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Treasurer for the period Dec. 20, 1939, to Dec. 19, 1940, and found them correct. On motion the report of the Treasurer was then adopted.

On behalf of the Executive Committee, the Secretary presented the following report:

During the year the Executive Committee, acting by correspondence, elected to membership several lists of nominees published in LANGUAGE as elected in 1940; fixed the time and place of the present meeting; and arranged the program, for which purpose Mr. Kroeber, Mr. Twaddell, and Mr. Eliason designated Messrs. Trager, Senn, and Baugh as their proxies, to avoid loss of time in correspondence.

Mr. Fries, as President for 1939, appointed as Committee on the Place of the Linguistic Institute 1941 and 1942 Mr. E. H. Sturtevant, Chairman, with Mr. Bloomfield, Mr. Keniston, Mr. Kent, Mr. Twaddell; and as Committee on Endowment of the Linguistic Institute Mr. F. Edgerton, Chairman, with Miss Hahn and Mr. Fries.

Mr. Kroeber, as President for 1940, appointed Mr. Bloomfield for a further term of three years on the Standing Committee on Research; appointed Mr. Fries, Mr. Fry, Mr. Herzog, Mr. Sehrt as Delegates to the Eighth American Scientific Congress; appointed Miss Hahn as Delegate to the Dedication Week of Hunter College; appointed as Local Committee for the Summer Meeting in Ann Arbor Mr. Bloch, Chairman, with Mr. H. B. Allen, Mr. Bloomfield, Mr. Fries, Mr. E. H. Sturtevant, and the Secretary of the Society; appointed as Local Committee for the Seventeenth Annual Meeting at Providence Mr. Kurath as Chairman, with Mr. Bloch, Mr. R. A. Hall Jr., Mr. Lynch, and the Secretary of the Society.

The Executive Committee received official notice from the Society's legal counsel that Mr. Preveden's suit against the Society and its members had been dismissed, and approved the payment of counsel's fee.

The Executive Committee elected Mr. Herzog to serve as representative of the Society on the Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The Executive Committee voted to approve the recommendation of the Committee on the Place of the Linguistic Institute 1941 and 1942, that the Society accept the invitation of the University of North Carolina to conduct the Linguistic Institute of 1941 as part of that University's Summer Session, on terms which had been agreed upon between the University and the Society's Committee. It then discharged with thanks the former Administrative Committee of the Linguistic Institute (Messrs. Fries, Kent, E. H. Sturtevant, Willey, Worrell), and appointed a new Administrative Committee, consisting of Mr. Holmes, Chairman, with Messrs. Fries, Lane, E. H. Sturtevant, to act jointly with a Committee appointed by the University of North Carolina. It voted further, (1) that the University shall have power to add to this Committee, for action as a joint Committee of the Society and the University, one or more persons, members or non-members of the Society, so that a majority of the complete Joint Committee shall always be members of the Faculty of the University; the Society retaining the right to add to its representation on the Committee, provided its representation by members not on the Faculty of the University never equals the representation of the University by its own Faculty members; and (2), that this agree ment is subject to the understanding that the Linguistic Society of America shall not be called upon for financial support except such as can be provided from the current funds of the Linguistic Institute.

The Executive Committee, under authority of the Constitution III.2 (see Bulletin 13, 23-6 and 80-81) and of the vote of the Society on December 27, 1939 (see Bulletin 13, page 17), voted in April to empower the Secretary of the Society in conjunction with two or more residents of the District of Columbia, a majority of the total number to be members of the Linguistic Society of America, to proceed in their names to secure a charter of incorporation in the District of Columbia under the name Linguistic Society of America, for a perpetual term, the objects and the governing board of which shall be identical with those of the present unincorporated Linguistic Society of America.

The Secretary did accordingly journey to Washington and with Edward H. Sehrt, a

Member of the Society, and Mortimer Graves, a Non-Member of the Society on the staff of the American Council of Learned Societies, secured on May 6 a charter of incorporation, of which a transcript is here given:

Certificate of Incorporation No. 26322

We, the undersigned, all citizens of the United States, and a majority citizens and residents of the District of Columbia, desiring to associate ourselves as a corporation pursuant to the provisions of Title 5 of Chapter 5 of the Code of the District of Columbia, do hereby certify as follows:

First. The name or title by which this corporation shall be known in Law shall be Linguistic Society of America.

