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A man of a genius as active, and of acquirements as universal almost as those which are ascribed to the famous Pico, prince of Mirandola. His philofophy was not, however, the cool and temperate reasoning of Büyle.-It was mingled too much with imagination, and his superstitious zeal in favour of his “ Sympathetic Powder,” which was to be a cure for almost all diseases, has fixed a blot on his character, which has rendered his philosophical publications less objects of general attention than they deserve.

“ Sir William Petty is chiefly known for his great and acknowledged skill in political arithmetic; yet, even this was one of the least of his accomplishments. Perhaps no man, not excepting the late Dr. Franklin, ever potrefied a mind lo happily adapted to practical and useful science; and, indeed, he was not only one of the most extraordinary men of his age, but that Britain ever producéd. Like the man, whom, in modern times, he most resembled, Franklin, he was the fon of a plain tradesman, and was born at Rumsey in Hampshire. At a very early age he displayed an uncommon genius for mechanics; but after his grammar education, and some subsequent instruction at the university of Caen in Normandy, he was appointed to a situation in the navy.--But before he had arrived at the age of twenty, having saved about fixty pounds, upon the Itiength of this sum he set out to travel for his improvement; and after spending three years abroad, and mainfaining all the time his younger brother, such was his great æconomy and industry, that he returned to England with ten pounds more than he took with him. About this time he invented an instrument for double writing, by which the operator was enabled to produce an accurate copy of a manu. script, while in the act of writing the original. This inftrument has since been more successfully employed in the art of drawing and designing. After this, he removed to Oxford, and in 1649 was created a doctor of physic. He was soon after appointed physician to the army, and was also physician to three successive lord-lieutenants of Ireland. This profession, however, he afterwards abandoned, and, on the divifion of the forfeited estates in Ireland, was appointed to take the suiveys, which he did with fingular accuracy, and gained considerable property by his services on this occasion. After the reitoration, he was in considerable favour with government, received the honour of knighthood, and was a member both in the English and Irish parliaments.—The object which most engaged his attention at this period was, how to improve the arts of ship-building and navigation ; and he constructed a vessel to fail again it wind and tide. To enumerate his various experiments and discoveries would occupy more of the volume than we usually appropriate to this division of our work. He was one of the founders and one of the most active members of the Royal Society; and yet, while so much of his time was devoted to science, his private business was more than most men would be able to conduct : it confifted in the management of a large estate, both in lands and buildings, in working of mines, and a considerable trade in lead, iron, and fish. His labours were crowned with extraordinary success. He died at the age of sixty-five, pofteffed of immense property, and was the founder of a noble family, in which genius as well as patriotism seems to be hereditary.


“ Among the philosophers of this age we may class most of those who have been already noticed as the founders of the Royal Society, particularly bishop Wilkins, and Mr. Hooke, the friend and assistant of the illuftrious Boyle.

“ It may, perhaps, be information to those of the present day, who assume a name, of the real import of which they are essentially ignorant, that these real philosophers were Christians. Their learning was united with its natural concomitant, modeity. They did not apologize for vice and impiety, because they loved to practise them; they did not cavil at the Scriptures, while ignorant of the very languages in which these scriptures were composed; or deny the God of Nature, while they were totally unacquainted with all Nature's ope. rations. Their philosophy was not rhapsody and wild conjecture; it was the philotophy of fact and experiment. Their labours were directed to the welfare of society, and not to its undoing ; they were the friends of religion, of order and good government, because they were the friends of virtue and of truth *.

* Sprat’s History of the Royal Society; Birch's History of the same; Rapin's History of England; Biographia Brit.; Biographical Dict. &c. &c.


Thus we find that the Royal Society was established by the most learned men of the age, and that their labours are intended to scrutinize and lay open the won. ders of creation. The same great objeä ihould ftill engage our attention; the progress of science amongst us should be always a matter of rejoicing--we are thereby freed from the terrors of superstition-feel an ardent curiosity gratified, and become assimilated to that great Being, by whose power and wisdom all things were formed. Knowledge, steadily acquired, and properly improved, constitutes the glory and dignity of the intelligent creation.

The above account of the Royal Society, will enable the young reader rationally to interpret the three famous iniciais F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society, by which the names of the learned are often decorated.

