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tached to the honey-sign. In the more de:rotic Canac glyphs, honey is represented as shown in Fig 8 Erosion has partially destroyed one of the components of the Casa No. 3 Cauac glyph of which we speak, but by comparing the photograph with Catherwood's drawing, it will be found to closely resemble this component in the demotic Cauac glyph. It is simply the aspirate circle (dotted), enclosing two small squares as in the Landa glyph of Cauac. In this connection it may be interesting to add that an attempt to interpret, by means of our alphabet, the inscription at the top of the left-hand slab, Casa No. 3, Palenque, gives as follows: "The gods-earth-sky watermaize - Kukuitz and Kukulcan - Cauac - Muluc." The slab at the right-hand side of the doorway of Casa No. 3 we think represents Kukulcan with the wart-like excrescence and the antennæ sign attached to his forehead. The inscription, according to the rendering of our alphabet, reads "Kukulcan, u-ahkin imix, ah Cimil, Chikin." The forefinger of the left hand of Kukuitz on the left-hand slab of Casa No. 3, Palenque, points to a glyph just above, which is probably the hieratic glyph of this god, bearing, we think, strong affinities to the demotic character, an attempt at the analysis of which has already been given in this paper. Just above the Kukuitz glyph, in the perpendicular column in front of the god's face, is Chikin, above Chikin is Ahau, the next two glyphs not yet determined, and then immediately below the horizontal line of glyphs in the right-hand corner of the slab is Cimi. Just above Cimi is Kan, and to the left Ikilcab; the third to the left on this parallel line of glyphs seems to be the long-nosed god — probably Kukulcan-next to it Itzamna, and the end glyph on the left seems to express "Itza." This interpretation is made subject to further alteration and improvement; to give detailed analyses of these glyphs in a short paper is impossible.


The small figure on Plate 25 of the Codex Troano (b), turned head downward, shown in drawing B, has some interesting relations with the antennæ glyph attached to the honey-sign (see Figs 1, 4-6, drawing A-1 and 6 hieratic script, 4 demotic). The drawing B is but a portion of the original design of the scribe, the hand supporting the antennæ sign, enclosed in the circular glyph underneath the upturned foot, is that of the goddess Cab, or the earth. Just above the antennæ glyph (phonetic value i-kil-cab) is the foot which uoc. The hand of the goddess supporting this design is the chi glyph, but in this place it has the phonetic value of Chá, the ha determinative being quite conspicuous on the thumb, its end protruding well into the circle enclosing the antennæ glyph. This obtained, we have suggested "chá-uoc" or Cauac.


The ca glyph in the eye of the child figure and the foot also give us, cauoc a repetition of cauac. The antennæ of the bee with the slight i curve at the end give the phonetic value ikil, and the honey squares below give us cab = ikilcab. There is evidently some close connection between cauac and ikilcab, for the head-dress of this child figure has the scribe's method of representing honey by squares and suggestions of ikil. The work of the scribe sculptor was necessarily different from that of his more demotic brethren, who drew the more cursive script, yet there seems to us to be a not improbable relationship of this figure on Plate 25 of the Troano to that upheld in the arms of the ahkin on the Casa No. 2 group - Palenque. The peculiar slit or deformed feet and variants of the head-dress suggest that future study may show some connection between these figures. and that ikilcab and cauac may have a dual mening or

personality. Mr. W. Thomson, who has been residing in Chiapas for many years, informs me that during a visit to Lorillard City his Maya servant, who had been a bee hunter in his youth, accompanied him, and while they were preparing a resting place for the night the cry of a jaguar was heard; the old man shook his head, and laying his hand on a sculptured lintel near the door of the temple, said rapidly" The jaguar calls, the bee leaves the centre of the maize flower and seeks the hollow tree," then turning toward the bas-relief he indicated the head covering of the figures ejaculating "cab," then as if startled at what he had said, he relapsed into silence, and no amount of questioning could obtain anything further from him. I cannot recall where I have read it in one of Dr. Brinton's books, but he mentions that Dr. Berendt while travelling with a Maya guide overheard some remark which he made having an interesting meaning, but the man, recollecting that he was accompanied by one of the white race, stopped short in his words and nothing further could be elicited from him. The suggestion of cab, a hive, was an excellent one, for the head coverings of these


