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them on the history of the Greek Language. Reading of selected dialect inscriptions. A reading knowledge of Attic or Homeric Greek is presupposed. Required book: Buck, Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dialects, Boston (Ginn), revised edition.

The Language of the Homeric Poems. Mr. Bolling.-The course will consist partly of lectures and partly of a linguistic discussion of the twenty-fourth book of the Iliad in the manner of E. Hermann, Sprachwissenschaftlicher Kommentar zu ausgewählten Stücken aus Homer, Heidelberg, 1914. Special problems will be assigned for investigation to such students as desire them, and opportunity will be given for the presentation and criticism of the results attained. Students will be expected to be able to read the Homeric dialect, and also scientific German and French. Students should own a text of the poems, preferably Ludwich, Homeric Carmina, Leipzig, 1889-1907.

Oscan and Umbrian. Mr. Sturtevant.—The interpretation of the chief documents, with particular attention to the light which they throw on the history of Latin and of the other Indo-European languages. Prerequisites: some acquaintance with the method of linguistic science, and ability to read German works on grammar. Text-book: Buck, Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian, Boston (Ginn).

Latin Phonology and Morphology. Mr. Kent.-An introduction to the history of the Latin language, down to early imperial times, with especial attention to changes visible within Latin itself. Prerequisite: a good knowledge of the usual Latin forms, syntax, and vocabulary. Required books: E. H. Sturtevant, Pronunciation of Greek and Latin (University of Chicago Press), 1920; M. Niedermann, Outlines of Latin Phonetics, edited by Strong and Stewart, New York (Dutton), 1910.

Vulgar Latin. Mr. Müller.-An introduction to the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the post-classic documents. The development of the popular language will be studied in texts written in various parts of the Roman Empire. The prerequisites are a knowledge of Latin and a reading knowledge of German. Text-books: C. H. Grandgent, An Introduction to Vulgar Latin, Boston (Heath), 1907; W. Heraeus, Die Appendix Probi, 1899; W. Meyer-Lübke, Einführung in das Studium der Romanischen Sprachwissenschaft, dritte Auflage, Heidelberg (Winter), 1920; W. Heraeus, Silviae vel potius Aetheriae Peregrinatio ad Loca Sancta, zweite Auflage, Heidelberg (Winter), 1921; P. Taylor, The Latinity of the Liber Historiae Francorum, New York, Old French Phonology. Mr. Jenkins.-Latin origins of the Old French tonic vocalism, with practice on unpublished manuscript materials (Partonopeus de Blois). Prerequisite: a reading knowledge of Old French. Textbooks: Schwan-Behrens, Grammaire de l'ancien Français, Traduction française par Oscar Bloch, 3d éd., Leipzig, 1923; Hermann Suchier, Die Französische und Provenzalische Sparche, zweite Auflage, Strassburg (Karl J. Trübner), 1906. Desirable also for students is H. Suchier, Les Voyelles toniques du Vieux Français, Traduction de l'Allemand par Ch. Guerlin de Guer, Paris, 1906 (out of print), or the German original, Halle (Niemeyer), 1893.

Linguistic Geography of France. Mr. Müller.-A study of some of the works of Gilliéron, Roques, Gauchat, Jaberg, Jud, and others. Students should have a reading knowledge of French and German. Text-book: Jaberg-Jud, Der Sprachatlas als Forschungsinstrument, Halle (Niemeyer), 1928.

History of the French Language Since the Middle Ages. Mr. Richardson.-Study of the development from Old French through the transition and classical period into Modern French. Lectures and illustrative readings in texts of the various periods.

Old Spanish. Mr. Richardson.-Spanish historical grammar with readings from the Cid and Juan Ruiz. Required book: R. Menéndez Pidal, Manual Elemental de Gramática Histórica Española, fifth edition, Madrid, 1925.

Old Irish. Mr. Dunn.—This course will serve as an introduction to Celtic Philology. It will consist of an outline of the grammar of Old Irish, a study of some Ogham inscriptions and of selections from the glosses and from the earliest literary texts. If desired, e.g. by students of the Latin language, a few lessons will be devote to Gaulish. The course will be so arranged that a reading knowledge of French and German, while desirable, will not be necessary. Text-books: Pokorny, A Historical Reader of Old Irish (Niemeyer, Halle, 1923); Strachan, Old Irish Paradigms and Selections from the Old Irish Glosses (Hodges, Figgis and Co., Dublin, 1909); Strachan, Stories from the Táin (ibid., 1908).

Middle Irish. Mr. Dunn.—This course presupposes some knowledge of Old Irish, but, if need be, it will be shaped in accordance with the needs of beginners. It will consist of an outline of the grammar of Middle Irish, with references both to the older and to the more modern forms of the language, the interpretation of portions of the heroic saga and of ecclesiastical texts, and a palaeographic and linguistic study of a short text from a photograph of the manuscript. Text-books: Dottin, Manuel d' Irlandais Moyen (Champion, Paris, 1913); Bergin and Meyer, Anecdota from Irish Manuscripts, Vol. III (Dublin and Halle, 1910).

