Time and the Verb: A Guide to Tense and Aspect

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Oxford University Press, 20.06.1991 - 584 Seiten
This comprehensive examination of tense and grammatical aspect provides fascinating insight into how languages indicate distinctions of time. Providing an in-depth survey of the scholarship from the ancient Greeks through the 1980s, Time and the Verb explains and evaluates every major issue and theory, concentrating on familiar Classical and modern European languages. An invaluable reference tool as well as a major contribution to the history of linguistic sciences, this book will be the standard against which future work on tense and aspect is measured.
 

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Inhalt

Ancient Theories of the Simple Tenses
3
b Tense in Greek
9
c The Greek Verb
13
d The Relations of the Tenses
17
e The StoicVarronian Theory of Tense and Aspect
20
Traditional Theories of the Complex Tenses
27
b The Problem of Complex Tenses
32
c Theories of Relative Tense
37
j The Perfect
264
k Translation and Interpretation of the Perfect
266
1 The Compositionality of the Perfect
268
m The Futurate Perfect
277
n The Progressive
281
o Formal Semantics of the Progressive
290
p Imperfective and Perfective
295
q Temporal Adverbials
300

d Aspectual and Other Theories
43
e Tense in NonIndoEuropean Languages
50
f Jespersens Structuralist Approach to Tense
53
g Retrospective and Prospective Tenses
60
Modern Theories of the Subordinate Tenses
66
b Mood in Subordinate Structures
74
c Tense in Subordinate Structures
82
d Sequence of Tense Rules
86
e Nonfinites and Tense
93
f The Uses of the Perfect Tenses
98
g Context and Autonomy
104
Reichenbach and Bull
109
i Allen on the Futurates
119
Beyond Theories of Tense
126
Aspect
133
The Problem of Aspect
135
b Aspect and Aktionsarten
139
c Opposition and Markedness
149
d The Analysis of Greek
158
Explanation in Aspectology
170
b The Ontology of Situations
179
c States
183
d Activities and Events
188
e Telicness and Performances
194
f Phase
197
g Phase and the Aktionsarten
202
h Defining Aspect
207
Formal Semantics of Tense and Aspect
215
b Referential Semantics
217
c Formal TruthConditional Semantics
224
d Montague Semantics
231
e Semantic Interpretation
236
f The Formal Semantics of the Priorian Tense Operators
241
g The Present and the Future
247
h Semantic Interpretation of the Tense Operators
253
i Complex Tenses and Compositionality
257
r Time Adverbials and the Adverbial Scope Paradox
310
s Multidimensional Indexing
313
t Events and Aktionsarten
319
u A Formal Semantic Theory with Events
326
v Situation Semantics
330
Beyond the Semantics of Tense and Aspect
339
b The Rpoint Solution and Its Failure
342
c Syntactic Theories of SOT and Their Failure
353
d Semantic Problems for the Syntactic Solution
365
Use and Meaning
371
f Aspect Foregrounding and Backgrounding
378
g Salience and Relevance
381
The Perfect
383
i Modal Functions of the Perfect
387
The Historical Tenses
388
The Futurates
389
1 Shift of Present and Future to Past
390
Events and Discourses
393
n The Pragmatics of Discourse Tense
405
o Perspective
415
p Orientation
426
q Localization
431
The Problem of the Semitic Verb
434
s The Problem of Waw and the Pragmatics of the Semitic Verb
439
t Tenseless Languages
444
u Beyond Tense and Aspect
447
Summary
452
b Topical Summary
455
c Aspect
456
d The Formal Semantics of Tense and Aspect
458
e Pragmatics
460
Envoi
462
Notes
463
References
507
Index
525
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Seite 6 - Interpretation that words spoken are symbols or signs of affections or impressions of the soul; written words are the signs of words spoken.
Seite 6 - Words spoken are symbols or signs of affections or impressions of the soul ; written words are the signs of words spoken. As writing, so also is speech not the same for all races of men. But the mental affections themselves, of which these words are primarily signs, are the same for the whole of mankind, as are also the objects of which those affections are representations or likenesses, images, copies.

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