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tingham.-- Battle of Edgehill.- Affair at Brentford.-Treaty at
Oxford.- Arrival of the Queen.--Waller's Plot.-Battles of
Lansdown and Roundway.down.-Death and Character of
Hampden.-Surrender of Bristol.-Siege of Gloucester.- Bat.
tle of Newbury.-Ill conduct of the King.--Cessation with the
Irish Rebels. -Death and Character of Pym.--Oxford Parlia-
ment.- Progress of the War.-Battle of Cropredy Bridge.-
Battle of Marston Moor

Page 289







Accession of Elizabeth; her Coronation.-The Reformation es.

tablished.-Foreign Affairs.- Affairs of Scotland. Return of Mary to Scotland.- Relative Situation of Elizabeth and Mary.

-Suiters to the British Queens.-Mary and Darley ; their Marriage.-Flight of Murray and his Friends.

ELIZABETH was proclaimed immediately after the death of her sister. Bonfires and illuminations testified the joy of the people, and their hopes of happier days. A deputation of the council repaired the next day to Hatfield, to convey to the new queen the tidings of her accession. She fell on her knees and said, “ This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes.” Acting under the advice of Sir William Cecil, who had long been in communication with her, she declared her intention of continuing most of the late queen's counsellors in their offices.f The necessary regulations were forthwith made respecting public affairs, and on the 23d the queen set out for London.

* Authorities : Camden and the Chroniclers ; Burnet, Strype, &c. † Those whom she retained (who of course were Catholics)

She was met at Highgate by the bishops; to all of whom, except Bonner, she gave a gracious reception. She remained that night at the Charter House, the residence of Lord North, and proceeded the next day (November 25th) to the Tower. The thoughts of the change in her condition since she entered that royal fortress a prisoner, awoke her religious feelings, and she fell on her knees and returned thanks to God.

One of the earliest measures was to send information to foreign princes of the death of the late and the accession of the present queen. Lord Cobham was appointed to convey the tidings to King Philip, expressing at the same time the queen's gratitude for the friendship he had shown her during the late reign. Philip, in return, through his ambassador, the Duke of Feria, offered his hand to Elizabeth, assuring her that he would obtain the requisite dispensation from Rome. But every motive, both public and private, operated in the queen's mind against this match. The nation was so adverse to the Spanish connexion, that, by continuing it, she would forfeit her popularity; and as Philip and she were related in the same degree as her father and Catharine of Aragon had been, such an alliance would be, in effect, ackowledging that her mother's marriage was not valid, and that her own birth was not legitimate. She therefore declined the proposed union in the most civil terms.

Her accession was also notified at Rome; but the passionate old man then pope indignantly replied, that, as England was a fief of the Holy See, it was great presumption in her to assume the title and authority of queen; and that, being illegitimate, she could not inherit; furthermore, if, however, she would renounce all title to the crown and submit entirely to his will, she should be treated with all the lenity consistent were Archbishop Heath, chancellor ; Marquis Winchester, treas. urer; Earls Arundel, Shrewsbury, Derby, Pembroke; Lords Clinton and Howard of Effingham; Sirs T. Cheyney, 'W. Petre, J. Mason, Rich, Sackville ; and Dr. Boxall. To these she added the following Protestants : Marquis Northampton, Earl Bedford; Sirs T. Parry, E. Rogers, A. Cave, F. Knolles, w. Cecil, N. Bacon.

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