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Founded 1924


President, PROFESSOR LOUIS H. GRAY, Columbia University.

Vice-President, PROFESSOR KEMP MALONE, Johns Hopkins University. Secretary and Treasurer, PROFESSOR ROLAND G. KENT, University of Pennsylvania.

Executive Committee, the preceding, and

PROFESSOR HErmann AlmstEDT, University of Missouri.
PROFESSOR CHARLES C. FRIES, University of Michigan.
PROFESSOR A. L. KROEBER, University of California.

Committee on Publications:

Chairman and Editor: PROFESsor George MELVILLE BOLLING, Ohio State University.

To serve through 1938: PROFESSOR W. FREEMAN TWADDELL, University of Wisconsin.

To serve through 1939: PROFESSOR HANS SPERBER, Ohio State University. To serve through 1940: PROFESSOR EDWARD SAPIR, Yale University.

Standing Committee on Research:

PROFESSOR E. H. STURTEVANT, Chairman, Yale University.
PROFESSOR G. M. BOLLING, Ohio State University.


The Linguistic Society of America was founded in December, 1924, for the advancement of the scientific study of language. The Society plans to promote this aim by bringing students of language together in its meetings, and by publishing the fruits of research. It has established a quarterly journal, a series of language monographs, and a series of language dissertations; the last two will appear at irregular intervals, according to the material offered to the Committee on Publications and the funds available for the purpose. Members will receive all in return for the annual dues of Five Dollars.

Membership in the Society is not restricted to professed scholars in linguistics. All persons, whether men or women, who are in sympathy with the objects of the Society, are invited to give it their assistance in furthering its work. Application for membership should be made to the Secretary, Professor Roland G. Kent, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Entered as Second Class Matter at the Postoffice at Baltimore, Maryland. This Journal is published quarterly by the Linguistic Society of America. Members of the Society receive it without extra charge, three dollars of the annual dues being appropriated for this purpose; to others, its price is five dollars per annum. Subscriptions and other business communications should be addressed to Language, or to Roland G. Kent, Treasurer, L. S. A., Mt. Royal and Guilford Aves., Baltimore, Md., or University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Manuscripts for publication should be sent to George Melville Bolling, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Made in United States of America






The Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Society was held at Chicago, Monday and Tuesday, December 27 and 28, jointly with the Modern Language Association of America, and at Philadelphia, Thursday, December 30, jointly with the American Philological Association. The headquarters of the Society at Chicago were in The Drake, Lake Shore Drive and Upper Michigan Avenue, and at Philadelphia in The Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Ninth and Chestnut Streets.

Record was secured of the attendance at Chicago of the following members and members-elect; others were present, but failed to give their names to the Secretary:

J. E. A. Alexis.

C. L. Barnhart, A. C. Baugh, B. Bloch, L. Bloomfield, G. Bobrinskoy, G. M. Bolling, C. D. Buck.

J. M. Cowan, E. Cross.

A. H. Dahlstrom.

F. Edgerton, N. E. Eliason.

C. E. Finch, G. T. Flom, C. C. Fries.

Miss M. J. Gibson, W. L. Graff.

Miss M. R. Haas, E. F. Haden, Miss E. A. Hahn, R. A. Hall Jr., M. L. Hanley,

Z. S. Harris, E. Haugen, J. H. Herriott, R. P. Hickey, L. S. Hitchcock, H. Hoijer.

O. E. Johnson, M. Joos.

H. Keniston, R. G. Kent, S. M. Kuhn, H. Kurath.

G. S. Lane, H. Larsen, W. F. Leopold, Miss H. L. Lloyd, C. M. Lotspeich, W. F. Luebke.

E. K. Maxfield, A. D. Menut, G. J. Metcalf.

A. Nehring, G. R. Noyes.

C. E. Parmenter, J. J. Parry, W. Petersen, Miss L. Pound, F. R. Preveden, H. T. Price.

A. W. Read, C. C. Rice, H. D. Rose, H. A. Rositzke.

O. R. Sellers, A. Senn, G. W. Small, L. Spitzer, E. H. Sturtevant, M. Swadesh. W. F. Twaddell.

H. V. Velten, C. F. Voegelin.

A. Walther, R. L. Ward, M. H. Watkins, R. H. Weidman, C. A. Williams, R. D. Williams, C. M. Wise. [72]

Record was secured of the attendance of the following at Philadelphia:

G. Bechtel, Mrs. R. M. Bechtel, W. N. Brown, Miss M. M. Bryant.

Miss E. F. Claflin, E. Cross.

I. Dyen.

Mrs. E. Fleet.

L. H. Gray, J. F. Gummere.

Miss L. Haessler, S. N. Hagen, Miss E. A. Hahn.

R. G. Kent, J. A. Kerns, Miss A. E. Kober.

O. M. Lebel, H. L. Levy.

T. Michelson.

C. J. Ogden.

Miss D. Paschall, C. Pharr, J. Phelps, H. I. Poleman, L. A. Post, J. W. Poultney.
K. Reuning, N. J. Reich, A. L. Rice, E. Riess.

R. E. Saleski, B. Schwartz, Miss P. Segal, D. B. Shumway, F. T. Siebert Jr.,
M. A. Simsar, W. B. S. Smith, E. H. Sturtevant.
Miss L. R. Taylor, G. L. Trager, R. W. Tucker.