figures, as represented by Charnay on page 391 of his "Villes du Nouveau Monde," seem to be representations of bee hives; and it was the antennæ sign to the right-hand side of the large figure on this slab, or lintel, that led my learned friend to make the suggestien that the antennæ, attached to the sign for honey, might possibly exist on other sculptured Maya reliefs. As I have stated, it exists in the manuscript Troano (see Plates 24 and 25), and a sculptured slab in the Smithsonian Institution has it represented by an incised square, to which the antennæ are attached (see A, Fig. 6). It is the most demotic form of the hieratic-scribe-sculptor's work that I have examined. The glyph in question is to be seen on a cast which is now hanging on the stairway-wall of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, to the righthand side of the long gallery in which Professor Thomas Wilson has arranged his interesting synoptical cases. No record is attached to the cast, but by its character and technique it seems to be a copy of one of Charnay's squeezes. probably from Lorillard City. The antennæ glyph frequently appears near representations of corn leaves, and as we have the day-signs Ixim and ik, the latter, there is but little doubt, being but an abbreviation of ikil: =the sting

(the sign used for this day is the bee sting), there is evidently a connection between ymix, ik, caban, and cauac, whose components are all more or less associated with, or composed of, the bee and honey signs.

When I speak of the components of a glyph it may be that an example will make this more readily understood. Take the day-sign manik. We have in this glyph, as represented by Landa, four components; the first is the glyph not unlike a carpenter's T-square which has the phonetic value of ma; near it to the right are three short lines which =n; and below to the left is the ich or ix glyph, which gives us, together with the others, "Ma-n-ich


an excellent suggestion of Manik. The day-sign, chicchan, was represented by a pot, the base of which was crossed by hatchings giving the phonetic value x; the white space at the end of this divides the hatching from a black line, to which tooth-like processes are attached, giving the phonetic value of "há ch." We now have x or sh, which, joined to há, xá; placing ch before this we obtain ch-xa the suggestion of "Chi-xa" or "chicchan." The hieroglyph of the day-sign Ahau contains as components the á glyph, from which perpendicular lines mount to the top of the circle enclosing them. The straight lines há, and the two small round circles on either side of the há oo, giving us "Ah-há-oo" or "Ahau." The phonetic components of Landa's B are simply expressed by conventionalized footmarks =be in Maya; and when Landa asked for bay (the way he pronounced it in Spanish), the Maya scribe jotted down representations of footprints which recalled to him the sound of the name of the thing represented in other words bepronounced bã in Maya.



I believe the standard of phoneticism in these old Maya glyphs to be about the same as the more advanced system of writing used by the Nahuatalacs, and described by M. Aubin. The phonetics of some of the Maya day signs are quite obscure, others quite clear and easily interpreted.

The scientific world is already coznizant of the painstaking labors of Professor Cyrus W. Thomas of the Bureau of Ethnology, and his researches upon the Codex Troano are of inestimable value. I have recently had the pleasure of working in conjunction with Dr. Thomas as a member of the staff of the above-named institution, and I am convinced that his alphabet is based upon a solid foundation. Although we are both working by independent methods of research, like results have been obtained in several cases by repeated tests. His recent publication in Science adds other similarities of interpretation; surely this correspondence of results cannot be the result of accident. Dr. D. G. Brinton, Professor of American linguistics and archæology in the University of Pennsylvania, in a recent letter, says, The correspondence between your interpretations and that of Professor Thomas in certain cases is strong prima facie evidence that both methods are based on correct principles." I have but to repeat Dr. Thomas's words "that this agreement in our conclusions

serves to strengthen both in the convic

tion that we are making genuine progress in the solution of this difficult problem."

