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problems, as in determining the H equivalent of zinc, the density of Cl, eudiometric combustion of methans, etc.

Methods of Gas Analysis. By DR. WALTHER HEMPEL. Macmillan & Co. 399 p. $1.90.

THIS standard work was translated by Professor L. M. Dennis with the personal co-operation of the author. Part I. discusses general methods, including the collection of samples, the use of gas burettes and pipettes, purification of mercury, and absorption apparatus; Part II. deals with special methods for the several elementary and compound gases; while Part III. presents the practical applications of furnace gases, illuminating gas, the sulphuric acid industry, the atmosphere, elementary analysis, and the heating power of fuel. The reputation of the author is guarantee for

the value of this new volume to chemists interested in his lines of work.


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A NEW edition of the New Elementary Algebra," by Charles Davies, LL.D., edited by Professor Van Amringe of Columbia College, has been issued by the American Book Co. This work, it seems unnecessary to say, so well known is it, is designed to supply a connecting-link between arithmetic and algebra, to indicate the unity of the methods, and to conduct the pupil from the arithmetical processes to the more abstract methods of analysis by simple and easy gradations, and to serve as an introduction to more advanced works on the subject. The present edition has incorporated in it such emendations as the progress of educational science has suggested.

-The American Book Company have just published the "Standard Arithmetic," embracing a complete course for schools and academies, by William J. Milne, Ph.D., LL.D., president of the New York State Normal College at Albany. Recognizing the fact that, aside from the general knowledge of arithmetic


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necessary to all intelligent persons, there are special applications of this branch of mathematics that call for special training on the part of the student, the author has prepared this work with a view to meeting such requirements. Provision is made to furnish ample practice, for instance, for the student who desires merely to become a rapid and accurate accountant, as well as for the one who prefers the training which cultivates the reasoning powers at the expense of practical expertness in the use of numbers. The scope of the work is sufficiently comprehensive to meet the demands of even the most advanced school.

"Nature Study for the Common Schools" is the title of a neat volume of about 450 pages from the press of Henry Holt & Co. It is the work of Wilbur S. Jackman, A. B., teacher of natural science in the Cook County Normal School, Chicago, and is intended to be a guide for teachers in the common schools, who wish their pupils to pursue an adequate and symmetrical course in natural science. The plan adopted is based upon what the author believes to be the proper interpretation of the character of the knowledge that the average child may be readily induced to acquire. Instead of endeavoring to give the pupil a thorough knowledge of a few animals and plants, an effort is made to give him some knowledge of everything with which he comes into contact; this knowledge, of course, once acquired to serve both as foundation for and incentive to further acquisitions in the same general direction. The volume, it may be well to add, is written for the teacher, not for the pupil.

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"The book is good, thoroughly good, and will long
remain the best accessible elementary ethnography
in our language."-The Christian Union.
"We strongly recommend Dr. Brinton's Races
and Peoples to both beginners and scholars. We
are not aware of any other recent work on the
science of which it treats in the English language."
-Asiatic Quarterly.

"His book is an excellent one, and we can heartily
recommend it as an introductory manual of ethnol-
ogy."-The Monist.

"A useful and really interesting work, which deserves to be widely read and studied both in Europe

and America."-Brighton (Eng.) Herald.

"This volume is most stimulating. It is written with great clearness, so that anybody can undergrasps very well the complete field of humanity."The New York Times.

stand, and while in some ways. perforce, superficial,

"Dr. Brinton invests his scientific illustrations and
measurements with an indescribable charm of nar-
ration, so that 'Races and Peoples,' avowedly a rec-
ord of discovered facts, is in reality a strong stim-
ulant to the imagination."-Philadelphia Public

"The work is indispensable to the student who re-
graphic reading."-Philadelphia Times.
quires an intelligent guide to a course of ethno-

Price, postpaid, $1.75.


"The book is one of unusual interest and value."-
Inter Ocean.

"Dr. Daniel G. Brinton writes as the acknowledged
authority of the subject."-Philadelphia Press.

"The work will be of genuine value to all who wish to know the substance of what has been found out about the indigenous Americans."-Nature.

"A masterly discussion, and an example of the successful education of the powers of observation." -Philadelphia Ledger.

Price, postpaid, $2.

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Readers of Science" will value, in ad dition,

"MEEHANS' MONTHLY,” which, besides numerous notes on natural history and gardening, gives monthly Prang chromos of some beautiful wild flower, similar in character to the famous and muchadmired Flowers and Ferns of the United States."


[Science (weekly) established in 1883, N. D. C. HODGES,
874 Broadway, New York City.]

Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since
Jan. 1, 1892.

Aboriginal North American Tea.


