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II. In any one metal the force of cohesion varies inversely as the square of the distance between the centres of its atoms.
We may expect these facts to be of great use in the study of the properties of matter. For, knowing the size and weight of the atoms and the velocity with which they move, all that was wanting to enable us to calculate the behavior of the atoms of matter, in the same way as we do the motions of the planets, was a knowledge of the laws of the force which holds them together; and, from the evidence given above, I have no doubt that you will agree with me in saying that we have at least made a beginning in that direction.
A few words might be said about Poisson's ratio. It is, as I said, not fair to argue from the behavior of cork or india rubber that there is no relation between longitudinal extension and lateral contraction or between a and b. When we compress a cork we are not compressing the substance which forms the cork any more than we are compressing a piece of paper when we crumple it up in our han i. A cork is like a dry sponge, and when we squeeze a sponze up in our hand we are simply doubling up the cell-walls, not compressing the substance of the sponge. The only way in which we can determine the compressibility of cork is to soak it in ether or some substance which fills all its
pores and then subject it to hydrostatic pressure. In the same way when we stretch india rubber, or ivory or jelly, the longitudinal extension of the piece of rubber is not in the least a measure of the longitudinal extension of the substance of the rubber. All such substances are made up of two parts; rubber, for instance, of a hard elastic skeleton insoluble in most solvents, and of a soft plastic substanc», soluble in many solvents, by use of which the two parts may easily be separated, similarly ivory and jelly. Let us take a square cell as in Fig. 3, the walls of which are of elastic material and the contents an incompressible plastic substance. Suppose it to be extended till its length is 4 centimeters and its breadth and thickness each 2 centimeters, as in Fig. 4. The total area of cell-wall is 40 square centimeters, and the total volume of incompressible contents is 16 cubic centimeters. Imagine the cell to be released, it will regain its position as in Fig. 3, and form a cube of side 2.52 centimeters. In this case, the volume being the same, the cell area will be 38.1 square centimeters. So we find that by stretching the cell till its length was 60 per cent greater than before, we have only had to stretch the cell-walls 5 per cent. This gives us the explanation of the well-known fact that stretched rubber contracts when heated. For if we heat the cell shown in Fig. 4 the incompressible contents will expand and tend to make the cell-walls take that shape in which they can hold the most. This is obviously that of the original cube, therefore the result will be a contraction.
Of course the formulæ, derived from this theory of cohesion, give us the means of calculating the physical properties of metals which have never been examined, or even discovered. For example, it shows us that we have at our disposal a metal far superior to any metal yet known, one which is stronger than iron, lighter than aluminium, and a better electrical conductor than silver. Aluminium, in spite of its lightness, is too weak mechanically and too poor a conductor to be used in many cases. But this new metal is four times as strong as aluminium, and is twice as good a conductor of electricity. The metal referred to is glucinum or beryllium. All that is known about it is that it has an atomic weight of 9.1 and a density of 1.7 to 2, the exact figures not being known. But from these scanty data we can deduce the following figures:
Tensile st❜gth Conductivity Sp. gr.
NOTES ON LOCAL HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA. BY E. B. SOUTHWICK, PH.D.
IN the CORISIDE Corisa Harrisii Uhl. is very common in our park lakes, and the drag net brings many of them to land at every haul. Another species as yet undetermined is about one-third the size of Harrisii, and equally abundant. In NOTONECTIDE Notonecta undulata Say. is very common. This was at one time known as variabilis Fieb.. a name quite appropriate, for they are variable to a marked degree, some of them being nearly white, while others are very dark. Notonecta irrorata Uhl. is also common, and is a very beautiful insect, and more uniform in coloration. In NEPIDÆ Ranatra fusca Pal. Beauv. is our only representative, as far as my observation goes; this was at one time known as R. nigra H. Schf.