"THE Optics of Photography and Photographic Lenses," by J. Trail Taylor, editor of the British Journal of Photography, is a useful little volume for those who desire to master the optical principles involved in the construction of photographic lenses. The work is also of value to the practical photographer, as it gives directions for the proper use of diaphragms, for the testing of lenses, etc.


Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is in all cases required as proof of good faith.

On request in advance, one hundred copies of the number containing his communication will be furnished free to any correspondent.

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of the journal.

The English Sparrow and Other Birds.

I HAVE often read accounts of the English sparrow driving out our native birds, and for several years have been watching closely to see what the truth is; and from my observations I must conclude that many persons write facts from imagination.

That matters may be better understood, I may state that for twenty-three years I have lived on Ohio Street, the principal business street of the city, between 9th and 10th streets; this being near the centre of the city, the business buildings extending on Ohio Street half-way between 7th and 8th streets, and the residences having considerable ground around them, with many shade trees from fifteen to twenty-five years old.

The English sparrow came to Sedalia about twelve years ago, and for a long time did not get away from the vicinity of the business centre. Some five or six years ago, during a severe winter, I saw them one time only as far out on Ohio Street as Broadway or 8th Street, to which point they had come hunting something to eat on the street. The following summer they were frequently seen on the block between Broadway and 9th Street, but came into my yard only a few times. The following summer they were frequently in the yard, but made no nests. Since that time they have built their nests in the yard, and have fed in large numbers in the chicken-yard.

The trees are now large enough and dense enough to furnish protection for birds, and of late years more kinds are found in the city than formerly. The blue jay stays the year round, and during the winter as well as summer the red bird and some other kinds are frequently seen. In summer the tree black bird, the robin, the cat bird, the rain crow, or cuckoo, and the wren are abundant, and make their nests. In addition to these, the brown thrush, the mocking bird, the red-head woodpecker, the red-head flicker, the sap-sucker, and other kinds are often seen, some of them daily.

Now, which of all these birds has been affected by the sparrow? Not a single one of them. They are all as abundant as they were five years ago, or at any time in the past, and much more so than they were ten to twenty years ago, before there were as many trees as there are now.

In addition to the birds mentioned, I might name three others. The town martin has always been in the city in great numbers, making their nests in all kinds of cavities around the houses in the business part of the city. These same places were taken possession of by the sparrows; and they being here the year round, and making nests even in the winter time, the places belonging to the martins were appropriated before their arrival, and when they came they had to fight to recover them. I was much interested in watching one of these fights. Across the roof of a onestory building next to my office, and in the top of the adjoining building, a martin had found a hole, and had appropriated a place within for a nest. A sparrow had also afterwards done the same, and was found in possession when the martin arrived from its winter pilgrimage. The latter at once gave fight, and time and again during their fight they would fall to the roof below, and were so intently engaged that more than once I had my hand almost upon them before they would let go of each other. The martin won the fight, and the sparrow gave up the nest it had taken.

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As I now sit in my yard the martins are circling overhead by the hundred, they staying during the day in the business part of the city. It is very evident that the sparrows have not run the martins out, although they are direct competitors for the same nesting places.

Years ago the chippee always made its nests in my yard, but has not done so for six years, except in one case, and that nest was abandoned without being completed. I do not know the reason; I imagine the English sparrow domineers over the little

chipping sparrow, but still the latter quit nesting in my yard before the former commenced.

I put up boxes which were formerly occupied by bluebirds. As soon as the sparrows nested in my yard they took possession of these boxes; and when the blue birds came they did not have the grit or strength to turn the intruders out, and they went else where to nest. After nesting time they are seldom seen in the city during the summer. Very clearly the sparrows have driven the blue birds out of this part of the city, and possibly the chippees; but if they have affected any other kinds, my obervation has not been keen enough to detect it, though I have had my attention directed to it for years. F. A. SAMPSON.

Sedalia, Mo., July 25.