Second. The term for which it is organized shall be perpetual.

Address. 907 15th St. N.W.

Third. The particular business and objects of said corporation shall be the advancement of the scientific study of language. The corporation is formed for scientific and educational purposes, and no part of its net income shall inure to the benefit of any member as such. In the event of dissolution of this corporation, the property and funds shall be used only for the purposes for which the corporation is organized. No substantial part of the activities of the corporation shall be the carrying on of propaganda or otherwise attempting to influence legislation.

Fourth. The number of its trustees, directors, or managers for the first year of its existence shall be seven.

In Testimony Whereof, we have this sixth day of May, 1940, hereunto set our hands and seal.

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I, George P. Newton, a Notary Public in and for the District of Columbia, do hereby certify that Roland G. Kent, Edward H. Sehrt, and Mortimer Graves, parties to a certain Certificate of Incorporation bearing date on the 6th day of May, 1940, and hereto annexed, personally appeared before me in said District, the said Roland G. Kent, Edward H. Sehrt, and Mortimer Graves being personally well known to me as the persons who executed the said Certificate of Incorporation, and acknowledged the same to be their act and deed. Given under my hand and seal this 6th day of May, 1940. (Notarial Seal)

Geo. P. Newton

The legal address of the incorporated Linguistic Society of America, in Washington, D. C., is that of the American Council of Learned Societies.

On the same day, after the formalities of incorporation were completed, the three incorporators met and elected as the trustees of the corporation during its first year of existence A. L. Kroeber, President; E. A. Hahn, Vice-President; Roland G. Kent, Secretary and Treasurer; G. M. Bolling, W. F. Twaddell, H. H. Bender, N. E. Eliason; they also adopted the present Constitution of the unincorporated Linguistic Society of America as given in Bulletin 13, pages 79-82, as the By-Laws of the corporation.

The Executive Committee of the unincorporated Linguistic Society of America, on receiving formal notice of these actions, voted to turn over to the incorporated Linguistic Society of America the assets of the unincorporated Society, on condition that the incorporated Society assume also the liabilities of the unincorporated Society. The individual members of the Executive Committee of the unincorporated Society accepted election by the incorporators of the incorporated Linguistic Society of America, to a position on its Board of Trustees in the same capacity in which they had formerly been members of the Executive Committee of the unincorporated Linguistic Society of America. The Executive Committee of the incorporated Linguistic Society of America, thus constituted, and serving as trustees of the incorporation during the first year of its existence, accepted from the Executive Committee of the unincorporated Society all the assets of the unin

corporated Society, and assumed at the same time the responsibility for all the liabilities of the said unincorporated Society.

The Executive Committee met on Sunday evening, December 29, 1940, at The Providence Biltmore, Providence, R. I. Present, Vice-President Hahn, presiding, and Mr. Twaddell, Mr. Kent, Mr. Eliason with Mr. Hanley as his proxy during the later part of the meeting, Mr. Sturtevant as proxy for Mr. Kroeber, Mr. Edgerton as proxy for Mr. Bender, Mr. Kurath as proxy for Mr. Bolling; also, by constitutional provision Messrs. Fries, Hanley (during the early part of the session), Lane, Sehrt, and by special invitation Mr. Blochthese without voting right.

Additional nominees for membership were elected. Reports of officers, of standing and special committees, and of delegates, were informally presented and their contents considered.

Mr. Hanley, for the Committee on the Present Status of College and University Courses Announced under the Name of Phonetics (Mr. Hanley, Chairman; Mr. Stetson, Mr. Kenyon), reported to the Executive Committee, to which by the terms of its appointment it was to report, as follows: We have information from nearly 500 institutions, showing that there is little agreement in aim, content, or nomenclature, and a great deal of wasteful duplication in courses offered in the field of phonetics; the Committee is however not ready to make a final report. The Executive Committee continued the Committee.