In BELOSTOMATIDE we have two species. Benacus griseus Say., that giant among Hemiptera. This much-named creature has been known as B. haldemanus Leidy, B. har pax Stal., B. ruficeps var. Duf., B. distinctum Duf., and B. augustatum Guer.; but at last has settled down to B. griseus, which name, I hope, gives credit where it belongs. Zaitha fluminea Say. is very common in our lakes, and the females are often taken with their backs completely covered with eggs, deposited in regular rows upon the elytra; at the same time the young of all sizes will be brought up with the drag-net.
In the family HYDRODROMICA and sub-family SALDIDE I have but one representative species, Salda orbiculata Uhl., and it is exceedingly rare.
In the sub-family HYDROBATIDÆ I have taken three species, viz, Limnoporus rufoscutellus Lat., Limnotrechus marginatus Say., and Hygrotrechus remigis Say; they are all about equally common on the waters of our lakes and in ditches and pools.
In the family REDUVIDAE the sub-family PIRATINA is represented by Melanolestes picipes H. Schf., which is quite common under stones along with Carabidæ.
In the sub-family REDUVIINA We have three species. Diplo dus luridus Stal. is very common with us, but in Professor Uhler's list it is only given as from Mexico. Acholla multispinosa is also common; this has been known as A. ser· spinosus Wolff., and A. subarmatus H. Schf.
Sinea diadema Fabr. is not rare with us; this insect has had a number of names, and has been studied as S. multispinosus De G., S. hispidus Thunb., and S. raptatorius Say. I have a pair of insects from this State labelled Har pactor cinctus Fabr., which are probably what is now known as Milyas cinctus Fab. They are of a beautiful pinkishwhite color, and have the limbs banded with black.
In the sub-family CORISINA three species of Coriscus are represented. Coriscus subcoleoptratus Kirby, a very common, and curious insect, and formerly known as C. canadensis Prov., C. annulatus Reut, which is very rare, and C. ferus Linn, rather common.
In the family PHYMATIDÆ the sub-family PHYMATINA is represented by that very common and curious insect Phy mata Wolffii Stal. Phymata erosa, which is quoted as common throughout the State of New Jersey, I have never found here.
In the family TINGITIDÆ and sub-family TINGITINA I have Corythuca arquata Say. as one of the most common. This species of Tingis is found on the butternut, and was at one time known as Tingis juglandis Fitch, and Dr. Riley found it on the white oak.
Corythuca ciliata Say, formerly known as Tingis hyalina H. Schf., is, I believe, the one so common on the buttonwood, Platanus. I have a species taken from the paper mulberry Broussonetia and another species from Stophylea, both new to me.
In the family ACANTHIDE and sub-family CIMICINA We have Acanthia lectularia Linn., which is very abundant and well distributed all over our city. In the family CAPSIDE we are quite well represented. Plagiognathus obscurus Uhl. is very common.
the time visible even to the naked eye, was connected with the disturbances mentioned.
The meteorological observations also presented much that was interesting. The temperature on the west coast of Norway does not fall nearly so low as might be expected in such high latitudes. Even at the North Cape the mean of the coldest month is only 23° F., whereas in West Greenland on the same latitude the temperature sinks every winter to 40°. As, however, the distance from the coast increases, the temperature falls rapidly. The minimum observed at Gjesvar, near the North Cape, is 2° F.; at Bossekop, 33 miles from the open sea, Episcopus ornatus Reut is - 22°; and at Karasjok, further south but 120 miles from the coast, - 60°. Thus the influence of the Gulf Stream, which prevents the fiords from freezing over, does not penetrate inland. The fall of snow in winter is not very large at Bossekop, but also increases towards the interior. In very cold weather the snow does not come down in flakes, but takes the form of crystals of ice, which, having no cohesion, are blown about by every puff of wind. the very poor
quite rare; I have only taken about a dozen specimens. Garganus fusiformis Say is rather common, and Hyaliodes vitripennis Say is exceeding rare.
