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the great body of the clergy took the oath without hesitation. No fires were kindled for the recusants : they remained at full liberty, till, in the following winter, they began to attack the Reformation openly. For this several of them were committed to prison. Bonner was confined in the Marshalsea, where he remained for the rest of his life, indulging to the last in the pleasures of the table, to which he was passionately addicted.* Tunstall passed the short remnant of his days at Lambeth, where he met with every attention; the same palace was the domicil of Thirlby; Bourne was sent to reside with the Dean of Exeter; and Heath spent the remainder of his life on his estate at Cobham, in Surrey, where the queen often visited him. Some died and others went abroad. The places of the deprived prelates were supplied by the most eminent Protestant divines. Dr. Matthew Parker, a man of great learning and piety, who had been chaplain to the queen's mother, was selected for the see of Canterbury, and was consecrated on the 17th of December by four of the bishops who had been deprived in the late reign.

Having thus brought the domestic affairs of the country to the close of the first year of Elizabeth's reign, we will now turn our attention to its foreign relations.

The late queen had left to her successor the legacy of a war with both France and Scotland: but negotiations for a general peace had been commenced at Cercamp, and were now continued at Chateau-Cambresis. The differences between the kings of France and Spain were easily arranged: but Philip, as in honour bound, insisted on the restitution of Calais to his English ally. To this the French cabinet was by no

* It is stated that the queen, at her first audience, courteously received all the bishops except Bonner, and from him she turned away with an expression of the strongest aversion. So great was the general indignation against this bloodstained prelate, that, on his death in 1569, as related by Grindal, it was thought necessary that his remains should be secretly interred by night, to preserve them from the violence of the people.- Am. Ed.

1559.]

A GENERAL PEACE.

15

means disposed to assent; and Philip's zeal cooled when he found he had no longer any prospect of the queen's hand. He, however, offered to continue the war on account of it, provided she would engage not to make peace for six years. But, to the prudence of Elizabeth and her ministers, the possession of Calais, even if it could be recovered, seemed so inadequate to the cost likely to be incurred, that they rejected the proposal, and the English envoys were directed to make peace on any reasonable terms. It was therefore agreed that the French king should retain Calais for eight years; and that, if he did not then restore it, he should pay 500,000 crowns, and the queen's title should remain : but that if, during that time, Elizabeth made war on France or Scotland, she should forfeit Calais, which, on the other hand, Henry should give up immediately if he were the first to break the peace. It was plain that this was only a decent pretext for abandoning Calais ; and the judicious saw in it grounds for admiring the queen's good sense and prudence. A general peace was thus, on the 2d of April, concluded; and Philip, giving up all thoughts of the Queen of England, married the French king's daughter Elizabeth, who had been betrothed to his son Don Carlos.

A difference, however, of no small moment still existed between Elizabeth and the King of France. Following the unnatural practice then so common,* he had caused the dauphin and the Queen of Scotland to be married in 1558, though the prince had not then passed his fifteenth year; and, on the death of Mary, he made them assume the arms of England : for, according to the papal edict, Elizabeth was illegitimate, and the Queen of Scots was consequently the next heir on the hereditary principle. When Elizabeth's ambassadors complained, it was replied that Elizabeth styled herself Queen of France; and that the Scottish queen, as being of the blood-royal of England, had a

* Mrs. Hutchinson (Life of Colonel Hutchinson, p. 26, 4to edit.) relates of one of the Byron family, that he was married so young, that," when the first child was born, the father, mother, and child could not make one-and-thirty years old.”

right to bear its arms. But this was all mere evasion. The quartering of the arms of France with those of England was no new device of Elizabeth's, and, at most, it could only be regarded as a piece of national vanity: whereas the act of the dauphin and queen, as it had not been done in Mary's reign, evidently showed an intention of disputing the throne of England with Elizabeth.* The settlement of this point, however, was reserved, and the young royal pair signed, as parties, the peace of Chateau-Cambresis.

Elizabeth was fully aware that it was the secret intention of the court of France to endeavour to make good the claim of Mary of Scotland to the crown of England. She knew that application had been made at Rome to have her, Elizabeth, excommunicated, which had been prevented only by the influence of King Philip; and as it was believed that her own Catholic subjects would aid her rival, policy suggested the expediency of forming a connexion with Mary's Protestant subjects. Hence arose the great interest taken by the court of England in the internal affairs of Scotland. It is necessary, therefore, to enter somewhat minutely into the history of that country at the present juncture.