On Maya Chronology.

IN a former communication, answering Professor Cyrus Thomas's "Brief Study of the Palenque Tablet," I stated that the theory brought forward by Professor Förstemann, that the Dresden Codex does not count the days from the first of the given month but from the last of the preceding month, is to be put aside. Professor Förstemann's theory is based on the supposition that the calendar system of the Dresden Codex was the same as that which prevailed in Yucatan at the time of Bishop Landa's writing. This supposition, however, is an erroneous one. In the "Zeitschrift für Ethnologie," Vol. XXIII., I have shown that the priests who wrote down the Dresden Codex did not begin their years with the signs kan, muluc, ix, cauac, as in Landa's time, but with the signs been, e'tznab, akbal, lamat, exactly corresponding to the signs used by the Mexicans to designate their respective years. Beginning the years in this manner, the day 4 ahau, 8 cumku, is really the eighth day of the month cumku in the been or "cane" years, and conformingly all the other dates throughout the whole Dresden Codex.

I wish to call attention to a passage of the Chilam Balam of Mani which seems to confirm my opinion. It is said there (Brinton, Maya Chronicles, p. 98): "In the Katun, 13 Ahau, Ahpula died. It was in the course of the sixth year before the ending of the katun, as the counting of the years was in the east, and (the year) 4 Kan seated upon the throne, on the 18th day of (the month) Zip, on the day 9 Fruix, Ahpula died Now it occurs only when beginning the count with the first day of the month, that a day 9 Fruix is the 18th day of the month Zip. And, indeed, in the year that begins with the day 4 Kan, the day 9 Fruix is the 18th day of the month Zip - beginning the count with the first.

Here, therefore, we have the same designation of a date by the sign of the day and the position it holds in the number of twenty, or a Maya month, as in the Dresden Codex. It seems scarcely probable that the natural manner of counting seen in the passage of the Chilam Balam, quoted above, should be replaced in the Dresden Codex by another and wholly unintelligible one. DR. ED. SELER. Steglitz, July 24, 1892.

The Palenque Tablet.

ALLOW me to say in reply to Dr. Seler that I did not "follow Dr. Förstemann" in regard to the peculiar method of counting days in the Dresden Codex. I had discovered this peculiarity before I was aware that anyone else had noticed it, and have now an unpublished article on the series, - Pls. 46-50,- based on that method, which was prepared some time ago. While at work on this paper the thought occurred to me that the series might be based, as Dr. Seler supposes, on a calendar in which the years commenced with Been, Ezanub, Akbal, and Lamat, and a table was prepared on this theory.

I quote from that paper my reply to the suggestion. After noting the fact that the count began with the last day of the month, I remark, "It might be argued from this that the years and months began with what have been considered the last days, but for the fact that all the historical evidence is against such a conclusion, and, as can be shown, a full and complete explanation of this series can be given without resorting to this theory."

There are also some difficulties in the way of this theory. Pushing back the series one day is a very simple process; but it will sometimes throw dates in the five added days which do not belong there, and would break the continuity of the Katunes and cycles. Moreover, I think this custom of counting from the last day of the month will explain the reason for commencing the numbering of the Katunes with 13.

I think it quite probable that, if Dr. Seler will attempt to trace out on his theory the three long series on Plates 46-50, each running through 104 years, he will find that it will fail to work. If not, then it is immaterial, except as regards the succession of the epochs, whether we count the commencing days the last or first of the month.

As this theory is wholly unnecessary to explain the peculiarities of this Codex, and as Plates 25-28 appear to be based on the method of counting from the last day of the month, I see no good reason for adopting it.