Capsus ater Linn. is also rare, but is conspicuous on account of its shining black color. Orthops scutellatus Uhl. is very rare indeed; I have only taken about half a dozen specimens. Comptobrochis grandis Uhl. is also very rare. Poecilocapsus goniphorus Say. is very common; this has been known as P. dislocatus Say and P. melaxanthus H. Schf. P. lineatus Fabr. is more common than goniphorus, and destroys a great variety of plants. Poeciloscytus basalis Reut., formerly known as P. sericeus Uhl., is also common. Lygus pratensis Linn., which much resembles the last, is exceedingly common; this was formerly known as L. lineolaris Pol. Beauv, and L. oblineatus £ay. Calocoris rapidus Say. is common, and was formerly known as C. multicolor H. Schf. Neurocolpus nubilis Say. is very rare with us; I have but three specimens representing it. Phytocoris eximius Reut. is also very rare, and a species of Phytocoris, not determined, more common. Lopidea media Say. is very rare, as is Resthenia insignis Say. Collaria meilleurii Prov., which Uhler gives as Trachelomiris meilleurii Prov., is quite rare. Leptopterna dolobrata Linn. is common everywhere where there are grass and weeds. Miris offinis Reut., formerly known as M. instabilis Uhl., is not common. Trigonotylus ruficornis Fall. is rare with us, making about twenty species of CAPSIDE taken here, which is probably only about one-third of the species that occur with us.
OBSERVATIONS AT BOSSEKOP.!
THE close connection between the Aurora and magnetism induced Herr O. Baschin to accompany Dr. Brendel to Bossekop for the purpose of observing this phenomenon. On January first of this year they entered the Alten Fiord, at the end of which lies Bossekop. It is built on the slope of one of the raised beaches so common on the shores of the fiord and in the adjacent valleys. An elevation of the shore amounting to 43 inches is said to have taken place during the last fifty years, but the calculations are not beyond suspicion. Dr. Brendel succeeded in obtaining photographs of different forms of the Aurora, the only ones at present in existence. Violent magnetic disturbances have often been observed during displays of the Northern Lights, and the close relation of these phenomena is further demonstrated by the fact that the centres of the arcs of light lie on the magnetic meridian, and that the corona, the most splendid form of Aurora, lies in the magnetic zenith. The most remarkable disturbances took place on February 14, accompanied by an unusually gorgeous display of the Aurora, when the magnetic declination was observed to vary more than 12° — the greatest deviation ever noticed within eight minutes. At the same time the disturbances in Europe and North America were so great that most of the selfregistering instruments were unable to record them. It is not possible at present to determine with certainty the cause of these striking phenomena, but it seems probable that the great sun-spot, seventeen times as large as the surface of the earth, which was at 1 From the Scottish Geographical Magazine.
The Lapps may be divided into two classes, fishermen of the coast and the nomadic Lapps of the mountains, who often possess considerable property. Of late years a third class has sprung up, which has settled in two inland places, Karasjok and Kautokeino. At the beginning of March the Lapps gather to a great fair at Bossekop, where many thousand ptarmigan, several tons of reindeer flesh, besides butter and tongues, change hands. Herr Baschin drove to Karasjok in a reindeer sledge, a vehicle that requires a deal of management, in order to inspect the dwellings of the Lapps settled there. The village is situated on a stream of the same name, one of the headwaters of the Tana, the second largest river of Norway, and contains about 200 inhabitants-all, with few exceptions, Lapps. Their dwellings are conical tents, 13 to 16 feet in diameter, with openings at the top to let out the smoke from the fire in the centre. Many Lapps own 2,000 to 3,000 head of reindeer. These people are not so powerful, intelligent, and honest as the Eskimo, and give the Norwegian Government much trouble through their propensity to steal reindeer. In Karasjok Herr Baschin found Balto and Ravna, the two Lapps who accompanied Dr. Nansen on his journey across Greenland, and on his voyage home he inspected that explorer's new vessel, which is being built at Laurvig. It has a nearly semi-circular cross-section, and is rigged as a three-masted schooner. It is of 250 tons register, and is constructed almost entirely of German oak. A small engine will enable it to make six knots an hour during calms.
