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should be familiar, but none of which would be presented in a miscellaneous reading-book that should omit all notice of the subjects themselves. But, to meet all possible demands for suitable variety, we have given “ Miscellaneous Divisions” also, and in these have endeavored to make good whatever may be wanting in the more scientific portions. In Part I. we have given a pretty full elucidation of some of the higher principles of elocution, with abundant examples for illustration; and in Part XI. we have made such a selection of reading-lessons, in great part poetical, as will present, in chronological order, the outlines of Ancient History.

Of the amount of useful knowledge which the plan adopted in these reading-books is calculated to impart, we need only remark that we have aimed to present the leading truths of science in a form as attractive as possible, and have therefore avoided the dry details and technicalities which would have been required in a complete scientific text-book. Our object has been to present a pleasing introduction to science rather than to give any thing like a full exposition of any one department. The great mass of pupils in our schools know nothing whatever of many of the subjects here treated, nor is there any possibility of their becoming acquainted with them by any other method than by the one here adopted. It is thought, if all the pupils in our schools should acquire some knowledge of these sub jects while attending to their ordinary reading-lessons, and become interested in the wonderful truths with which they abound, they will, in most instances, be stimulated to seek a farther acquaintance with them, and that the foundations may thus be laid for a wider dissemination of scientific knowledge, and a higher degree of popular education than has hitherto been thought attainable.

We might refer to the Natural History illustrations in the present volume as surpassing any thing of the kind ever before published in this country; but while their beauty—for which we are indebted to the pencil of a Parsons—will be acknowledged by all, it is their utility, as objects of interest and instruction to pupils, to which we would more particularly call attention; for not only does an accurate and striking illustration of an object often give a more correct idea of it than pages of description, but so maps it upon the memory that, by the most interesting of all associations, the very description itself is indelibly pictured there. The admirable system of “object teaching,” whose principles should be carried throughout the entire educational course of every individual, could scarcely receive better aids than those furnished in the illustrations here given.

For valuable aid in several of the scientific divisions of the present work, it affords me pleasure here, as in the preceding volume, to acknowledge my indebtedness to Prof. N. B. Webster, of Virginia; and while doing this I would take occasion to express the hope that, however much the citizens of different states and sections may differ in their political views, in the sacred cause of science and popular education they may ever be united.

M. WILLSON. Now YORK, May 15th, 1861.

[EXPLANATORY.—Those lessons designated by italics, or the authors of which, in whole

or in part, are so designated, are poetical selections; the names of authors in small capi.

tals denote prose selections; and those marked “Adapted" are occasionally original, but

mostly adapted or compiled from various sources. ]

PART I.

ELOCUTIONARY.

Page

I. Inflections; Elementary Rules..

11

U. Higher Principles of Elocution..

18

Lesson

FIRST MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

I. Green River..

Bryant. 43

II. The best Kind of Revenge

.CHAMBERS. 44

III. A modest Wit...

Anonymous.

46

IV. The Eloquence of Action

WEBSTER. 47

V. Use plain Language..

.LA BRUYÈRE. 48

VI. The Three Black Crows

... Byrom. 48

VII. What is a Gentleman ?,

.G. W. DOANE. 49

VIII. What is Time?.....

..... Marsden. 50

PART II.

HERPETOLOGY, OR THE NATURAL HISTORY OF REPTILES.

I. Introductory View..

..Adapted. 51

II. A Letter about the Chelonians, or Turtles..

..Adapted. 64

III. A second Letter about Turtles.

.Adapted. 57

IV. A Letter about the Saurians

.GOODRICH; Adapted. 61

V. The Crocodile and the Ichneumon

Mrs. J. L. Gray. 67

VI. A Letter about the Ophidians

Virgil; Southey; Adapted. 68

VII. A Letter about the Amphibians.

.Adapted. 72

SECOND MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

1. To a Girl in her Thirteenth Year..

Sidney Walker. 75

II. The Love of Country

. GRIMKE. 76

III. A noble Revenge

THOMAS DE QUINCEY. 77

IV. Hamlet's Soliloquy..

..Shakspeare. 78

V. The Folly of Castle-building..

..ADDISON, 79

VI. The Stranger and his Friend

.Montgomery. 80

VII. Scene between Brutus and Cassius.

. . Shakespeare. 82

PART III.

SECOND DIVISION OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH.

I. The Window of the Soul,

....Adapted. 83

Our Sight the most delightful of all our Senses.

.ADDISON.