The Executive Committee, as the result of its deliberations, asks the Society to approve the following recommendations:

1. That the Treasurer be directed to invite contributions to a fund to pay the annual dues of distinguished scholars who are at the time not in a position to pay dues; and that the incoming President be directed to appoint a Committee of three who shall select the beneficiaries of the fund.

2. That the Trustees of the Endowment Funds be empowered to invest the principal of the Endowment Funds of the Linguistic Institute in common stocks, at their discretion.

3. That the Treasurer of the Society be empowered to pay to the University of North Carolina, for the purpose of bringing special lecturers to the Linguistic Institute, a sum not exceeding the amount standing on the books of the Society on June 1, 1941, to the credit of the current funds of the Linguistic Institute.

4. That the Linguistic Society arrange for a special summer meeting at Chapel Hill during the 1941 session of the Linguistic Institute.

5. That under the Constitution II.6 Carl D. Buck and George T. Flom be relieved from further payment of annual dues, without loss of any of the privileges of membership. The Executive Committee decided not to make any recommendations for election to Honorary Membership.

Other matters were discussed, but did not appear to call for formal action.

The report was ordered to be received and filed. On motion the Society adopted seriatim the Executive Committee's recommendations 1, 2, 5. By unanimous consent action on Nos. 3 and 4 was postponed until later in the session.

Mr. Bloch, Editor and Chairman of the Society's Committee on Publications, presented the following report, which was ordered to be received and filed:

On behalf of the Committee on Publications I submit the following report. During the year 1940 the Society has issued the following publications:

LANGUAGE, Vol. 16, 359 pages.

Language Monograph No. 20: William B. S. Smith, De la toponymie bretonne; 136 pages. Bulletin No. 13: Proceedings and list of members 1939, Constitution of the Society as amended at the annual meeting in December 1939, and Report of the Special Committee on the Linguistic Institute; 101 pages.

Index to LANGUAGE XI-XV (1935-9), by George S. Lane; 59 pages.

Special Publication: Edgar H. Sturtevant, The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin, 2d ed. (in the William Dwight Whitney Linguistic Series of Yale University); 192 pages, bound in buckram.

Special Publication: Roland G. Kent, The Sounds of Latin, 2d ed.; 220 pages, bound in


Beginning with the first issue for 1941, LANGUAGE and its Supplements will appear in a new format. The number of 10-point lines per page will be increased from 40 to 45, and the length of each line from 44 inches to 42: a total gain of about 25% in the printed matter on one page. The over-all trimmed size of the pages remains the same, in order that forthcoming publications, whether bound or unbound, may be uniform with the earlier volumes. The advantage of the new format, and the reason for its adoption, is its much greater economy. If the funds available for publication should continue at about the same level as during the past year, the saving effected by the change will make it possible to print a larger number of articles and reviews than there has been room for hitherto; and if, as unfortunately appears more likely, our funds should fall off as a result of the war, it will at least enable us to maintain the size of our journal unreduced.

Accompanying this change in format there will be a change in the paper on which our publications are printed. The new paper will be of the same quality and strength as the stock used formerly, and should therefore prove just as durable; but its smooth finish gives it the additional and highly desirable quality-whose lack in the old paper many readers felt to be a serious disadvantage of taking ink.

It appears that some members of the Society regard LANGUAGE as a journal devoted chiefly to the ancient languages. If the distribution of articles published during the past few years seems to support that view, it is not through any choice of the Committee on Publications, but because the scholars at work in the ancient languages have sent in more material than others. In order that our journal may more fully represent the varied interests of our membership, the Committee would welcome a larger number of contributions in the field of the modern languages, especially English. Any apparent one-sidedness in LANGUAGE can only be corrected with the active cooperation of all our members.

At the end of my first year in the Editorship, I should like to express my grateful appreciation of the help I have received from the other members of this Committee; from the Business Manager of Publications, Mr. Kent; and from the many other members of the Linguistic Society to whom I have gone for advice.