Agriculture, Experimental, Status of.
Amenhotep, King, the tomb of.

| Ball, V., C. B., LL.D., F.R.S., Dublin, Ireland.
Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison, Wis.

Baur, G., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich.
Beals, A. H., Milledgeville, Ga.

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwinsville, N.Y.
Bell, Alexander Graham, Washington, D. C.
Boas, Franz, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak.


Anthropology, Current Notes on.

Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn.

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics.
Artesian Wells in lowa.

Astronomical Notes.

Bacteria, Some Uses of.
Bird on Its Nest, The.

Birds Breeding at Hanover, N. H.
Botanical Laboratory, A.

Botanists, American and Nomenclature.
Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian.
Bythoscopidæ and Cereopida.
Canada, Royal Society of.
Celts, The Question of the.

Chalicotherium, The Ancestry of.

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School.
Children, Growth of.

Collection of Objects Used in Worship.
Cornell, The Change at.

Deaf, Higher Education of the.

Diamonds in Meteorites.

Diphtheria, Tox-Albumin.

Dynamics, Fundamental Hypotheses of.

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of.
Eskimo Throwing Sticks.

Etymology of two Iroquoian Compound Stems.

Bolles, Frank, Cambridge, Mass.
Bostwich, Arthur E., Montclair, N J.
Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass.
Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa.
Call, E. Ellsworth, Des Moines, Ia.
Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.Y.
Comstock, Theo. B., Tucson, Arizona.
Conn, H. W., Middletown, Conn.
Coulter, John M., Indiana University.
Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, Col.
Cresson, Hilborne T., Philadelphia, Pa.

Davis. W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.
Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H.

Dixon, Edward T., Cambridge, England.
Farrington, E. H., Agric. Station, Champaign, Ill.
Ferree, Barr, New York City.

Fessenden, Reginald A., Lafayette, Ind.

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md.
Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y.

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C.
Garman, S., Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Gibbs, Morris, Kalamazoo, Mich.

Golden, Katherine E., Agric. College, Lafayette, Ind.
Grinnell, George B., New York City.

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, Ill.

Hale, George S., Boston, Mass.

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada.

Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain Halsted, Byron D., Rutg. Coll, New Brunswick, N.J.

Facial Expressions.

Family Traits, Persistency of.
Fishes, The Distribution of.

Fossils, Notice of New Gigantic.

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Four-fold Space, Possibility of a Realization of.
Gems, Artificial, Detection of.

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York.

Grasses, Homoptera Injurious to.

Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of.
"Healing, Divine."

Hemipter us Mouth, Structure of the.

Hofmann, August Wilhelm von.

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals.

Hypnotism, Traumatic.

Indian occupation of New York.

Infant's Movements.

Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of.
Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico.
Inventions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect.
Inventors and Manufacturers Association.
Iowa Academy of Sciences.
Jargon, The Chinook.
Jasside; Notes on Local.
Keller, Helen.

Klamath Nation, Linguistics.
Laboratory Training, Alms of.
Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phenomena.
Lightning,New Method of Protecting Buildings from.
Lion Breeding.

Lissajou's Curves, Apparatus for the Production of.
Malze Plant, Growth and Chemical Composition of.
Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of.
Medicine, Preparation for the Study of.
Mineral Discoveries, Washington.
Museums, The Support of.

Sample copies free; $2 per annum, or with Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of. "Science," $4.50.


Germantown, Philadelphia.

Fact and Theory Papers


Patent Office Building, The.

Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa.

Hay, O. P., Irvington, Ind.

Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mass.

Hazen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C.
Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau Ethnol., Washington,
D. C.

Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb.

Hill, E. J., Chicago, Ill.

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.

Hitchcock, Romen, Washington, D.C.

Holmes, E. L. Chicago, Ill.

Hoskins, L. M., Madison, Wis.

Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, Va.

Houston, Edwin J., Philadelphia, Pa.

Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky.

Hubbard, Gardiner G., Washington, D.C.

Jackson, Dugald C., Madison, Wisconsin

James, Joseph F., Agric. Dept., Washington, D.C.
Johnson, Roger B., Miami University, Oxford, O.
Keane, A. H., London, England.

Kellerman, Mrs. W. A., Columbus, O.

Kellicott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O.

Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y.

Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y.

Loeb, Morris, New York City.

Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.
Macloskie, G., Priuceton, N.J.

McCarthy, Gerald, Agric. Station, Raleigh, N. C.
MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C.
MacGregor, J. C., Halifax, Nova Scotia.
MacRitchie, David, Easter Logie, Perthshire, Scot-

Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J.

Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C.
Millspaugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va.
Morse, Edward S., Salem, Mass.

Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass.

Physa Heterostropha Say, Notes on the Fertility of. Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore
Pict's House, A.