Dr. Seler thinks my statement that day-numbers were not attached to month-symbols on Plates 48 and 50 of the Dresden Codex when the number was 20, is erroneous, and calls attention to certain characters which he believes are symbols for this number. The little characters he alludes to are certainly present, and, as they are not parts of the month characters, may be intended to denote the fact that the month is completed. But it is difficult to explain on his supposition the fact that the symbol on Plate 48 to which this sign is attached is that of the month Yax, when the date is 11 Eb, the twentieth day of Chen; and one of those on Plate 50 is the symbol for the month Pop, when the date is 11 Ik, the twentieth day of Cumhu. In other words, the symbol in each case is of the month following and not that to which the twenty days apply. His explanation therefore fails to solve the difficulty, and cannot as yet be accepted as fully satisfactory; nevertheless, it must be admitted that these added characters have some reference to the completion of the month.

His interpretation of the open-hand symbol by pax, "to beat," appears to be erroneous, as there is nothing connected with it representing the phonetic element p. CYRUS THOMAS.

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.


On the Modification of Organisms. By DAVID SYME. Melbourne, George Robertson & Co. 8°.

ON account of the many questions dealt with in this book, it is difficult to do justice to its contents within our limits The prime object of Mr. Syme's clearly-written and forcible work is to show the falsity of the theory of natural selection, and to present another hypothesis to explain the cause of the modification of organisms. The greater part of the volume is taken up with criticisms of Darwin's statements and method of exposition, and the author's ideas as to the true cause of modifications are not brought forward till near the close of the work.

They are embodied in what may be styled the doctrine of "cellular intelligence." "The cell is the biological unit," Mr. Syme asserts. "It is the irreducible vital entity; it is the seat of life and energy; it is the key that unlocks the mystery of organic modifications" (p. 142). But it is more than this. It is the element which "feels, thinks, and wills" (p. 144). In other words, it is intelligent.

Startling as this doctrine is, the author does not hesitate to claim for it a wide application. In the movements of the stamens and pistils of flowers, the selection of grains of sand by rhizopods, and the healing of wounds, he sees the operation of this "cellular intelligence."

Modifications of organisms are brought about by the stimulating influence of external conditions. These conditions, if uniform, pronounced, and prolonged, will, according to their nature, invariably incite the organism to change in a definite direction." Mr. Syme holds that modifications result from the action of the organism itself and not from any direct influence of environment. Hence he rejects the terms "use" and " disuse," which mean only function and its absence," and prefers to say that modifica

tions occur in accordance with the law of "effort and abstinence."

As to whether acquired characters are inherited, Mr. Syme offers no definite opinion; and hence the most important question in this connection remains unanswered. For, if modifications resulting from the response of an organism to new influences affect only the passing generation, it is difficult to understand how they can become fixed, as they certainly do.

It should be stated further that Mr. Syme avows a belief in the existence of "vital force," which is the cause of the phenomena of life and is inherent in the living cell. He asserts that Lewes's ridicule of this idea was due to his misunderstanding the questions involved.

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Our space does not admit of more than a brief mention of Mr. Syme's objections to the theory of natural selection, but many of them deserve serious attention. The case of the relation of humble-bees to clover may be cited as an example. Darwin states that "humble-bees alone visit red clover, . . . hence we may infer as highly probable that if the whole genus of humble-bees became extinct or very rare in England, the red clover would become very rare, or wholly disappear" (Origin of Species, Ed. 1880. p. 57). On this point Mr. Syme remarks: "Darwin says that T. pratense will not produce seed unless it has been visited by humble-bees. . . But this is quite a mistake. Red clover seed had been grown and exported from New Zealand long before the humble-bee was introduced there; and I am informed by one of the leading Melbourne seedsmen that he has been supplied with this seed, grown in the western district of Victoria, for the last 17 years; although no humble-bees have ever been introduced into that colony" (p. 112). It does not seem possible that both these statements can be true.

Many similar facts regarding the relation of insects to the color and form of flowers, the results of cross-fertilization, and the significance of secondary sexual characters, are cited by Mr. Syme in his endeavor to prove the falsity and insufficiency of the theory of natural selection. F. W. T. The Apodido. A morphological study. By H. M. BERNARD. Nature Series. London and New York, Macmillan & Co. 8°. $2.