The moderate temper of the Queen-regent of Scotland made her indisposed to persecution. The Reformed doctrines, therefore, gradually advanced ; and

* The Scottish queen and her husband even went so far as to assume the title of King and Queen of England in their public documents, according to Robinson; and had the arms of that kingdom engraved on their coin and plate, and constantly bore them, as though they had an undoubted right so to do. Under their armorial bearings were four lines in French, which Strype, in his “Annals of Queen Elizabeth,” has translated into the following doggerel verse.

“The arins of Mary, Queen-dauphiness of France,

The noblest lady in earth for till advance,
of Scotland queen and of England, also

Of France, as God hath providet it so.”
See Robertson's History of Scotland, p. 73, Harpers' edition.-
Am. Ed.

1559.]

REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND.

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many of those who had fled from the tyranny of the late fanatic Queen of England, found a refuge in the northern kingdom. There is a sternness in the Scottish character unknown to the English, and nowhere is this more strikingly manifested than in the different course taken by the Reformation in the two countries. In England it was conducted with great moderation, merely cutting off superfluities, and abolishing unscriptural rites and practices; in Scotland it was carried on in a very different spirit; and, while the English Protestants only sought toleration from their bigoted queen, their Scottish brethren would be content with nothing short of the utter subversion of the old religion. On the 3d of December, 1557, their leaders, the earls of Argyle, Morton, and Glencairn, and other nobles, met at Edinburgh and entered into a private association, styled the Congregation of the Lord, binding themselves to struggle to the utmost against “ Satan in his members, the antichrist of their time." This convention remained for some time a secret. In the mean while, the primate Hamilton seized a priest named Mill, and had him tried and condemned for heresy at St. Andrew's : but it was with difficulty a civil judge could be got to pronounce sentence on him ; on the day of the execution the shops were all shut ; no one would sell a rope to tie him to the stake, and the primate was finally obliged to furnish one himself. Mill died with constancy; the people raised a pile of stones on the spot in commemoration of him, which the clergy caused to be removed; but still the pile was rebuilt. Soon after, when the image of St. Giles, the patron int of Edinburgh, was carried in procession, the people, as soon as the queen-regent withdrew, fell on and drove off the priests, seized the image, threw it in the mire, and broke it in pieces.

The lords of the Congregation, imboldened by these decided indications of the popular feeling, and by the tidings of the death of Mary and the accession of Elizabeth, ventured to petition the regent for the reformation of the church, and of the “ scandalous lives" of the prelates and clergy. The regent temporized

till she had obtained the matrimonial crown for the dauphin, and might then have conceded some of their demands, had she not received directions from her brothers, the Guises (who now controlled everything at the court of France), to check the new opinions. As usual, she submitted implicitly to their will ; and the principal Reformed teachers were cited before the council at Stirling. Such numbers of their followers came to protect them that she feared an insurrection : but on a promise, it is said, that no harm should befall their ministers, they dispersed. Sentence, however, was passed against them as rebels on their disappearance,* and the enraged people now resolved on opposing the regent and the Romish clergy with

While matters were in this state, the celebrated John Knox returned to Scotland. Knox, a man of stern, unbending nature, actuated by principle alone, far above all sordid, selfish considerations, but tinctured with the illiberal spirit of the times, and not deeply learned, had adopted, in their full extent, the principles of Calvin, the apostle of Geneva. Gospel truth (as embraced in these principles) he held to be paramount to every other consideration, and that all the laws of society should yield before it. Hence he was found to vindicate even the murder of Cardinal Beaton.t This daring man, on the 11th of May, ascended the pulpit at Perth, and poured forth a torrent of declamation against the tenets and practices of the church of Rome. When he had concluded, a priest

arms.

* This was in accordance with a detestable principle too often acted on by despotic rulers, and which this princess had the im. prudent boldness afterward to avow, that“ the promises of princes should not be too carefully remembered, nor the performance of them exacted, unless it suits their own convenience."- Am. Ed.

+ This individual had been surprised and slain by a party of sixteen men, headed by Norman Lesly, son of the Earl of Rothes, in his own castle of St. Andrew's. Lesly was instigated to the commission of this deed by private revenge for personal injuries received from the cardinal; though doubtless the passions both of himself and followers had been much excited by the religious phrensy of the times.-Am. Ed.

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