Comparative Germanic Grammar. Mr. Collitz.-Introduction and selected chapters. Comparative Germanic Grammar may be said to embrace two different lines of comparative studies. For it includes on the one hand a comparison with each other of the various Germanic languages-especially in their earliest accessible stages—with the aim of reconstructing the features of their common ancestor, i.e., the Primitive Germanic (Urgermanisch); and on the other hand a comparison of the Germanic with the cognate Indo-European languages, or—as we may put it-an attempt to ascertain the relation of Primitive Germanic to the Indo-European parent speech. While either line of comparison may be pursued independently, it is rather the combination of the two which has proved so profitable to Germanic Philology. The present course can hardly be expected to cover fully the whole field. However, it will include (1) a general survey of the languages constituting the Germanic group and the Indo-European family, together with a brief account of the comparative study of these languages, (2) a study in detail of selected topics, such as the Germanic Vocalism (including the theory of 'Ablaut' and 'Umlaut'), Grimm's and Verner's Laws, the so-called Strong and Weak Declension and Conjugation, etc. While students may find an acquaintance with languages like Sanskrit, Greek, Gothic, Anglo-Saxon or Old High German helpful, no special requirements will be made beyond a reading knowledge of one language (preferably German or Greek) in addition to Modern English and Latin. Owing to the unique position held among the Germanic languages by Gothic, Jos. Wright's Grammar of the Gothic Language (Oxford, Clarendon Press), a manual including sections on comparative grammar, will be used as a text-book.

Gothic. Mr. Roedder.—As Gothic is the oldest branch of Germanic languages, and as the chief Gothic monument, Wulfila's translation of the Bible, is preserved in unusual fullness and model accuracy, the language is suited for study not only for its own sake but as the logical introduction to Germanic philology in general. Students of Gothic should possess a knowledge of Latin, and at least some knowledge of German; a knowledge of Greek, while not indispensable, is very desirable, and some acquaintance with Old English is very helpful. Text-book: Wilhelm Braune's Gothic Grammar, either in the latest edition of the German original (Gotische Grammatik, mit Lesestücken und Wortrerzeichnis, Halle, Niemeyer, 1920), which may be obtained from A. Bruderhausen, 47 West 47th St., New York City, or the English translation by Gerhard Balg (A Gothic Grammar, with selections for reading and a glossary, Milwaukee, 1895; containing also very helpful notes), which may be obtained from Roland H. Balg, Mayville, Wisconsin, for $1.35 (plus postage).

Old Norse. Mr. Malone.-An introduction to the subject. Some knowledge of at least one other Old-Germanic dialect, preferably Gothic, is a prerequisite. E. V. Gordon's Introduction to Old Norse (Oxford) will be used as a text-book.

The Study of Dialects, and the Geography of the Dialects of Germany. Mr. Roedder.-While designed primarily for students of Germanic philology, this course would be found helpful also by students of Romance languages, as the principles underlying the study of living speech, exemplified by the dialects, over against the written form of the literary language, remain the same everywhere. Dialect research, long regarded as a by-way of linguistics and left to amateurish exploitation, is now acknowledged to be one of the highways, if not indeed the royal road, to the understanding of the living language, and presents problems too numerous to mention here. Students should obtain a copy of Hans Reis, Die deutschen Mundarten (Sammlung Goeschen 605), Berlin and Leipzig, 1920, and of Alfred Götze, Proben hoch- und

derdeutscher Mundarten, Bonn, 1922. A separate of an article on Linguistic Geography that appeared in The Germanic Review, vol. I, October, 1926, will be mailed to prospective registrants by the author on request (address E. C. Roedder, 83 Bascom Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin).

Historical Syntax of the German Language. Mr. Curme.—This course is not intended as a systematic outline of the history of German Syntax. Attention is directed chiefly to important characteristic features of present-day German, which are studied in the light of older conditions. Text-books: Braune, Althochdeutsche Grammatik, Halle, 1925; Paul, Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, Halle, 1919; Curme, Grammar of the German Language, New York, 1922.

Old English. Mr. Malone.-A systematic study of the phonology and morphology with reference to the development from Germanic and West Germanic, and to the changes which took place within the OldEnglish period and produced Middle English. Some knowledge of Old English is a prerequisite to the work. Knowledge of Gothic is also highly desirable.

Historical Syntax of the English Language. Mr. Curme.—This course is not intended as a systematic outline of the history of English syntax. Attention is directed chiefly to important characteristic features of present-day English, which are studied in the light of older conditions. Text-books: Wright, Elementary Old English Grammar, Oxford, 1923; Wright, Elementary Middle English Grammar, Oxford, 1923; Curme, College English Grammar, Johnson Publishing Co., Richmond, Va., 1925.

American Pronunciation. Mr. Kurath.-A study of the main types of cultivated American pronunciation and of some specimens of popular dialect. Analysis of the sounds and their geographic distribution. Accentuation. The recording of American speech in the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association, with the aid of phonograph and dictaphone. A method for the systematic investigation of American pronunciation. Historical connections of American pronunciation with British pronunciation. Text-books: J. S. Kenyon, American Pronunciation, Ann Arbor (Wahr), 1924; Daniel Jones, An Outline of English Phonetics, New York (Stechert), 1922.

Lithuanian and Church Slavonic. Mr. Prokosch.-An introduction to Balto-Slavic comparative grammar, based on the reading of Lithuanian and Church-Slavonic texts. Reading knowledge of German essential, acquaintance with Latin and Greek desirable. Text-books: Wiedemann, Handbuch der Litauischen Sprache, Strassburg, 1897; Leskien, Handbuch der Altbulgarischen Sprache, Weimar, 1905.

Hittite. Mr. Sturtevant.-An introduction intended primarily for students of Indo-European comparative grammar. After a brief consideration of the cuneiform writing as employed by the Hittites, and of the interpretation of the Hittite texts, attention will be devoted to problems of phonology, morphology, and syntax. The course will consist of two lectures a week, and as much reading on suggested topics as each member cares to do. Those who desire to master the cuneiform writing or to have practice in reading texts, will receive the required

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