THIS is an extremely interesting study of the Phyllopod crustaceans, Apus, Lepidurus, etc., with the view of using them as a key to solve the problem as to the origin of the crustacea and the true affinities between the different groups. His study has led the author to the conclusion that Apus is derived from a carnivorous annelid, whose five anterior segments have become ventrally bent over. He believes he has shown the trunk of Apus to be a true link between the many segmented annelids and the crustacean fewer-segmented body, that it exhibits a gradual transformation of the annelidan cuticle into the crustacean exo-skeleton, while the annelidan parapodia are shown to be capable of developing every form of crustacean limb, Apus supplying the clue. In short, he regards Apus as affording an almost ideal transition form between the annelids and crustacea. Further, he shows that if this is true for Apus, the long-contested Limulus or horseshoe crab and the Trilobites must have had a similar origin. He concludes that while only one group of modern crustacea admits of derivation from the Trilobites, all the rest except Limulus can be deduced from the Apodidœ.

Whether this hypothesis be finally accepted or not, the author's discussion throws light on many contested points, and cannot fail to have a beneficial influence on future discussions and theories of classification of the animals to which it relates.

Lessons in Elementary Biology, By T. JEFFREY PARKER. don, Macmillan & Co. 8°. $2.25.


PROFESSOR PARKER, a well known pupil of Huxley and professor of zoology in the University of Otago, New Zealand, has endeavored in this work to give an account of the structure, physiology and life history of a series of typical organisms in the order of their increasing complexity. He begins with the unicellular organisms Amoeba, Hæmatococcus, Heteromitu, Euglæna, Protomyxa, Mycetozoa, Saccharomyces, and Bacteria. He then takes

up those unicellular forms in which there is an increasing complexity, such as Paramoccium, Foraminifera, Diatorus, and Mucor.

Next come organisms, in which complexity is attained by cell multiplication, though with little differentiation, fungi, and algæ; then solid aggregates in which differentiation is a marked factor, such as Hydra and Porpita. From these he proceeds to polygordius, mosses, and ferns. About fifteen pages are given to the higher types, starfish, crayfish, mussel, and dogfish, and to the higher plants, and special discussions on cells and nuclei. Biogenesis, homogenesis, origin of species, etc., are discussed in special chapters. In general, little criticism is suggested by the facts stated. For the teacher it may be said to be wholly unfit for elementary work, properly so-called. The author revels in a truly Lankesterian pollysyllabic vocabulary, which the 13-page doublecolumn index by no means fully explains. A very disproportionate amount of space is given to a few low types, and the pupil cannot obtain any general idea of the animal kingdom from the book without an amount of knowledge, insight, and study not to be expected of beginners. We should think the book well adapted to deter any student who was obliged to use it from taking any further interest in the study of biology, though an accomplished teacher might find it suggestive of what to avoid in his work.

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It is thought that it may be possible to bring out additional volumes of Freeman's "History of Sicily," so large is the mass of MSS. left by the historian. The MS. referring to the Norman conquest is practically complete, and would form a volume by itself. Besides all this, Freeman left more or less complete materials for a history of Rome down to the time of Mithridates; considerable fragments of a history of Greece; a work on King Pippin; a fragment of Henry I.; and some other manuscripts.

W. B. Saunders, 913 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, have just ready "A New Pronouncing Dictionary of Medicine," by Dr. John M. Keating and Henry Hamilton. The work is a voluminous handbook of medical, surgical, and scientific terminology, containing concise explanations of the various terms used in medicine and the allied sciences, with phonetic pronunciation, etymology, etc.

- The F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, have just ready a new edition (the tenth) of the "Book on the Physician Himself, and things that concern his reputation and success," by Dr. D. W. Cathell, of Baltimore. The Davis Company will publish early in September "The New Pocket Medical Dictionary," compiled by Dr. David Braden Kyle from the latest authorities, and containing words recently introduced into medicine; also, addenda of abbreviations, affixes, list of diseases known by proper names, list of poisons and their antidotes, etc.