The Utility of Religious Asociations, A Sermon preached

before an Asociation of Ministers at Chalfont, St. Giles, in the County of Bucks. By Hugh Worthington. Published by Requejt. Printed by C. Whittingham, Dean Street, Fetter Lane. Price 4d. or 3s. 6..

per Dozen.

IT is usual for the Diffenters of different denomina

tions to hold, among themselves, these associations, where the explication and enforcement of an appointed subject become particularly useful and impressive. The utility of fuch assemblies is here fully explained and ably recommended.

Among many other advantages resulting from these associations, the ingenious author thus states the following benefit with energy and effect". These fer“ vices,” says he, bring together members of dif« ferent churches, and thus tend to diminish bigotry and to promote brotherly love and a Christian temper. " That these objects are desirable, every enlightened 3

"follower “ follower of the blessed Jesus must allow, for next to so absolute vice, there is nothing more difhonourable to

our creed, more displeasing to our Master, more ruin" ous to the Church of God on earth, or more un"" suitable to the spirit, employment, and felicity of “ heaven, than-BIGOTRY.

A Chronological Table on a new Plan, comprising Ar

ticles of an Historical, Biographical, and Miscellaneous Nature, for Daily Use; to which are subjoined an Explanation of the several Subdivisions of Time; the Origin of the Names of the Days of the Weeks and Months of the Year ; an Account of the CorreSpondence of ine latter with the New French Calendar, and a Copious Index to the Work, designed for the Use of Young Ladies. By William Butler, Teacher of Writing, Accounts, and Geography, in Ladies Schools and in Private Families. Second Edi. tion, enlarged. 55. Dilly. AN immense number of events ftands inscribed upon

the ample scroll of history, which it is the province of CHRONOLOGY to arrange and concentrate, for the purposes of instruction. Hence its unspeakable utility; and we ought to feel obliged to every individual whose efforts are directed to the improvement of this important branch of learning.

Mr. Butler has here selected some of the most interefting events of modern history; and arranged them according to the days of the year on which they happened. This is an excellent mode of impressing the memory, and must prove highly beneficial to the young mind. We add JANUARY by way of specimen :

16 JANUARY JAN. 1, 1057. William the Conqueror was crowned at Weft

minder. He was born at Falaise, and buried at Caen, VOL, VIIL,




now in the department of Calvados, France. See bat

tle of Hastings, Arith. Quest. 1515. Expired Lewis XII. King of France, in the 53d

year of his age, to the extreme regret of the French nation, who, sensible of his tender concern for their welfare, gave him, with one voice, the honourable appel.

lation of father of his people. See October 9, 1514. 1651. Charles II. was crowned at Scone, Perthshire,

Scotland. 17. Ovid, one of the finest poets of the Augustan age, expired at Tomi, near Varna, on the western coast of the Black Sea, whither he had been banished by the Emperor Auguftus, but for what reason it is not now known His poetical talents have justly ranked him among the first of Roman poets, but his works have a very immoral tendency. Ovid's death is said to have happened on the same day with that of Livy, the celebrated Roman

historian, who was born at Padua, 59. years, B. C. 3, 107 B. C. Cicero, one of the greatest orators, itates

men, and philosophers of antiquity, was born. See

December 7, 43 B. C. 1670. Died General Monk, Duke of Albermarle, a

principal instrument in restoring Charles II. after he

had been an exile almost nine years. 4, 1568. Died Roger Ascham, who had been Latin secre

tary and tutor in the learned languages to Queen Elizabeth, by whom he was much lamented. He was born near Northallerton in Yorkshire, about the year

1515. 1712. Prince Eugene, of Savoy, arrived in England. On

his audience of leave, March 13, 1712, Queen Anne presented him with a sword, valued at goool. He had rendered eminent services to the country in conjunction with the Duke of Marlborough. 1724. Philip V. King of Spain, resigned his crown 10 his son, and retired to his palace of St. Ildefonso. It is somewhat remarkable, that in less than 80 years four sovereigns abdicated their thrones; namely, Christiana, Queen of Sweden, in 1654; Casimir, King yf Poland, in 1667; Philip, King of Spain, in 1724; and Ama


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