84

II. The Living Temple ...

Oliver Wendell Holmes. 85

III. The Brain: the Nerves of Voluntary Motion and the Nerves of Feeling. Adapted. 87

IV. Other Forms of Nervous Action..

. Adapted. 93

V. Spirit, the Motive Power of the Body

.LARDNER. 96

VI. Various Phenomena of the Nervous System..

.Adapted. 98

1. What is necessary to Sensation and Voluntary Motion..

98

2. Nervous Paralysis..

99

3. No Feeling in the Nerves of Motion, in the Brain, or in the Heart 100

4. The Reunion and Healing of severed Nerves.

101

VII. Intemperance the Prime Minister of Death

. Anonymous, 102

VIII. Look not upon the Wine

N. P. Willis. 103

IX. The Water-drinker ...

E. Johnson. 104

X. How the Mind speaks through the Nerves and Muscles..

..Adapted. 105

XI. The Language of the Countenance. ... Tasso; Shakspeare; Spenser; Adapted. 107

XII. Uses of Anatomy and Physiology to the Painter.. ..SIR CHARLES BELL. 111

XIII. Marvels of Human Caloric..

ECLECTIC REVIEW. 112

XIV. Lines on a Skeleton..

London Morning Chronicle, 116

XV. Education of the Muscles of Expression.

Adapted. 117

Expression of the Countenance after Death..

. . Byron. 119

XVL Disorders of the Nervous System: Visions, Apparitions, and Dreams. . Adapted. 119

Lesson

Page

XVII. A Dream, and its Explanation,

DRAPER, 123

XVIII. The Health of the Brain.

.Adapted. 125

XIX. The Foot's Complaint..

Anonymous. 127

XX. Rules for Mental Exercise.

..Adapted. 128

XXI. Advice to a hard Student..

Charles Mackay. 129

XXII. Neglect of Health...

... SAMUEL JOHNSON. 130

The Joys of Health.

. Gay; Thomson, 131

THIRD MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

I. The Village School of Olden Time....

Goldsmith. 132

II. The Righteous never Forsaken.

NEW YORK SPECTATOR. 133

III. The Family Meeting

... Charles Sprague. 135

IV. Tact and Talent.

.LONDON ATLAS. 136

V. Rain upon the Roof

.... Anonymous. 138

VI. Good Advice....

..Anonymous. 139

VII. True Knowledge..

BISHOP MANT. 139

PART IV.

SECOND DIVISION OF BOTANY.

I. The Study of Botany

Crabbe. Adapted. 140

II. Classification of Plants.

......Milton. Adapted. 141

III. Natural Method of Classification.

Adapted. 143

The Floral Kingdom.

Thomson, 145

May Flowers.

..Barrington. 146

FIRST DIVISION OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM : EXOGENS.

IV. The Rose Family.

.Cowley; Carey, and others. Adapted. 147

To the Rose...

Mrs. Hemans. 147

The Feast of Roses.

Moore. 149

The Moss Rose

From the German. 150

V. Our Common Fruits.... Thomson; Moore; Virgil; Wordsworth. Adapted. 151

To the Almond Blossom..

Edwin Arnold. 153

VI. Camēllia, Mallow, and Citron Families

Goethe. Adapted. 154

To the Camēllia.

..W. Roscoe. 155

VII. Chorus of Flowers

.Leigh Hunt. 157

VIII. The Cactus Family

Adapted. 158

Cactus Blossom.

.Mrs. Sigourney. 158

Night-Blooming Cereus

Anonymous. 159

Unpretending Worth.

.Mrs. Southey. 159

IX. Leguminous and Umbelliferous Plants.. Shelley; Darwin; Prior. Adapted. 161

The Ivy Green

..Charles Dickens. 163

X. The Composite, or Sunflower Family .Moore; Campbell. Adapted. 164

The Marigold..

Anonymous. 165

The Daisy

Wordsworth; John Mason Good. 166

The Thistle-flower..

..Twamley. 167

XI. Jessamine, Honeysuckle, and Heath Families... Scott; Landon. Adapted. 168

The Jasmine.

Cowper; Moore. 168

The Rhodora

...R. W. Emerson. 171

The Psychology of Flowers

.HUNT's Poetry of Science, 171

XII. Labiate

and Trumpet-flower Families

.Adapted. 172

XIII. Forest Trees..

.... WASHINGTON IRVING. 173

XIV. The Oak Family.

.Adapted. 174

Selections from Cowper; Scott; Southey; Morris; Longfellow; Shak-

speare; Campbell, and others.

XV. The Oak and the Nobleman.

WASHINGTON IRVING. 178

XVI. The Elm, Willow, and Birch Families..

.Adapted. 178

Selections from Homer; Ovid; Cowper; N. S. Dodge; Byron; Scott.