R. L. Ward, H. R. Wolf.


The First Session of the Linguistic Society was held on the morning of Monday, December 27, in the French Room of The Drake. President Buck called the meeting to order at 9.22 A.M. About 75 persons were present during the session. The reading of papers was begun at


Dr. J. Milton Cowan (State University of Iowa), The Actualization of Phonemes in Continuous Discourse. Discussion by Messrs. Voegelin, Read, Swadesh, Kurath, Bloch.

Prof. Morris Swadesh (University of Wisconsin), Preverb Displacement in Chitimacha. Discussion by Messrs. Watkins, Kurath. Prof. Harry A. Rositzke (Municipal University of Omaha), The Syllabic Accent in Scandinavian. Discussion by Messrs. Haugen, Larsen, Sturtevant.

Dr. Mary R. Haas (Yale University), Ablaut and its Function in Muskogee.

Prof. C. F. Voegelin (DePauw University) and Prof. Morris Swadesh (University of Wisconsin), Morpho-Phonemics and Variable Vowel-Length in Tübatulabal.

Prof. George William Small (University of Maine), Early Overlapping of Subjunctive and Indicative in Old English. Discussion by Messrs. Ward, Kurath.

The President appointed Messrs. C. M. Lotspeich and L. S. Hitchcock to serve as Committee on Resolutions. Adjournment was taken at 11.28 A.M.

The Second Session of the Linguistic Society was held on the afternoon of Monday, December 28, in the French Room of The Drake. President Buck called the meeting to order at 2.21 P.M. About 75 persons were present during the session. The reading of papers was at once begun:

Prof. Einar Haugen (University of Wisconsin), Retroflex Consonants in Scandinavian.

Dr. Zellig S. Harris (University of Pennsylvania), The Spread of Linguistic Changes among the Canaanite Dialects. Discussion by Messrs. Sellers, S. H. Cross, Kurath.

Prof. C. C. Rice (Catawba College), A Sketch of the Finistère Pronunciation of Literary Breton. Discussion by Messrs. Buck, Rositzke.

Prof. Alfred Senn (University of Wisconsin), Observations on German Loanwords in Lithuanian. Discussion by Messrs. Buck, Edgerton, Noyes, S. H. Cross.

Mr. Frederic G. Cassidy (University of Michigan), Help Wanted in Old English Syntax. This paper was read by title only, in the absence of the author.

Dr. Bernard Bloch (Brown University), Pitch, Time, and Stress in English Syntax. Discussion by Messrs. Hall, Bolling, Noyes, Sellers, Hitchcock, Joos, E. Cross, Kurath, Cowan, Miss Haas, Mr. Hanley.

Prof. Roland G. Kent (University of Pennsylvania), Notes on Old Persian Inscriptions. Discussion by Messrs. Buck, Edgerton, Kurath.

Adjournment was taken at 4.50 P.M.

The Third Session of the Linguistic Society was held on the evening of Monday, December 27, in the French Room of The Drake. VicePresident Kurath called the meeting to order at 8.18 P.M. About 80 persons were present during the session. The reading of papers was at once begun:

Prof. Carl Darling Buck (University of Chicago), President of the Linguistic Society of America: Some Words for Emotions and Moral or Aesthetic Notions. Discussion by Messrs. E. Cross, Flom, Bolling.

Prof. Charles C. Fries (University of Michigan), Some Notes on the the Inflected Genitive in Present-Day English. Discussion by Messrs. Petersen, Rose, Swadesh, Hanley, Bolling, Kurath, Sturtevant, Noyes, Miss Hahn, Messrs. Luebke, Flom, Hitchcock, Senn.

Prof. Ovid R. Sellers (Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Chicago), Opposite Meanings in One Word. Discussion by Messrs. Kent, Bolling, Ward, Graff, Price, Senn, Swadesh, Kurath, Miss Hahn, Messrs. Rice, Rose.

Adjournment was taken at 9.56 P.M.

The Fourth Session of the Linguistic Society was held on the morning of Tuesday, December 28, in the Ball Room of The Knickerbocker, across the street from The Drake. Vice-President Kurath called the meeting to order at 9.22 A.M. About 80 persons were present during the session, which began with the business of the Society.

By motion, the reading of the minutes of the last meeting was dispensed with, as they had already been printed in Bulletin No. 10 of the Society, pages 3-20, which was distributed in February, 1937.

The Secretary, Prof. R. G. Kent, presented the following report, which was ordered to be received and filed:

For the year 1937 the membership statistics are as follows: For the year 1936 there were 470 members (apart from Honorary Members), of whom 4 died during the year (W. F. Badè, S. E. Bassett, M. Callaway Jr., C. Knapp), and 1 in 1935 (I. Takai); 10 presented their resignations, effective at the end of 1936 (W. A. Craigie, H. A. Davidson, L. Dennis, E. A. Esper, J. M. Manly, J. P. McCormick, I. L. Schroeder, F. Tupper, J. A. Walz, J. P. Wenninger); 12 were dropped for nonpayment of dues during 1935 and 1936. The net membership with which the Society started 1937 was therefore 443; the new members for 1937 are 39. The total membership for 1937, in addition to the Honorary Members, is 482, a gain of 12 over 1936. Of these, 10 are unpaid for 1936-7 and are subject to being dropped from the rolls at this time, and 36 others are unpaid for 1937. We regretfully record the death of 2 Active Members in 1937: Eva Fiesel on May 27, and A. G. Solalinde on July 13. [The death of R. F. Butin was brought to the Secretary's attention too late for inclusion.]

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