- The Clarenden Press has just issued a collection of the principal speeches delivered during the French Revolution, edited by Mr. H. Morse Stephens, the English historian of that period. The orators chosen are eleven in number, including Mirabeau, Barère, Danton, Robespierre. and St. Just. Prefixed to each is a life and explanatory comment; while a general introduction deals with

French oratory in general and the oratory of the Revolution. Many of the speeches have not before been reprinted, even in France; and special attention has been paid to securing an accurate text, and to the spelling of the proper names.


-W. H. Allen & Co, London, are going to bring out with all speed Dr. Steingass's Persian-English Dictionary," which has been six years in preparation, and which has been subsidized by the secretary of state for India. Another book is to appear in October, viz., two volumes on the history of the land revenue of Bombay, by Mr. A. Rogers, a retired civilian, who has searched the records at the India Office and traced the various changes introduced since the days when the Marathas handed over the task of gathering the revenue to the highest bidder. The work will be illustrated by a map of each collectorate, reduced from maps supplied by the Government of Bombay. Mr. Demetrius Boulger is going to write for Messrs. Allen a popular history of China.

-The August number of The Mother's Nursery Guide contains a number of articles that will be valuable to mothers of young children during the present season. Dr. H. D. Chapin, in an article on "Catarrh of the Stomach," gives explicit directions as to the diet necessary in this common ailment; the medical editor describes "Some Improvements in the Preparation of Infants' Foods," and Dr. S. M. Ward has a paper on "Intestinal Worms," which in some respects runs counter to the prevailing

Publications Received at Editor's Office.

BEAL, W. J., AND WHEELER. C. F. Michigan Flora. Agricultural College, Mich. 8°. Paper. 180 p. CONNECTICUT. Fourteenth Annual Report of the State Board of Health. New Haven. The State.

8°. 240 p.

medical opinion on that subject. He says: "I am constrained to believe that young physicians pooh-pooh the suggestions of mother and grandmother too often, when asked if worms may not be the cause of certain symptoms which the child presents." The article will be found very suggestive and practical. The "Mothers' Parliament " contains letters on "Summer Recreation with Baby," "Study of Child Nature," "Choosing a Cow," etc. Archibald Constable & Co. have in the press and will publish shortly an authorized translation of "Antagonismus der englischen und russischen Interessen in Asien," with a map embodying the latest information.

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In the Overland Monthly for August, in an interesting article, entitled "The Economic Introduction of the Kangaroo in America," Robert C. Auld suggests, to take the place of the defunct buffalo, the introduction of the kangaroo from Australia, it being valuable as providing flesh, fur, and footwear." He finds that the kangaroo “(1) Is easily domesticated; (2) breeds readily in captivity; (3) is easily maintained; (4) has excellent and abundant flesh of a very edible kind; (5) is valuable as a fur-producer; (6) makes excellent sport when at large; (7) can be bred and reared on an extensive, inexpensive scale, by simply fencing in a tract of country not suitable for other stock; (8) becomes easily and thoroughly acclimated, and is quite hardy; (9) and can be procured very easily and cheaply.'


[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.]


Any person seeking a position for which he is qualified by his scientific attainments, or any person seeking Taxidermist going out of business has quantity of of a teacher of science, chemist, draughtsman, or what some one to fill a position of this character, be it that finely-mounted specimens of North American birds, not, may have the Want' inserted under this head mammals and reptiles and skies of birds for sale, including a full local collection of bird skins, show-able character of his application. Any person seeking FREE OF COST, if he satisfies the publisher of the suiting some great variations of species; also quantity information on any scientific question, the address of of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, auy scientific man, or who can in any way use this and mounted heads of same. Will give good excolumn for a purpose consonant with the nature of change for Hawk Eye camera with outfit. Apply the paper, is cordial y invited to do so. quickly to J. R. Thurston, 265 Yonge St., Toronto, Canada.