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of.
Polariscopes, Direct Reflecting.
Psychological Laboratory at Toronto.
Psychological Training. The Need of.
Psylla, the Pear-Tree,


Rice-Culture in Japan, Mexico and the United


Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska.
Scientific Alliance, The.
Sistrurus and Crotalophorus.
Star Photography, Notes on.
Star, The New, in Auriga.

Storage of Storm-Waters on the Great Plains.
Teaching of Science.

Tiger, A New Sabre-Toothed, from Kansas.
Timber Trees of West Virginia.

By APPLETON MORGAN, Esq. 12°. 20 cents.
III. PROTOPLASM AND LIFE. By Trachea of Insects, Structure of.

C. F. Cox. 12°. 75 cents.

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Vein-Formation, Valuable Experiments in.
Weeds as Fertilizing Material.
Weeds, American.

Will, & Recent Analysis of.
Wind-Storms and Trees.
Wines, The Sophisticated French.

Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C.

Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan.
1, 1892.

Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa.
Allen, Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa.
Ashmead, Albert S., New York City.
Bailey, L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Baldwin, J. Mark, University of Toronto, Canada.


Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Osborn, Henry F., Columbia College, New York City.
Osborn, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa.
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa.
Pillsbury, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
Poteat, W. L., Wake Forest, N. C.
Preble, Jr., W. P., New York City.
Prescott, Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich.
Riley, C. V., Washington, D. C.

Ruffner, W. H., Lexington, Va.

Sanford, Edmund C., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass.
Scripture, E. W., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Seler, Dr. Ed., Berlin, Germany.

Shufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C.

Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Smith, John B., Rutgers Coll., New Brunswick, N. J.
Southwick, Edmund B., New York City.

Stevens, George T., New York City.
Stevenson, S. Y., Philadelphia, Pa.
Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, Col.
Taylor, Isaac, Settrington, England.
Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C.
Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Todd, J. É., Tabor, Iowa.

True, Frederick W., Nat. Mus., Washington, D.C.
Turner, C. H., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O.
Wake, C., Staniland, Chicago, Ill.
Ward, R. DeC., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.
Ward, Stanley M.. Scranton, Pa.
Warder, Robert B., Howard Univ., Washington, D.C.
Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md.
West, Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Williams, Edward H., Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pa.

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By Talfourd Ely, Member of the Council of the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. With thirty-two illustrations designed from the best classical models. 8vo, $3 A MANUAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. Containing an Introduction to Egyptian, Oriental, Greek, Etruscan and Roman Art. By Talfourd Ely, author of Olympos : Tales of the Gods of Greece and Rome.' With 114 illustrations. 8vo, $2. EGYPTIAN ARCHEOLOGY.


By G. Maspero. Translated from the French by Amelia B. Edwards. 229 illustrations. 8vo, gilt top, $3.



Including the Architecture, Sculpture, and Industrial Arts of Chaldea, Assyria, Persia, Syria, Judea, Phoenicia, and Carthage. By Ernest Babelon. Translated and enlarged by B. T. A. Evetts, M.A. With over 250 illustrations. 8vo, gilt top, $3. PRIMITIVE MAN IN OHIO.

By Warren K. Moorehead, Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Fully illustrated. 8vo, $3. PREHISTORIC AMERICA.

By the Marquis de Nadaillac. Translated by Nancy Bell. 8vo, illustrated. New, cheaper edition, $2.25.


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Littell's Living Age

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In establishing this magazine its founder sought to present in convenient form a history of the field of EUROPEAN PERIODICAL LITERATURE world's progress by selecting from the whole wide the best articles by


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To the Readers of SCIENCE:

During the past year it has been found possible to enlist the interest of scientific workers in the success of Science to such an extent that more than nine hundred have promised contributions during the coming twelve months. Not only are contributions of merit coming in ever increasing numbers from American scientific men and women, but we are now securing our first contributions, in any quantity, from abroad.

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ONE of the most important industries engaged in by the American aborigines in pre-Columbian and largely also in post-Columbian times was the search for and acquirement of the raw material for making implements and utensils of stone. Quarying and mining were carried on in many placss upon a vast scale, and in one case at least the work has been prosecuted without interruption down to the present time. The operations were, in most cases, carried on in remote or out of the way places, so that the sites remained for a long time undiscovered, and the industry and its accompanying arts have to a great extent escaped the attention of archæologists. This work is now undergoing thorough investigation, and will henceforth take its place among the most important achievements of the native races, a work claiming precedence over nearly all others, lying as it does at the very threshold of art and constituting the foundations upon which the superstructure of human culture is built. Within the limits of the United States flint, chert, novaculite, quartz, quartzite, slate, argillite, jasper, pipestone, steatite, mica, and copper were most extensively sought.

