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Coronation Gulf Island. Islands of the Coppermine region invariably present a vertical cliff on the southern side and slope to the water's level at the north


Ivarluk with the frame of his kayak. Much of this country gives an impression of measureless expanse of snow

Mud cliff along the ("oppermine River, one half mile south of Bloody Fall. The summer of 1910 spent in the Coppermine region brought great discomfort because of mosquitoes. The dogs' feet were protected from becoming sore from the stings by boots of caribou skin — when the dogs could be persuaded not to eat them off



even Franklin's whole complement of men would be, if amalgamated with the entire body of Victoria Land Eskimo, insufficient to produce the markedly European type actually found to-day. The validity of this objection can be judged only after we have a complete census of the island and know how far the new type is present in some localities above others.

In regard to the possibility of Franklin's men having survived for a time, there is the interesting contributory evidence that there are at various places people said to be “named with the names of white men.” One name in particular we have found in practically every community: “ Sěrk.” This is, at Herschel and farther west, the Eskimo pronunciation of the English "Ned.”


Eastward from Cape Lyon open water was continually seen from three to ten miles off shore till we reached Inman's River, when the edge of the flow made off diagonally toward Prince Albert Sound, Victoria Land. There were heavy pressureridges close inshore. In my opinion, if a sled journey were attempted from Cape Parry to Nelson Head, Banks Land, as has been proposed, it could be more safely and easily accomplished (and probably more quickly as well) by crossing the strait east of Inman's River rather than by going directly across between the mentioned headlands. East of Point Wise the ice of Dolphin and I'nion Strait is always comparatively level and on it the Eskimo of the strait have their winter houses.

Although this is the first time the coast of the strait has been traversed in winter, it has been four times skirted by water – by Dr. Richardson in the twenties and again in the forties and Captain Collinson in the fifties of the last century and by Amundsen in 1905. Amundsen saw little of the land, of course. Dr. Richardson's geological notes of the coast, on the other hand, are full and beyond addition by me at present.

The prevailing winds in the strait and Coronation Gulf in winter, as clearly shown by the snowdrifts are northwest. For this reason there is plenty of driftwood along the mainland coast cast beyond Cape Bexley but none on the Victoria Land coast.

Entering the Coppermine, we found the first spruce shrubs a mile north of Bloody Fall. The fall itself, by the way, is no fall at all, but a rapid about six hundred yards long that reminded me somewhat of the Whitehorse Cañon of the Yukon. From the appearance of trees, the tree-line is within four miles east of the river till one passes the Musk Ox rapids; here a stream (about the size of Kendall River) enters from the east, and up this are trees for about ten miles. Of this river I made a compass survey some fifteen miles up. Eskimo camp sites east of the Coppermine and north of this small river are on practically every hilltop, “buttes" they would be called in the American Southwest. Vumerous ponds and some creeks and rivers abound in Arctic trout; there are no geese, cranes or swans, few ducks and few birds of any kind as compared with other Arctic districts I know; caribou are in some number.

Dismal Lake I found to be about as charted by Hanbury and not as on previous maps. The eastern branch of the Dease River has its source in a small creek that heads about eight miles SW. (true) from the narrows of Dismal Lake (lat. 67° 24'). This creek runs SW. some seven miles into a lake called by the Eskimo“ I-ma-ěr'-nyrk”. The lake is some four by seven miles, its long axis SW-NE. Of this and the

Quotations from a letter to Director R. W. Brock, Geological Survey, Canada.

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Upper Dease and the portage route from Dismal Lake to Imaernirk I have made a survey.

I have obtained specimens of what I think is rich iron ore from Victoria Land north of Cape Bexley. Copper is picked up almost anywhere by the natives in the whole Coronation Gulf district, each family having its favorite place to search for material for knives and arrows. The spot most in repute however is a short distance north of Dismal Lake. I have several of these copper specimens.

After spending several months on the lower Horton River and a like period on the Coppermine, I am of the opinion that Horton River is fully as large a stream. Mr. Stefánsson made a compass survey in December, 1910, of Horton River from the point nearest Langton Bay to within seventy miles of Bear Lake, taking also a collection of rock specimens.]

The expedition's opportunities for ethnological study in this region are thought to be better now than they are likely ever to be again; the expedition is well placed in regard to outfit and food supplies, while sophistication and changes in the material life of the Eskimo will progress rapidly, due to the trade relations which have been opened with the Bear Lake Indians during this summer of 1911. To the regret of Mr. Stefánsson, the expedition itself has helped to hasten the end of the isolation of the Eskimo. They came to trust him, a white man, also his Eskimo from the West, and learned from these Eskimo that Indians are a harmless people nowadays and besides have an abundance of iron and other articles valuable to possess. Therefore it is the desire of the expedition, notwithstanding the homesickness of the men, to remain in the field still another year because of their great opportunities for work.



White fox in trap; photograph taken at a distance of six feet. A white fox skin is worth about six dollars in the Arctics and seventy-five skins, the equivalent of four hundred and Afty dollars, is a large number to be taken in one year. The present shortage on the market in Russian white fox will cause rapid destruction of the species in Arctic America


By William K. Gregory


NE of the chief objects of the American Museum's department

of vertebrate palæontology is to let the public discover that

fossils are not necessarily dry and unprofitable, but on the contrary full of interest and meaning. Every legitimate resource of science and art is employed to clothe, as it were, the dry bones with flesh to picture the jolly ichthyosaur disporting once more in the waves, or the tyrannosaur harassing his sluggish foe.

Mr. Erwin S. Christman has recently made some very effective restorations, especially those of the primitive “elephants,” Maritherium and Palæomastodon. Under the direction of Professor Osborn and the writer, in conference with other members of the staff, he is now at work upon a series of full-size heads to illustrate the evolution of the titanotheres, distant relatives of the rhinoceroses, which ran through their


Titanot here skull and model of full-size head in process of preparation. The skull is first copied exactly in a clay model. Additional clay to represent the flesh is then added to the outside of the skull model. The photograph shows the right half of the model completed and the left half still revealing the clay skull which makes the foundation

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The mouth as represented here is probably too large. The angle of the mouth in herbivorous animals does not extend usually behind
the first grinding tooth

Mr. Erwin S. Christman, who has made for the Horse Alcove a series of models of living horses in full action, is now at work on a series
of full size heads to show the evolution of the titanotheres, extinct distant relatives of the rhinoceroses

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