Mr. Fries, for the discharged Joint Committee of the Linguistic Society and the University of Michigan on the Linguistic Institute (Mr. Fries, Chairman of the Committee and Director of the Institute; Mr. Sturtevant, Mr. Willey, Mr. Worrell, Mr. Kent), presented the following report, which was ordered to be received and filed:

In spite of unusual difficulties in organizing the Linguistic Institute for 1940 the session was one of the most successful of those held at Ann Arbor. Only sixteen courses were originally offered, but two were generously added by staff members because of requests from eager students. The faculty giving these courses consisted of eleven men, six from the University of Michigan and five (L. Bloomfield, B. Bloch, J. M. Cowan, E. H. Sturtevant, and C. F. Voegelin) from other universities. In all there were 288 registrations from 121 separate students. Twenty-six were guest Ph.D's and nine received small scholarships from the American Council of Learned Societies.

As in former years the Thursday luncheon conferences and the Wednesday and Friday evening lectures furnished the common meeting place for the students in linguistics and a unifying influence for the Institute as a whole. In addition, the Saturday morning seminar in which advanced linguistic students presented their materials for criticism by the staff always furnished the occasion of lively discussion which was carried on through lunch.

The July meeting of the Linguistic Society and the August meeting of the Conference on the Non-English European Languages Spoken in America, sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies, brought to Ann Arbor and to the Linguistic Institute many members of the Linguistic Society who stayed for several weeks and stimulated greatly the linguistic activities of the summer.

Three aspects of the work of the 1940 session deserve brief comment:

(a) The work with actual informants (a Chippewa and a Cherokee) proved valuable not only for the particular courses in which they were used but also for the effect which the presence of such work, by giving emphasis to descriptive techniques, had upon the Institute as a whole.

(b) The effort to acquaint linguistic students with the mechanical apparatus and instrumental techniques which can be used for the objective study of linguistic problems, begun by Professor Cowan in this session, showed such possibilities as to merit further development.

(c) The bearing of the newly discovered laryngeals upon Indo-European Comparative Grammar was the especial contribution of Professor Sturtevant, in the courses in Hittite and the Comparative Grammar of Latin and Greek.

The 1940 session was the last of the five-year period during which the Linguistic Institute was provided for by the University of Michigan. We are glad that it has found support at the University of North Carolina and believe that it has so established itself that it will not lack adequate support in the future. The administration of the University of Michigan Summer Session authorizes me to report that after an interval of two or three years the University of Michigan will again be glad to take its turn in providing for other sessions of the Linguistic Institute.

Mr. Sturtevant, for the Committee on the Place of the Linguistic Institute 1941 and 1942 (Mr. Sturtevant, Chairman; Mr. Bloomfield, Mr. Keniston, Mr. Kent, Mr. Twaddell), presented the following report, which was ordered to be received and filed, and the committee was continued:

Your Committee has conducted correspondence with representatives of several American universities and has secured a highly satisfactory offer from the University of North Carolina for the summer of 1941. This offer has been accepted by the Executive Committee of the Society, and the Linguistic Institute will accordingly be held at Chapel Hill from June 12 to July 19, 1941.

A number of universities have expressed interest in a session of the Institute in 1942. If the Society sees fit to continue the Committee for another year, it is willing to undertake the necessary negotiations.

Mr. Edgerton, for the Committee on Endowment for the Linguistic Institute (Mr. Edgerton, Chairman; Miss Hahn, Mr. Fries), presented the following report, which was ordered to be received and filed, and the Committee was continued:

The Committee's activities have been mainly of two kinds. First, all members of the Society and all former members of the Linguistic Institute were circularized in April 1940, and asked to make contributions or pledges to the Endowment Fund, which at the beginning of this year contained $2092. It was emphasized that the size of such contributions was considered less important than the number, since it was hoped to demonstrate a wide interest in the Institute on the part of the Society and of former attendants on the Institute. A second circular to those who had not responded was sent out in August. As a result of this campaign, by December 6, 1940, contributions or pledges ranging in amount from $1 to $500 each had been received from 164 persons. On this date the total actually

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