The work in the quarries producing flakable varieties of stone was confined almost exclusively to obtaining and testing the raw material and to roughing out the tools and utensils to be made. The quarrying was accomplished mainly by the aid of stone, wood, and bone utensils, aided in some cases, perhaps, by fire. With these simple means the solid beds of rock were penetrated to depths often reaching twenty-five feet, and extensive areas were worked over, changing the appearance of valleys and remodeling hills and mountains. The extent of this work is in several cases so vast as to fill the beholder with astonishment. In one place in Arkansas it is estimated that upwards of 100,000 cubic yards of stone have been removed and worked over. The most notable features of these remarkable quarry sites are the innumerable pits and trenches and the heaps and ridges of excavated debris and refuse of manufacture surrounding them.

Many of the excavations have a new look, as if deserted but recently, whilst others are almost wholly obliterated as if by age. It is essential to observe, however, that where pits are sunk in solid rock and upon convex surfaces they fill very slowly, and that those in friable materials and upon slopes or concave surfaces fill rapidly. The oldest appearing may, therefore, be the youngest.

Several great quarries from which the flaked stone implements of the aborigines were derived have been examined. One of the most important is situated in the District of Columbia, two are in Ohio, two occur in Arkansas, one is in Pennsylvania, and another in the Indian Territory. These quarries cover areas varying from a few acres to several square miles in extent. They are pitted and trenched to various depths, and are thickly strewn with the debris of manufacture, including countless numbers of partially worked or incipient implements rejected on account of defects of texture and fracture resulting in eccentricities of shape. These rejects are extremely uniform in type in these quarries as well as elsewhere throughout the country, varying little save with variations in the nature and conditions of the raw material, the general result aimed at being always the same. It is therefore inadvisable in this brief sketch to describe the quarries separately or in great detail, as other more important matters must receive attention.

Rudely flaked stones are not confined to the great quarries; the raw material was worked wherever it was found scattered over the surface of the ground. The refuse deposits of village and lodge sites located conveniently to the stone-yielding districts also naturally contain many rejects of manufacture. Beyond these limits the limits of the raw material — the rude specimens are rarely found. The main difference between the quarry shaping and the shaping done upon isolated shops and village and lodge sites is that upon the former, where the work was carried on extensively and consisted in securing the raw material in convenient form for transportation and trade, no specialization was undertaken, whereas upon ordinary shop and dwelling sites the full range of the roughing-out and finishing operations was sometimes conducted, the implement shaped being carried directly through from beginning to finish. In all cases the operations of shaping were, in the quarries, confined to free-hand percussion, further and more refined shaping being conducted elsewhere and employing the more delicate methods of indirect percussion and pressure.

The hammers used in breaking up the rock and in flaking are very numerous in most of the quarries; 500 examples, varying from 1 to 12 inches in diameter, were picked up in a few days' work in one of the great quarries of Arkansas. These hammers are generally of artificially discoid or globular forms. Such artificial forms of hammers are rare, however, in the bowlder quarries of the east, since bowlders of suitable form could be picked up on all hands and were discarded and fresh ones selected before the outline was perceptibly or seriously modified by use.

The true quarry, or more properly speaking the quarry-shop, product that is to say, the articles made and carried away—– may readily be determined in each case. This is rendered easy by the occurrence in the quarries of specimens broken at all stages of progress from the beginning to the end of the roughing-out process. The final quarry-shop form and it must be especially noted that there was practically but one form is naturally something beyond or higher than the most finished form found entire among the refuse. This form is necessarily, however, quite well represented by specimens broken at or near the final stages of the work. A most exhaustive examination of the great quarry sites has shown beyond the shadow of a doubt that this final form was almost exclusively a leaf-shaped blade, represented on the sites most accurately by broken pieces, all the acceptable blades having been carried away. This is the blade, varying in size and outline with the nature of the material and the particular end kept in view by the workmen, so often found in caches or hoardes distributed over the country and occurring in greater or less numbers on nearly every important village site. The place of this blade in the series of progressive stages of the manufacture of flaked tools is readily ascertained by a systematic study of the subject. It is the form through which nearly every common American variety of highly-developed flaked tool must pass before its final specialization is attempted. It is the blank form ready for the finishing shops, tested in the quarry shops for quality of material and availability for further elaboration, and reduced in weight so far, and only so far, as to make transportation easy or profitable.

In most of the quarries a limited number of cores are found, from which small, generally very delicate, flakes were removed for use in the arts, and used, as a rule, apparently without much modification of shape. They were probably hafted for uses in which delicate manipulation was necessary. Their production was not an important feature of the quarry-shop work.

The question, very properly raised, as to what we really know of the nature and destination of the leading quarry-shop product, the blade or blank form, may be answered by asking another

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