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*Old and Middle Irish. Mr. Gerig.-Grammar and reading of texts. The course will begin with the reading of Middle Irish texts and close with the study of Old Irish. In order to simplify the work as far as possible, the instructor will at first translate the texts and refer the students to the grammar for each word discussed. The Indo-European cognates of Celtic will be studied as far as possible. Text-books: G. Dottin, Manuel d'Irlandais Moyen (2 vols.), Paris (1913); J. Strachan, Stories from the Táin, 2nd ed., Dublin (1928).

*Gothic. Mr. Sehrt.-The main purpose of this course is to lay a foundation for the scientific study of the Germanic languages. The laws of sound-change will be studied from the point of view both of general Indo-European and of general Germanic; the Gothic forms will be discussed with reference to their original form in primitive IndoEuropean and to the changes in the principal Germanic dialects. The main features of Germanic syntax will also be considered. Prerequisites: a reading knowledge of German and a fair acquaintance with Latin or Greek. Text-books: J. Wright, Grammar of the Gothic Language, Oxford (1924); W. Streitberg, Gotisches Elementarbuch, Heidelberg (1920).

*Old Norse. Mr. Sehrt.-An introductory course. Selected passages of prose and poetry will be studied with the view of acquainting the student with the methods employed in dealing with the literary monuments of a specific Germanic dialect. Text-books: E. V. Gordon, An Introduction to Old Norse, Oxford (1927); A. Hensler, Altisländisches Elementarbuch, Heidelberg (1913).

Old High German. Mr. Roedder.-GERMANISTIC SOCIETY LECTURESHIP COURSE. Particular emphasis will be placed on the problems of word-formation and syntax. A knowledge of Gothic or of Middle High German, while not indispensable, will be found very helpful. Text-books: W. Braune, Althochdeutsche Grammatik, 3rd and 4th ed., Halle (1925); W. Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, 8th ed., Halle (1921).

*German Etymology. Mr. Prokosch.-An analysis of German word structure and derivation, on a comparative and historical basis. Exercises in historical phonology. Text-books: At the preference of each student, either H. Hirt, Etymologie der Neuhochdeutschen Sprache, München (1909), or F. Kluge, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache, 8th ed., Strassburg (1915).

Old Saxon and Old Frisian. Mr. Prokosch.-F. W. LAFRENTZ LECTURESHIP COURSE. A comparative study of two Germanic languages that form the bridge between High German and English.

Text-books: F. Holthausen, Altsächsisches Elementarbuch, Heidelberg (1900); W. Steller, Abriss der Altfriesischen Gemeinsprache, Halle (1928); A. Heuser, Altfriesisches Lesebuch, Heidelberg (1916).

*Old English. Mr. Lotspeich.-An introductory course. An intensive study of grammar and of a small body of Old English prose and poetry, with the emphasis upon linguistic problems. Text-book: G. T. Flom, Old English Grammar and Reader, Boston (1930).

Middle English. Mr. Reuning.—A study of the phonological and morphological trends in the development of Middle English. A technical knowledge of either Old English or Gothic is a prerequisite. Textbook: E. M. Wright, An Elementary Middle English Grammar, London (1923).

History of the English Language. Mr. Lotspeich.-A study of the chief changes in sounds, inflections, and vocabulary, and of the relation of English to other Germanic and Indo-European languages. Students who have no acquaintance with Old English or one of the other Old Germanic languages, should, if convenient, study one of them along with this course. Text-book: O. F. Emerson, The History of the English Language, New York (1894).

American English. Mr. Kurath.-The chief types of cultivated pronunciation and their relation to local dialect. Phonetic notation of specimens of cultivated and popular speech. Geographic distribution and social stratification of words and idioms. Outline of plans for a systematic study of the spoken language of the United States and Canada. Text-books: G. P. Krapp, The English Language in America, New York (1925); J. S. Kenyon, American Pronunciation, Ann Arbor (1924); H. Kurath, American Pronunciation, tract XXX of The Society for Pure English, New York (1928).

Lithuanian. Mr. Senn. A comparative study of Lithuanian phonology and morphology, as an essential aspect of Indo-European grammar. Analysis of Lithuanian texts. Text-books: O. Wiedemann, Handbuch der Litauischen Sprache, Heidelberg, (1897); A. Senn, Litauische Sprachlehre, Heidelberg (1929).

Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian). Mr. Senn.-An introduction to the comparative grammar of the Slavic languages, in their relation to the other members of the Indo-European group. Text-book: A. Leskien, Handbuch der Altbulgarischen Sprache, Weimar (1905).

*Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages. Mr. Speiser.The course will deal with the principles of Semitic phonology and morphology. This will be followed by the reading of selections from the

various Semitic languages (in transcription). Acquaintance with at least one Semitic language is desirable. Text-books: C. Brockelmann, Kurze Vergleichende Grammatik der Semitischen Sprachen, Berlin (1908); G. Bergsträsser, Einführung in den Semitischen Sprachstamm, München (1928).

*Hebrew. Mr. Blake.-This course will comprise a systematic study of the main features of Hebrew grammar (script, diacritical marks, phonology, morphology, and syntax), accompanied by grammatical explanations (descriptive and historical) based on Hebrew texts, and supplemented by the systematic study of vocabulary and idiom. The main differences between Biblical and Post-Biblical or Mishnic Hebrew will also be indicated. Students will be trained in independent handling of grammatical and linguistic material. Text-books: (1) GeseniusKautsch, Hebräische Grammatik, 28th ed., Leipzig (1909), or earlier edition, English or German; (2) either Gesenius-Buhl, Handwörterbuch über das alte Testament, 17th ed., Leipzig (1921), or earlier edition; or Brown-Driver-Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, Oxford (1906); (3) any Hebrew text of Genesis.

*Arabic. Mr. Blake. This course will survey the whole field of classical Arabic grammar, and also call attention to the chief peculiarities of the modern Arabic dialects of Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and North Africa. Practice will be given in reading and writing Arabic, and the student will be furnished with a nucleus of essential words and idioms, both classical and modern. Opportunity will be offered for original observations and conclusions. Text-book: E. Harder, Arabische Konversations-Grammatik, 3d ed., Heidelberg (1921); or its English translation, G. W. Thatcher, Arabic Grammar of the Written Language, 3rd ed., Heidelberg (1927). Socin, Arabische Grammatik, 8th ed., by C. Brockelmann, Berlin (1918), or the English edition revised by W. H. Worrell, New York, or any earlier German or English edition, will also prove useful, tho it is not essential.

Sumerian. Mr. Speiser.-An understanding of Sumerian is essential to the study of all the languages using the cuneiform script, such as Akkadian, Hittite, Elamite, etc. Previous knowledge of the cuneiform signs is desirable but not essential. Text-books: C. J. Gadd, A Sumerian Reading-book, Oxford (1924); A Deimel, Sumerische Grammatik, Rome (1924); A. Poebel, Grundzüge der Sumerischen Grammatik, Rostock (1923).

Finnish. Mr. Olli.-This course will comprise: (1) a brief survey of the geographic distribution of the Finno-Ugrian languages, typical

characteristics of the entire family, Indo-European loans, and a discussion of possible affinities to Indo-European; (2) a detailed presentation of the so-called Baltic-Finnish languages, their phonology and morphology in particular, certain syntactical features, and Balto-Slavic and Germanic contacts in prehistoric times. No previous knowledge of any Finno-Ugrian language is required, but a general linguistic training is highly desirable. Text-books: J. Szinnyei, Finnisch- Ugrische Sprachwissenschaft, Leipzig (1910); J. Neuhaus, Kleine Finnische Sprachlehre, Heidelberg (1908).

Turkish. Mr. Reuning.-An elementary course in Ottoman Turkish, which will provide a foundation for a scientific study of Turkish grammar. Text-book: Hagopian, Ottoman-Turkish Conversation Grammar, Heidelberg (Groos, 1907).

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Publications of 1925, including Language I

and LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH No. 1....$5.00 Publications of 1926, including LANGUAGE II, LANGUAGE MONOGRAPHS Nos. 2 and 3, and BULLETIN No. 1....

Publications of 1927, including LANGUAGE


III and LANGUAGE DISSERTATION No. 1. $5.00 Publications of 1928, including LANGUAGE

IV, LANGUAGE DISSERTATIONS Nos. 2 and 3, and BULLETIN No. 2... ... ... $5.00 Publications of 1929, including LANGUAGE V, LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH No. 4, LANGUAGE DISSERTATIONS Nos. 4, 5, 6, and BULLETINS Nos. 3 and 4..


LANGUAGE, separate numbers, each........$1.50 LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH No. 1: ESPER,

Associative Interference...


LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH No. 2: KENT, Textual Criticism of Inscriptions......$1.50 LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH No. 3: WOOD, Postconsonantal W in Indo-European... .$1.50 LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH No. 4: SMALL, Germanic Case of Comparison.



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