FOWLER, N. C., JR., AND OTHERS. Home Warming and Ventilation. Geneva, N. Y., Herendeen Mfg. Co. 12°. Paper 64 p. GANYMEDE. Problems in Physics and their Application to Dynamic Meteorology. Published by the Author. 8°. Paper. 48 p. MACOUN, JOHN. Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part VI. Musci, Montreal, Government. 8°. Paper. 295 p. WILLISTON, S. W., AND OTHERS. Report on the Ex-ing lantern slides.

amination of Certain Connecticut Water Sup plies. 8°. Paper. 439 p.

Reading Matter Notices. Ripans Tabules cure hives. Ripans Tabules cure dyspepsia.

Societas Entomologica. International Entomological Society, Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.

Annual fee, ten francs.

The Journal of the Society appears twice a month, and consists entirely of original articles on entomology, with a department for advertisements. All members may use this department free of cost for advertisements relating to entomology.

The Society consists of about 450 members in all countries of the world.

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The numbers already issued will be sent to new members.

For information address Mr. FRITZ RUHL, President of the Societas Entomologica, Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.



We will allow the above discount to any subscriber to Science who will send us an order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting each at its full price.

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y.

For exchange.-A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for makFlute cost $27, and is nearly new. U. O. COX, Mankato, Minn.

To exchange; Experiment Station bulletins and reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. ROLFS, Lake City, Florida.

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable


JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1892) desires a position as instructor in mathematics and physics. Address, A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

WANTED. A collection of postage stamps; on●

made previous to 1870 preferred. Also old and curious stamps on original letters, and old entire U S. stamped envelopes. Will pay cash or give in exchange first-class fossils, including fine crinoids. WM. F. E. GURLEY, Danville, Ill.

specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. WANTED. To purchase laboratory outfit; bal

PERRY, State Geologist, Rutland, Vt.

For exchange.-Three copies of American State Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation," 1891, $2.50, new and unused, for 'The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, 1840; "The Sabbath." by A. A. Phelps, 1842; History of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and Abuses," by W. L. Fisher, 1859;"Humorous Phases of the Law,' by Irving Browne; or other works amounting to value of books exchanged, on the question of governmental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty, etc. If preferred, I will sell "American State Papers,' and buy other books on the subject. WILLIAM ADDISON BLAKELY, Chicago, IÍI.

For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker balance (200g to 1-10mg), platinum dishes and crucibles, agate motors, glass-blowing apparatus, etc. For sale in part or whole. Also complete file of Silliman's Journal, 1862-1885 (62-71 bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; U. S. Coast Survey. 1854-1869. Full particulars to enquirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn.

acces, evaporating dishes, burettes, etc., wanted immediately for cash. C. E. SPEIRS, 23 Murray street, New York. P. O. Box 1741.

WANTED. The services of a wide-awake young man, as correspondent, in a large manufactur ing optical business; one preferred who has a thorough knowledge of microscopy and some knowledge of photography. Address by letter, stating age and references. Optical, care of Science, 874 Broadway, New York.

WANTED We want any and all of the following.

providing we can t ade other books and maga zines or buy them cheap for cash: Academy, London, vol. 1 to 28, 35, Jan. and Feb., '89; Age of Steel. vol. 1 to 66; American Antiquarian, vol. 1, 2; American Architect, vol. 1 to 6, 9; American Art Review. vol. 3; American Field, vol. 1 to 21: American Geologist, vol. 1 to 6; American Machinist, vol. 1 to 4: Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, Oet, 4: Art Interchange. vol 1 to 9; Art Union, vol. 1 to 4, Jan., 44, July, 45; Bibliotbeca Sacra, vol. 1 to 46; Godey's Lady's Book. vol. 1 to 20; New Englander, vol. 11; Zoologist, Series 1 and 1, Series 3 vol. 1 to 14; Allen Armeudale (a Store, 243 4th Ave. novel). Raymer's "Old Book" S., Minneapolis, Minn.

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