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a modern author should be cited by his full name in the first reference but by his surname alone (never abbreviated) in later references.

(b) Avoid Roman numerals in citations; use Arabic numerals exclusively. To denote the numeral one use a small 1, not a capital I. If the numeral 1 occurs in a context where it might be mistaken for 1 (as in transliteration of cuneiform), identify it as the numeral in the margin.

(c) Do not write p. or pp. for page or pages, unless a misunderstanding is likely to result from the omission. Never use v. for volume or verse, or 1. for line; they may be mistaken for Roman numerals.

(d) Use a dot between numerals which together constitute one reference, a comma or a semicolon between numerals which constitute different references: Lang. 15.19, 146; 16.83 (vol. 15, pages 19 and 146; vol. 16, page 83). Note that in such citations the dot is not followed by a space.

(e) Unless otherwise specified, a single numeral in a citation refers to the page; two numerals separated by a dot refer to volume and page; three numerals separated by dots refer to volume, number or part, and page, or (of classical authors) to book, chapter, and section. If a single numeral refers to the volume instead of the page, write vol. (not v.) before it; if it refers to a numbered section or paragraph, set § before it.

(f) Avoid needless repetition of numerals. Write 172-5, 246-51, 1924-6 rather than 172-175, 246-251, 1924-1926 or 1924-26.

(g) Leave a space before f. and ff. (for one or more following pages): 43 f., 43 ff. But it is usually better to cite first and last pages (43-4, 43-52) and avoid the use of f. and ff.

(h) Do not use op.cit., id., or ibid. unless the previous citation immediately precedes this reference.

(i) Use a raised numeral after the title of a work to indicate the second or a later edition (cf. §8b).

8. Bibliography. (a) Except for the full citation of a work at the head of a review (§2c), a listing which refers to an entire book should contain the following items in this order: the author's name, with the surname last except in an alphabetized list; the title of the work, not italicized; the number of the edition, if it is not the first; the place and year of publication: Alfred Ernout and Antoine Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, 2d ed.; Paris, 1939.

(b) A listing which refers to a particular passage in a book should contain the following items in this order: the author's name; the title of the work, with the second or later edition indicated by a following raised numeral; a reference to the page(s) or to the volume and page(s), according to §7 above; in parentheses, the place and year of publication: Ferdinand Sommer, Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre2 239-43 (Heidelberg, 1914).

(c) A listing which refers to an article or to part of an article in a journal should contain the following items in this order: the author's name; the title of the article; the name of the journal with a reference to volume and page(s); 6 Cf. fn. 2.


in parentheses, the year of publication: Edward Sapir, The Status of Linguistics as a Science, Lang. 5.207-14 (1929). But a shorter form of reference may also be used, omitting the title of the article: E. Sapir, Lang. 5.207-14 (1929).

(d) For informal references, note the following models:

Verg. Aen. 2.37 [no comma after Verg. because of the dot].
Brugmann, Gdr.2 2.3.362-4 [comma after author's name].

9. Abbreviations. (a) Titles of well-known reference works and journals, and names of languages prefixed to cited linguistic forms, should be abbreviated according to established conventions (cf. §7a).

(b) If such an abbreviation ends in a capital letter, it should not be interrupted by dots or spaces and should not be followed by a dot: TAPA, BSL, REW, ZfDA or ZfdA, RhM, BOTU, etc.; IE (not I-E), PIH, OHG, ME, MnE, VL, G, W, etc.

(c) If the abbreviation ends in a small letter, it should be followed by a dot: Lang., Am. Sp., Mod. Phil., Et. Wb., Gdr., BoSt., etc.; Eng., Lat., Gk., Skt., PGmc., OIr., etc.

(d) For second, third, fourth write 2d, 3d, 4th (not 2., 3., 4.); for seventeenth century write 17th century.