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IN a recent number of Science there appeared an excellent article by Professor Chas. F. Mabery upon "Aims of Laboratory Teaching," in which occurred the following sentence: "Probably the earliest attempt in this country to give systematic laboratory instruction, to classes of any magnitude, was made in 1865 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology."
Professor Mabery is surely in error upon this point, as such instruction had been given the students of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Instituie for many years previous to the date quoted. Our present laboratory, which is very complete and accommodates seventy-six students at a time in analytical chemistry, was built in 1862, to replace the one destroyed by fire in that year. Permit me to quote from a letter just received from Professor James Hall, geologist of the State of New York, who graduated from this institution many years ago: "In regard to systematic laboratory instruction in chemistry, I can only say that when I entered the Rensselaer School in 1831 there were already laboratories fitted up for giving systematic instruction in chemistry, and each student of the class
was required to do laboratory work, and to prepare himself his
Troy, N.Y., July 29.
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THE ninth annual issue of "The Year-Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland" has recently been issued by Charles Griffin & Co., Exeter Street, Strand, London. The present issue gives a well-edited chronicle of the work done during the past year by the learned societies of Great Britain and Ireland, together with lists of the officers and a brief statement of the history and purposes of the organizations. The lists of the papers are quite complete, most of the society secretaries having given the needed information, and make a showing of scientific and literary activity with which we have as yet but little to compare in America. The hand-book is well made for its purpose, and would prove an excellent book of reference in American libraries.
For information address Mr. FRITZ RUHL, President of the Societas Entomologica, Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.
A vigorous statement of the scientific principles upon which the treatment of criminals should be based will open The Popular Science Monthly for August. It is by Professor Edward S. Morse, who takes as his title "Natural Selection and Crime." The Warfare of Science papers, by Dr. Andrew D. White, will be continued with a chapter on 66 'Geography,” in which are given the various mythological and theological ideas concerning the form of the earth and the proper mode of representing it that have prevailed in ancient and medieval times. 66 The Manufacture of Boots and Shoes" will be described by George A. Rich. This is one of the illustrated series of Articles on American Industries, and, in both the text and the pictures, tells a story of wonderful progress. An ethical study on "Veracity," by Herbert Spencer, will be among the contents.
- The Geographical Society of Germany will shortly publish a volume commemorative of the four-hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, which will, it is said, be one of the most elaborate publications ever issued by the society. Dr. Konrad Kretschmer, the editor of the forthcoming work, has visited all the principal libraries of Italy in search of material, and has had access to many rare manuscripts hitherto unused. The memorial volume will contain forty five maps relating to the discovery of America, thirty-one of which are said to have never been published. Emperor William has contributed 15,000 marks
[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.] Taxidermist going out of business has quantity of finely-mounted specimens of North American birds, mammals and reptiles and skins of birds for sale, including a full local collection of bird skins, showof skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, ing some great variations of species; also quantity Will give good exchange for Hawk Eye camera with outfit. Apply quickly to J. R. Thurston, 265 Yonge St., Toronto, Canada.
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JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1892) desires a For exchange.-A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather position as instructor in mathematics and covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak-physics. Address A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins ing lantern slides. Flute cost $27, and is nearly new. University, Baltimore, Md. U.O. COX, Mankato, Minn.
To exchange; Experiment Station bulletins and reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. ROLFS, Lake City, Florida.
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For exchange.-Three copies of "American State Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation," 1891, $2.50, new and unused, for "The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, 1840; "The Sabbath," by A. A. Phelps, 1842; History NEO-DARWINISM AND NEO-LAMARCKISM. of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and Abuses," by W. L. Fisher, 1859; "Humorous Phases of the Law," by Irving Browne; or other works amounting to value of books exchanged, on the question of governmental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty, etc. If preferred, I will sell "American State Papers,' DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, Ill.