Hiawatha's Canoe

..Longfellow. 182

XVII. The Cone-bearing, or Pine Family. Virgil; Hood; Pierpont; Byron. Adapted. 182

XVIII. To a Pine-tree ...

......James Russell Lowell. 185

SECOND DIVISION OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM: ENDOGENS.

XIX. The Iris, Lily, and Palm Families Twamley; Thomson ; Montgomery.

Adapted. 186

XX. Sedges and Grasses.

Adapted. 190

The Voice of the Grass.

Sarah Roberts. 192

The Harvest Moon

.. Henry Kirke White. 194

Corn-fields.

..Mary Howitt. 194

XXI. Of the Hidden Uses of Plants.

M. F. Tupper. 195

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THIRD DIVISION: CRYPTOG AMOUS PLANTS.

Page

XXII. Ferns, Liverworts, and Mosses (Acrogens).

W. Scott. Adapted. 196

XXIII. The Mosses (Acrogens).

A kenside; Thomson. Adapted. 199

The Lovely Moss ..

..Miss M. A. Browne. 199

The Moss in the Desert

MUNGO PARK. 200

XXIV. The Fern and the Moss...

Eliza Cook. 201

XXV. Lichens (Thallogens) . Campbell; Darwin; Mary Howitt. Adapted. 202

XXVI. Fungi, or Fungous Plants (Thallogens)

...Adapted. 206

XXVII. Algæ, or Sea-weeds (Thallogens)

Charlotte Smith. Adapted. 209

The Driftiny Sea-weed

. Longfellow. 210

The Sea-wort...

M. F. Tupper. 211

The Sea-weed

C. G. Fenner. 211

XXVIII. Domestic Flower Culture.

...CHAMBERS' Miscellany. 212

FOURTH MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

1. Eva

Bulwer Lytton. 215

II. Gil Blas and the Archbishop

.LE SAGE. 216

III, The Bells

. Edgar A. Poe. 219

IV. Speaking and Doing

..bulleid. 221

V. Resistance to British Oppression..

.PATRICK HENRY. 222

VI. The American Indians

...SPRAGUE, 222

PART V.

ICHTHYOLOGY, OR THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.

I. Nature of the Study.

Spenser; Milton. Adapted. 223

II. The Physiology of Fishes (Agassiz's Arrangement)

Adapted. 225

FIRST CLASS: SPINE-RAYED BONY FISHES.

III. The Perch Family

. Ausonius; Juvenal; Horace. Adapted. 228

IV. Other Families of the Spine-rayed Fishes.. ENGLISH MAGAZINE ; Dr. Ham-

ILTON ; Sophocles; Oppian..

..Adapted. 232

V. The Spine-rayed Fishes-continued.. Oppian; CAPTAIN RICHARDS; Mont-

gomery; SWAINSON

..Adapted. 237

SECOND CLASS: SOFT-RAYED BONY FISHES.

VI. Soft-rayed Bony Fishes with Abdominal Ventral Fins: Carp, Pike, and Cat-

fish Families. . Moore; Wordsworth; Montgomery, and others. Adapted. 242

VII. To the Flying-fish.

Moure. 247

VIII. Fishes with Åbdominal Ventral Fins (continued): Salmon, and Trout, and

Herring, and Pilchard Families..

.Adapted. 248

IX. The Sub-brachial soft-rayed Bony Fishes..

.Adapted. 251

1. The Cod Family. A Charade on Cod.

..Adapted. 252

2. Family of the Flat-fish ..YARRELL; SWAINSON; Juvenal. Adapted. 252

3. The Salt-water Suckers

.Adapted. 254

X. The Apodal Soft-rayed Bony Fishes.

YARRELL. Adapted. 256

XI. Fishes with Tufted Gills

Adapted. 253

Fishes with Soldered Jaws

.Adapted. 258

THIRD CLASS : CARTILAGINOUS FISHES.

XII, The Shark Family L. E. Maclean; CUVIER; SCORESBY. Adapted. 260

XIII. Sturgeon, Chimæra, Ray, and Lamprey Families..

.Adapted. 264

Concluding Remarks

267

XIV. The Aquaria, or Drawing-room Fish-ponds

.Adapted. 268

FIFTH MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

I. The Glory of the Imagination..

Wordsworth. 273

II. Shylock: a Scene of Contending Passions...

..SHAKSPEARE. 273

III. Shylock and the Merchant : the Trial Scene ..

Shakspeare. 274

IV. Character of Portia, as displayed in the Trial Scene ...... Mrs. JAMESON. 278

V. The Philosopher's Scales ...

..Jane Taylor. 280

PART VI.