(e) Abbreviate grammatical terms attached to linguistic forms: Lat. portăre inf. 1st sg. pres. ind. portō, 2d pl. portātis, 3d sg. impf. portābat, etc. But do not abbreviate such terms in other uses: the Latin imperfect in -bā-, etc. (f) Conventional abbreviations like op.cit., e.g., i.e. are to be set without a space between the two parts.

10. Punctuation. (a) In typing, leave one blank space after every mark of punctuation within the sentence (comma, semicolon, colon, dot after an abbreviation), two blank spaces after every mark of punctuation closing the sentence. Leave a blank space before the first and after the second of a pair of parentheses, brackets, or quotation marks.7

(b) Set a comma before the conjunction (and, or) which separates the last two in a series of three or more coordinate items: A, B, and C; X, Y, or Z. (c) Use no comma after the abbreviations e.g. and i.e.

(d) Use single quotation marks only, except that a quotation within a quotation is enclosed in double quotes. In general, use quotes only around a direct quotation and around the gloss that follows a cited form in a foreign language (§4d). Avoid the use of quotes to mark technical terms and the like, and never use them around the title of a book, journal, or article.

(e) Never use a single parenthesis, as 2), in numerations. Either enclose the numeral in parentheses, as (2), or place a dot after it.

(f) Square brackets are to be used for a parenthesis within a parenthesis, to enclose interpolations in a quotation, and to enclose phonetic transcription.

But the dot after an abbreviation may be followed by another mark of punctuation (except a second dot); and according to §7d no space follows the dot in a reference like

AJP 4.65.

(g) Do not set at the end of a line a hyphen which is to be printed; the compositor will drop the hyphen and join the two words in one. Instead, put the entire compound on the next line.

(h) A dash is typed as two hyphens, with no blank space before or after. (i) Ellipsis (omission in a quotation, illegible passage in a text, etc.) is indicated by three dots with a blank space before and after. If the ellipsis immediately precedes or follows a sentence-final dot, this is added as a fourth dot. (j) The colon standing as a linguistic symbol between related forms (as te: to, frāter brother) must always be typed with a blank space both before and after it. The same applies to the signs of derivation > and <.

11. Tables. (a) Tables must be so arranged that they will not be too wide to fit the printed page. No line, including blank spaces, may exceed 65 spaces on the typewriter.

(b) If two or more tables appear in an article or longer work, they should be numbered serially; and reference to any table should be by number. Do not refer to 'the foregoing' or 'the following table'; exigencies of composition often require tables to be moved from their original position in the typescript.

(c) If plates or line cuts are to be used, the author should ask for special instructions concerning their preparation.

12. Table of contents and index. (a) A monograph or dissertation should be divided into chapters, each with a carefully worded heading (§2a). These headings should be assembled verbatim as a Table of Contents.

(b) If the monograph or dissertation is to have an index, this should be typed in one column only on each sheet. The typed material may run across the sheet; the Editor will decide in how many columns per page it should be printed.




ANN ARBOR, JULY 26-7, 1940

The Linguistic Society of America held its Third Special Summer Meeting at Ann Arbor, Michigan, on Friday and Saturday, July 26-7, 1940, in conjunction with the session of the Linguistic Institute, on the campus of the University of Michigan.

The sessions were held in the Amphitheater on the third floor of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and in the Auditorium of the W. K. Kellogg Building. Those attending the meeting were invited to arrive somewhat in advance of the sessions, or to stay over after their end, in order to attend the classes and see the Linguistic Institute in operation, as well as to attend the specially arranged program of lectures and conferences on linguistic subjects, which had been prepared for the days just preceding and just following the meeting.

The Local Committee in charge of the arrangements consisted of Mr. Bloch, Chairman; Mr. Allen, Mr. Bloomfield, Mr. Fries, Mr. Sturtevant, and the Secretary of the Society ex officio.