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Annual address of the President of the Biological Society of Washington delivered Jan. 24, 1891. A
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- In a capital address on "tooth culture," delivered at the annual meeting of the Eastern Counties Branch of the British Dental Association, and printed in Lancet, Sir James Crichton-Browne referred to a change which has taken place in bread, as one of the causes of the increase of dental caries. So far as England is concerned, this is essentially an age of white bread and fine flour, and it is an age therefore in which we are no longer partaking, to anything like the same amount that our ancestors did, of the bran or husky parts of wheat, and so are deprived to a large degree of a chemical element which they contain-namely, fluorine. The late Dr. George Wilson showed that fluorine is more widely distributed in nature than was before his time supposed, but still, as he pointed out, it is but sparingly present where it does occur, and
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the only channels by which it can apparently find its way into the animal economy are through the siliceous stems of grasses and the outer husks of grain, in which it exists in comparative abundance. Analysis has proved that the enamel of the teeth contains more fluorine, in the form of fluoride of calcium, than any other part of the body, and fluorine might, indeed, be regarded as the characteristic chemical constituent of this structure, the hardest of all animal tissue, and containing 95 5 per cent of salts, against 72 per cent in the dentine. As this is so, it is clear that a supply of fluorine, while the development of the teeth is proceeding, is essential to the proper formation of the enamel, and that any deficiency in this respect must result in thin and inferior enamel. Sir James Crichton-Browne thinks it well worthy of consideration whether the reintroduction into our diet of a supply of fluorine in some suitable natural form-and what form, he asks, can be more suitable than that in which it exists in the pellicles of our grain stuffs? - might not do something to fortify the teeth of the next generation.
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which the dissipation of a small Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since | Baur, G., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
conductor (one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter, say,) has failed to protect between two horizontal planes passing through its upper and lower ends respective ly? Plenty of cases have been found which show that when the conductor is dissipated the build
ing is not injured to the extent explained (for many of these see volumes of Philosophical Transactions at the time when light ning was attracting the attention
of the Royal Society), but not an exception is yet known, although this query has been published far and wide among elec
Jan. 1, 1892.
Aboriginal North American Tea.
Agriculture, Experimental, Status of.
Amenhotep, King, the tomb of.
Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich.
Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa.
Anthropology, Current Notes on.
Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn.
Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics.
Bacteria, Some Uses of.
Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian. Bythoscopidæ and Cereopidæ.
Canada, Royal Society of.
Celts, The Question of the.
Chalicotherium, The Ancestry of.
Call, E. Ellsworth, Des Moines, Ia.
Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, Col.
Davis, W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H.
Farrington, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign,
Ferree, Barr, New York City.
Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y.
Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C.
Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain
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Hofmann, August Wilhelm von.
Indian occupation of New York.
Klamath Nation, Linguistics.
Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phenomena.
Garman, S., Museum of Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Golden, Katherine E., Agricultural College, Lafayette, Ind.
Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, Ill.
Hale, George S., Boston, Mass.
Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada.
Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Halsted, Byron D., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J.
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Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.
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THE LABRADOR COAST. Lissalou's Curves, Simple Apparatus for the Produc- Mill-paugh. Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va.
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Maize Plant, Observations on the Growth and Chemi- Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins University,
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Scripture, E. W., Clark University. Worcester, Mass. Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Smith, John B., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J.
Southwick. Edmund B., New York City.
Stevens, George T., New York City.
Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, Col.
Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C.
Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
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Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C. Ward, R. DeC., Harvard University, Cambridge,
Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. 1, 1892.
Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa.
Ward, Stanley M., Scranton, Pa.
Warder, Robert B., Howard University, Washington, D.C.
Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. M.D.
West, Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Worcester, Mass... Williams, Edward H., Lehigh University, Bethle hem, Pa.