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FOUNDED 1924 FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF LANGUAGE; INCORPORATED 1940 IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES FOR 1941

President, ROLAND G. KENT, Univ. of Pennsylvania.
Vice-President, W. F. ALBRIGHT, Johns Hopkins Univ.

Secretary and Treasurer, J. M. COWAN, State Univ. of Iowa.

Executive Committee, the preceding, and

Serving through 1941: GEORGE MELVILLE BOLLING, Baltimore.
Serving through 1941: W. FREEMAN TWADDELL, Univ. of Wisconsin.
Serving through 1942: ALBERT C. BAUGH, Univ. of Pennsylvania.
Serving through 1942: CHARLES F. VOEGELIN, DePauw Univ.

Committee on Publications:

Chairman and Editor: BERNARD BLOCH, Brown Univ.

Serving through 1941: URBAN T. HOLMES JR., Univ. of North Carolina. Serving through 1942: MURRAY B. EMENEAU, Univ. of California. Serving through 1943: HANS KURATH, Brown Univ.

Nominating Committee:

Serving through 1941: C. C. FRIES, Chairman, Univ. of Michigan.
Serving through 1942: FRANKLIN EDGERTON, Yale Univ.
Serving through 1943: A. L. KROEBER, Univ. of California.

Standing Committee on Research:

Serving to Feb. 1, 1944: FRANKLIN EDGERTON, Yale Univ.

Serving to Feb. 1, 1942: GEORGE MELVILLE BOLLING, Baltimore.
Serving to Feb. 1, 1943: LEonard BLOOMFIELD, Yale Univ.

Administrative Committee of the Linguistic Institute:

U. T. HOLMES JR., Director, Univ. of North Carolina.

E. H. STURTEVANT, Associate Director, Yale Univ.

G. S. LANE, Univ. of North Carolina.

C. C. FRIES, Univ. of Michigan.

Delegates to the American Council of Learned Societies:

Serving through 1942: E. H. STURTEVANT, Yale Univ.

Serving through 1944: GEORGE S. LANE, Üniv. of North Carolina. Delegate to American Association for the Advancement of Science: GEORGE HERZOG, Columbia Univ.

Delegate to American Documentation Institute:

E. H. SEHRT, George Washington Univ.

Delegate to the Mexican Council for Indigenous Languages:

NORMAN A. MCQUOWN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico.

LANGUAGE is published quarterly by the LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA at the Waverly Press Inc., Mt. Royal and Guilford Avenues, Baltimore, Md. Entered as Second Class Matter March 12, 1927, at the Postoffice at Baltimore, Md., under the Act of March 3, 1879.

Dues for Personal and Library Memberships in the Society are $5.00 per calendar year; of the dues, $3.00 are set aside for the journal LANGUAGE and its Supplements. To non-members, the price of LANGUAGE and its Supplements is $5.00 per calendar year.

Manuscripts for publication, exchange journals, and books for review or listing should be sent to the Editor of LANGUAGE (Bernard Bloch, Brown Univ., Providence, R. I.). The Editor cannot guarantee to publish reviews of books sent unsolicited, or to return such books to the publishers.

Applications for membership, library subscriptions, etc., should be addressed to the Secretary of the Society (J. M. Cowan, State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa).

Made in United States of America

STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS

Contributors are asked to read the following pages carefully.

Typescripts

which deviate in important respects from the practice here recommended must be returned to their authors for retyping. Note that these instructions affect only the mechanical features of the copy, without attempting to prescribe rules of composition or to interfere in any way with each author's individual style.

IN GENERAL, THE AUTHOR SHOULD ARRANGE HIS ARTICLE, REVIEW, OR LONGER WORK ACCORDING TO THE MODELS FURNISHED BY RECENT ISSUES OF LANGUAGE AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS OF THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY. This will relieve the Editor of much labor in preparing the typescript for the printer, will reduce the charges to be paid by the Society or by the author for proof corrections, and will insure the desirable minimum of uniformity in our publications.

THE EDITOR

1. The Typescript. (a) All copy must be typewritten, on one side of the sheet only, double-spaced throughout. This provision applies to the entire typescript, including footnotes and extended quotations.

(b) Leave a wide margin on all four sides of the sheet, at least 14 inches at the left. This makes it possible to insert corrections and instructions to the printer without impairing legibility.