Record was secured of the attendance of the following members and memberselect of the Society:

H. B. Allen.

C. L. Barnhart, B. Bloch, L. Bloomfield.

J. M. Carrière, J. M. Cowan.

I. Dyen.

J. M. Echols.

F. Edgerton, W. F. Edgerton, C. C. Fries.

S. N. Hagen, Miss E. A. Hahn, Z. S. Harris, Miss L. E. Heminger, C. F. Hockett, C. T. Hodge, V. E. Hull.

H. R. Kahane, R. G. Kent, J. Kepke, C. A. Knudson, Miss A. E. Kober, H. Kurath. W. H. Magoon, A. H. Marckwardt, R. I. McDavid Jr.

E. A. Nida, G. Nordmeyer.

H. Penzl, E. A. Philippson, K. L. Pike, Miss R. M. Preuninger.

Miss M. Quay.

J. F. Rettger, L. L. Rockwell, F. M. Rogers.

B. Schwartz, J. N. Seaman, L. C. Sherman, C. R. Sleeth, W. B. S. Smith, E. H. Sturtevant. G. L. Trager.

A. van Eerden, H. H. Vaughan, C. F. Voegelin.

J. W. Watson, N. L. Willey, C. O. Williams.


The First Session was held on the afternoon of Friday, July 26, in the Amphitheater of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. The VicePresident of the Society, Miss E. A. Hahn, called the meeting to order at 2.10 P.M. and presided throughout the session. About 55 persons were present. Mr. Louis A. Hopkins, Director of the Summer School of the University of Michigan, extended a cordial welcome on behalf of the University, to the visiting members of the Society and their guests.


The Chairman appointed as Committee on Resolutions Mr. Hagen, Chairman, with Mr. Kepke and Miss Preuninger.

Papers 1-5 were presented and discussed.

After the discussion of the second paper Mr. Fries spoke of the arrangements for the annual dinner and kindred matters. Mr. Sturtevant called attention to the report of the Committee on the Future of the Linguistic Institute (printed in Bulletin No. 13, pages 83-101), and to the work of the Committee on Increasing the Endowment of the Linguistic Institute. The Secretary called attention to the Conference on Research in the Culture of Non-English Groups in the United States, to be held at Ann Arbor on August 2-3, under the chairmanship of Mr. Kurath and the sponsorship of the American Council of Learned Societies.

After the presentation and discussion of the succeeding papers adjournment was taken at 4.26 P.M.

The Informal Dinner was held on the evening of Friday, July 26, at 6 o'clock, at the Michigan Union. About 60 persons were present.

The Second Session of the Society was held on the evening of Friday, July 26, in the Amphitheater of the Rackham School. Miss Hahn called the meeting to order at 8.08 P.M. and presided throughout the session. About 90 persons were present. The program was by invitation, and consisted of papers 6-7. Adjournment was taken at 10.50 P.M.

The Third Session was held on the morning of Saturday, July 27, in the Auditorium of the Kellogg Building. At the request of the Vice-President, Mr. Fries called the meeting to order at 9.15 A.M. and presided throughout the session. About 45 persons were present. Papers 8-11 were presented and discussed.

After the papers there was a discussion of the future of the Linguistic Institute; those who spoke were Mr. F. Edgerton, Mr. Sturtevant, Mr. Kent, Mr. Barnhart, Miss Hahn, Mr. Bloch, Mr. Fries, Mr. Rogers, Mr. Kurath. All agreed that it was of the utmost importance to linguistic studies that the Institute be continued. A considerable number of gifts to the endowment fund of the Institute were received, and a large number of pledges. Adjournment was taken at 11.55 A.M.

About 50 members and guests of the Society joined in a Subscription Luncheon at the Michigan Union, at 12.15 P.M.

The Fourth Session of the Society was held on the afternoon of Saturday, July 27, in the Auditorium of the Rackham School. Miss Hahn called the meeting to order at 2.10 P.M. and presided throughout the session. About 60 persons were present. Papers 12-14 were presented and discussed.

After paper no. 14 Mr. F. Edgerton announced that 29 gifts and pledges for the endowment fund of the Institute, amounting to $454, had been received as a result of the discussion at the previous session.

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