breadth 1 foot 10 inches. Ans. £4 18. 10d. 3. In a chimney piece, suppose the length of the mantel and slab, each. 4 ft. 6 in. CARPENTERS' AND JOINERS' WORK. To this branch belongs all the wood-work of a house, such as flooring, partitioning, roofing, &c. The large and plain parts are usually measured by the square of 100 feet; but enriched mouldings, and some other articles, are often estimated by running or lineal measure, and some things are rated by the piece. Joists are measured by, multiply the depth, breadth, and length all together, for the content of one joist; multiply that by the number of the joists. Note, that the length of the joists will exceed the breadth of the room by the thickness of the wall and rd of the same, because each end is let into the wall about 3rd of its thickness. Partitions are measured from wall to wall for one dimension, and from floor to floor, as far as they extend, for the other; then multiply the length by the height. In measuring joiners' work, the string is made to ply close to every part of the work over which it passes. In roofing, the length of the rafters is equal to the length of a string stretched from the ridge down the rafter, and along the eaves-board, till it meets with the top of the wall. This length multiplied by the common depth and breadth of the rafters, gives the content of one, and that multiplied by the number of them, gives the content of all the rafters. King post roofs, &c., all the timbers in a roof are measured in the same manner as the joists, &c., in flooring. In the annexed figure, representing a truss for a roof, all the beams, as the tie-beam, kingpost, braces, &c., are measured to their full lengths, breadths, and thicknesses, in cluding the lengths of tenons; also the parts cut out on each side of the king-post, to form abutments for the braces, are included; unless their lengths exceed 2 feet each by 3 inches breadth, when their solidities must be deducted, pieces of smaller size, being considered of little or no value, are, therefore, included in the measurement. For stair-cases, take the breadth of all the steps, by making a line ply close over them, from the top to the bottom; and multiply the length of this line by the length of a step for the whole area. By the length of a step, is meant the length of the front and the returns at the two ends; and by the breadth, is to be understood the girt of its two outer surfaces, or the tread and rise. For the balustrade, take the whole length of the upper part of the hand-rail, and girt over its end till it meet the top of the newel post, for one dimension; and twice the length of the baluster upon the landing, with the girt of the hand-rail, for the other dimension. For wainscoting, take compass of the room for one dimension; and the height from the floor to the ceiling, making the string ply close into all the mouldings, for the other dimension. -Out of this must be made deductions, for windows, doors, and chimneys, &c. For doors, it is usual to allow for their thickness, by adding it into both the dimensions of length, and breadth, and then multiply them together for the area. If the door be pannelled on both sides, take double its measure for the workmanship: but if one side only be pannelled, take the area and its half for the workmanship.-For the surrounding architrave, girt it about the outermost part for one dimension, and measure over it as far as it can be seen when the door is open, for the other. Window-shutters, bases, &c., are measured in the same manner. EXAMPLES. 1. Required the content of a floor 48 feet 6 inches long, and 24 feet 3 inches broad. 1176 125 feet 11.76125 squares 1176 1 6 Ans. 11.76 1 6 2. A floor being 36 feet 3 inches long, and 16 feet 6 inches Ans. 18.3972 squares. 4. What cost the roofing of a house at 10s. 6d. a square; the length, within the walls, being 52 feet 8 inches, and the breadth 30 feet 6 inches: reckoning the roof of the flat? Ans. £12 128. 11åd. 5. To how much, at 68. per square yard, amounts the wainscoting, of a room; the height, taking in the cornice and mouldings being 12 feet 6 inches, and the whole compass 83. feet 8 inches; also the three window shutters are each 7 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 6 inches, and the door 7 feet by 3 feet 6 inches; the door and shutters, being worked on both sides, are reckoned work and half work? Ans. £36 12s. 2 d. 6. In a naked floor there are 2 girders, each 20 feet long, and 1 foot 2 inches by 1 foot; there are 16 bridging joists, each 20 feet long, and 6 inches by 3; 16 binding joists, each 9 feet in length, and 8 inches by 4: 48 ceiling joists, each 6 feet long, and 4 inches by 2: required the content in cubic feet. Ans. 144 cubic feet. |