(c) Use paper of standard size (8 x 11 inches) and of good quality. Thin or flimsy paper tears easily in handling, and makes corrections difficult. If a sheet or part of a sheet becomes hard to read because of corrections or additions, it should be retyped. In making revisions, do not paste together parts of sheets in such a way as to make new sheets of abnormal size; instead, make two (or more) sheets of normal size, even if neither one is completely filled.

(d) The typed letters should be clearly legible. If the typewriter ribbon is old and dry, lightly struck letters may fail to register; if it is improperly adjusted, the tops and bottoms of such letters as f 1k, p gj may be cut off; if it is too heavy and moist, or if the keys are clogged with ink, the difference between e and o, a and s, m and n, etc., may be obliterated.

(e) Number the pages in the upper right corner.

(f) Make two copies of the typescript. The original copy is sent to the printer, the carbon copy is retained by the author. Be sure to enter in the carbon copy all corrections, additions, and special characters that appear in the original.

2. Title and signature. (a) The title of an article or longer work, as well as the title of a chapter within such a work, should be as short as possible.

1 These recommendations are based largely on the instructions to contributors drawn up by George Melville Bolling and Roland G. Kent in 1936, and published in Bulletin 9.61-6.

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In any case, it should be so worded that the first part, amounting to not more than 35 letters, adequately describes the contents and can be used alone as a running head to the pages.

(b) EVERY ARTICLE should begin with the following preliminary matter, preferably typed on a separate sheet: the title; the author's name; the name of the institution with which the author is currently connected, or of the locality in which he lives; a paragraph of 50-100 words, enclosed in square brackets, summarizing the argument of the article or else briefly stating the problem investigated or the results arrived at.

(c) EVERY REVIEW should begin with a full citation of the work reviewed, typed as a separate paragraph with the first line indented, and containing the following items in this order: the title of the work, with the subtitle after a colon; the name of the author or editor, surname last; the number of the edition, if it is not the first; in parentheses, the name of the series or larger project of which this work is a part, with the serial or volume number; the pagination, Roman and Arabic, with indication of separately numbered plates and maps; the place, publisher, and year of publication. For the punctuation of these items, compare the reviews published in recent issues of LANGUAGE.

(d) The author's name and the name of his institution or locality should be typed in two lines at the end of the review.

3. Footnotes. (a) Footnotes must be numbered serially through the article or review or through one chapter of a longer work.

(b) The footnote reference number must appear in the text as a raised numeral immediately following the word or passage to which it refers, not as a numeral in parentheses or with a single parenthesis after it. It is helpful to repeat this numeral in the left margin opposite the line where it occurs. When a reference number appears after a word which is followed by a mark of punctuation, the number must follow this mark. (But a reference number may precede a closing parenthesis.3)

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(c) All footnotes must be typed double-spaced on a sheet or series of sheets following the main text. They must never appear on the same sheet with the

text.

(d) Each footnote should be typed as a separate paragraph with the first line indented, and should begin with its reference number, raised somewhat above the line of type (but not followed by a parenthesis or by a dot).

4. Cited forms. (a) Every form (letter, word, phrase, sentence) cited as linguistic material-as an example or as a subject of discussion-must be in italics; except that Greek forms, and forms in other languages written with the Greek alphabet, are to be cited in the original characters, and that special

2 Capitalize only the first word of the title, and such other words as are required by the normal rules of orthography to begin with a capital letter. If the first word is the definite or indefinite article, the second word may begin with a capital (especially in an alphabetized list) or with a small letter.

3 As in the example here given.

4 Indicated in the typescript by a single underline; see §5e.

conventions applying to particular languages may be followed at the author's discretion.

(b) Forms in a language not written with either the Latin or the Greek alphabet (Russian, Hittite, Arabic, Chinese, etc.) should be transliterated, unless there is a cogent reason for citing them in the original characters. If the author wishes to use an alphabet other than the Latin or the Greek, he should write to the Editor for special instructions.

(c) In citing Latin forms (but not in reproducing quotations from classical authors and not in using Latin words as part of the sentence or as a gloss), place a macron over every letter denoting a long vowel.

(d) Cited forms in a language other than Modern English should be followed at their first occurrence by a gloss in single quotation marks. No comma separates the gloss from the cited form: Lat. ovis 'sheep' is a noun. No comma follows the gloss unless it is required by the sentence as a whole: Lat. ovis 'sheep', equus 'horse', and canis 'dog' are nouns. punctuation follows the quotation mark.