CIVIL ARCHITECTURE.

I. Grecian and Roman Architecture..

Adapted. 283

II. Athenian Architecture during the Age of Pericles..

BULWER. 285

III. Ruins of the Coliseum at Rome..

Adapted. 287

Ruins of the Coliseum..

Byron. 287

IV. Gothic Architecture...

. Adapted. 287

Lesson

Castles and Abbeys of Feudal Times. Warton; WM. BEATTIE; W. Scott. 287

V. Of the Useful in Architecture.

....A. J. DOWNING. 293

VI. Of Expression in Civil or Public Architecture. ..... LITERARY WORLD. 295

VII. Of Expression in Domestic Architecture..

.. A. J. DOWNING. 296

VIII. The Poetry of Cottage Architecture..

LOUDON'S MAGAZINE. 298

IX. The Shepherd's Cottage..

. Charlotte Smith, 300

X. Of Truthfulness in Architecture..

.A. J. DOWNING. 302

XI. Monuments of the Burial-ground.

....J. A. PICTON. 303

XII. The Architecture of Nature...

..Adapted. 305

God's First Temples.

. Bryant. 306

The Parthenon of Athens.

Mrs. Hemans. 308

SIXTH MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

I. Indian Summer...

Mrs. Sigourney. 309

II. Forgiveness of Injuries.

... BLAIR. 310

III. Passing Away..

..Pierpont, 311

IV. The Dream of the Two Roads.:

.JEAN PAUL RICHTER. 312

V. Thanatopsis; or, Reflections on Death.

..... Bryant. 314

VI. The Village Blacksmith..

.. Longfellow. 315

PART VII.

SECOND DIVISION OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

1. The Library : Introductory..

.Adapted. 317

II. Hydrostatics, or Liquids in a State of Rest.

.Adapted, 319

III. Hydrostatics (continued). .

..Adapted. 323

IV. Floating Bodies ; Specific Gravity

. Adapted. 327

Archimedes and the Crown..

ROBERT C. WINTHROP, 330

V. Hydraulics: the Excursion..

. Adapted. 331

Song of the Brook.

. Tennyson. 331

The Bucket ..

Woodworth. 334

The Cataract of Lodore.

... Southey. 337

VI. Pneumatics : Galileo and Torricelli

..Adapted. 340

Practical Value of the Barometer

Dr. ARNOTT. 343

VII. Atmospheric Machines..

Darwin; Adapted. 347

The Lost Kite..

Anonymous. 351

A Riddle ..

Anonymous. 352

VIII. The Steam-engine..

..Adapted. 353

The Steam-engine

. Saxe; LORD JEFFREY; Dr. ARNOTT. 355

The Song of Steam.

G. W. Cutler, 356

SEVENTH MISCELLANEOUS DIVISION.

1. Blessings on Children..

W. G. Simms. 357

II. The Saracen Brothers..

New Monthly Magazine. 359

III. Our Country and our Home..

.James Montgomery. 363

IV. The Gipsy Fortune-teller

..Anonymous. 363

V. Success alone seen..

.L. E. Maclean, 364

PART VIII.

FIRST DIVISION OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. General Description..

...Adapted. 365

II. Continents and Islands.

...Adapted. 367

III. Coral Islands and Reefs.

Percival; Adapted. 369

IV. The Coral Insect.

.Mrs. Sigourney. 371

V. Mountains.

.HOWITT; GUYOT; HUMBOLDT; Adapted. 372

Mountain Scenery.

Bryant. 372

The Alps...

Willis Gaylord Clark. 375

VI. Table-lands, Plains, and Valleys

..Adapted. 376

VII. The Prairies....

.. Bryant. 379

VIII. Caves and Grottoes of the Old World.... GOLDSMITH; W. Scott; Adapted. 380

IX. Caves in the United States

.Adapted. 383

X, The Mammoth Cave.

George D. Prentice. 384

XI. Avalanches and Glaciers..

..Adapted. 386

Hymn before Sunrise in the Valley of Chamouni.. . Coleridge, 388

XII. The Cottage of the Hills..

. Anonymous. 389

XIII. Volcanoes and Earthquakes.

DR. HITCHCOCK; Adapted. 390

Destruction of Scylla in 1783.

. Anonymous. 392

XIV. The Ocean: its Moral Grandeur

Adapted, 393

The Ocean.

. Bryan W. Proctor. 894

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