Note that in such cases the

5. Type faces. (a) Ordinary roman type is to be used not only for the body of the text but also for the titles of books, journals, and articles; for foreign words and phrases used as part of the sentence (i.e. not cited as linguistic material); for abbreviations like e.g., i.e., op.cit., ibid.

(b) Italics are to be used only for the citation of linguistic forms (§4a): the suffix -y, the word man, the construction mich friert. Do not use italics for any other purpose.

(c) Small capitals are to be used for centered subheads within an article or chapter; for the abbreviations B.C. and A.D.; and also, where necessary, to give emphasis or prominence to a word or sentence in the text.

(d) Boldface type may be used for section numbers and headings placed at the beginning of a paragraph (not centered in the page).

(e) Type faces other than roman lower case are indicated in the typescript by underlines, as follows:

italics, by a single underline

SMALL CAPITALS, by two underlines

LARGE CAPITALS, by three underlines under small letters

ITALIC LARGE CAPITALS, by four underlines under small letters or by a single underline under capitals

boldface type, by a wavy underline

(f) Underlines made on the typewriter are likely to cut through the bottoms of g j p q y, and interfere seriously with the addition of diacritics below the letters. It is often advisable to underline by hand after the sheet has been typed. Use a fine hard pencil or a fine pen, and be careful to pass below the bottom strokes of all letters and below all inferior diacritics.

5 For example, the use of boldface type for Oscan and Umbrian, of capitals for inscriptional text and for Sumerian, of italic capitals for Akkadian. (The provisions of this paragraph, of course, do not apply to forms cited in phonetic transcription between square brackets.)

6. Special characters. (a) Diacritics, Greek letters, phonetic symbols, and other special characters should be carefully inserted in the typescript with pen and ink. Remember that to the compositor these symbols are merely shapes without meaning; unless they are clearly drawn, he will not recognize them. A somewhat enlarged drawing or a brief verbal description of any special character, placed in the margin opposite the line where it occurs, will help the compositor to avoid errors.

(b) Unless the typewriter is equipped with special keys, it is usually better to draw in all such symbols with pen and ink than to improvise approximations by modifying or combining ordinary typed letters. Such a makeshift may be unmistakably clear to the specialist, yet sufficiently different from the intended symbol to baffle the printer. Do not make Greek by typing an o with a diagonal/superimposed on it, b by combining typed p and b, or by adding a handwritten finish to a typed d.

(c) Diacritics over and under letters should be drawn in the exact position they are to occupy, not inserted between letters. Observe carefully the shape and relative size of all diacritics.

(d) When Greek words or other forms in special characters are to be added by hand to a typed sheet, it is better to overestimate the space required for the insertion than to leave too little and crowd the symbols. If you have not left room enough to accommodate the insertion, write it in the margin opposite the line where it belongs, with a caret in the line to show its position.

(e) In writing Greek, print each letter separately and carefully; avoid cursive forms. Distinguish the breathings (curved) from the accents (straight), and distinguish clearly between the acute and the grave. When a single Greek letter appears in a context of ordinary letters, it is helpful to identify it as Greek in the margin. When 8 is placed in the margin as a correction, write beside it 'Greek delta'; otherwise the compositor will read it as a deletion sign. (f) The following Greek letters have often caused trouble in printing: y and X (do not reverse them; use two strokes for each)

K and x (use three strokes for «; extend both strokes of x below the line) and (avoid the forms and ; make e distinctly taller than o)

n, μ, p (the descending stroke should be long, vertical, and straight)

and έ, ŋ and π, v and v, o and σ, 7 and i or i (easily confused)

η

(g) A list of all special characters occurring in an article or longer work, written on a separate sheet and prefixed to the typescript, will help the Editor and the printer to insure a faithful reproduction of the author's copy. List separately the special characters appearing in roman, italic, and boldface type; in capitals, small capitals, and lower-case letters; in the large type used for text material and the small type used for footnotes.

7. References. (a) Names of books, journals, and articles, cited either in the text or in footnotes, must be in ordinary roman type, not in italics and not in quotation marks. Except for the titles of standard reference works and journals with recognized abbreviations (§9), they should be written out in full at their first occurrence but abbreviated in all subsequent citations. Similarly,

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