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Monstrous Poppy.

THE monstrous poppy described by Mr. Clark in Science for Oct. 7 is one of pistillody rather than "gynandry,” and it is by no means so new a thing as he supposed. Masters (Veg. Teratol, p. 304) describes and figures similar monstrosities, and refers to Goeppert, who, as long ago as 1850, "found numerous instances of the kind in a field near Breslau." This pistillody of the poppy is mentioned also by Frank (Krankheiten der Pflanzen, p 250), who reproduces Master's figure. CHARLES E. BESSEY. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Yeasts as Expounded in the "North American Review." WHY does Mr. Lockwood revive the old idea that yeasts “beget moulds?" In an interesting but inaccurate article entitled "The Hygiene of the Atmosphere" in the North American Review for this month there is the following paragraph: "Omnipresent in the atmosphere are the invisible spores of the fungi, know as the Torulacei. They beget many of the mould and mildews seen on decaying vegetation. Some of these act also as ferments, decomposing vegetable and animal matter. Of this group, for good and evil, the air almost every where contains the spores of Torula cerevisiæ or yeast fungus, literally the mother of vinegar, alcohol, and leavened bread."

The classical researches of Brefeld and Hansen have long ago exploded the notion that the yeast plant is only an immature form of a species of mould. The terms Torulacei and Torula are also out of date, Saccharomycetes and the generic name Saccharo myces being mostly used at present. It is true there is some diversity of opinion as to the systematic position of the yeasts. Some think they constitute a distinct class; the majority of botanists believe, however, that they are degenerated forms of the Ascomycetes. There is absolutely no reason for the statement that the mother of vinegar is another form of the yeast fungus. They are by no means different stages of the same plant, and are only related in that they are both fungi. Hansen has proved that Saccharomyces erevisia and Saccharomyces pastorianus are beer ferments, and that Saccharomyces ellipsoidens is the wine ferment. Mycoderma aceti occasions acetic fermentation. Chemically these processes are even more distinct. The former converts certain carbohydrates into alcohol and other products with the evolution of carbon dioxide; while by means of the presence of Mycoderma aceti alcohol is oxidized into acetic acid or vinegar. By means of the solid culture media, gelatine and agar agar, introduced for the cultivation of bacteria, white, black, and pink yeasts have been carefully studied, principally by Hansen. Besides budding or gemmation there is another mode of reproduction in the yeasts. The protoplasm of the cell forms spores, and the cell-wall becomes an ascus. They are therefore called ascospores, and the yeasts are considered degraded ascomycetes. JOHN GIFFORD.

Swarthmore College, Pa., Oct. 8.


Man and the Glacial Period. York, D. Appleton & Co. As a glacialist, the author of this volume stands among the first in this country, and his long study of that remarkable period in the geologic history of our planet invests all he says about it with uncommon authority. In his work, proceeding in a true scientific manner from the known to the unknown, he first describes the main existing glaciers in various parts of the world, and devotes a chapter to the physics of glacial motion. Summing up the signs of past glaciation, he examines separately the ancient glaciers of the Western and of the Eastern Hemispheres, describes at considerable length the drainage systems both in America and Europe, and directs especial inquiry into the cause of the glacial period and its probable date.

By G. FREDERICK WRIGHT. New 1892. 8°. 385 p. III.

All this is well done, and supplies the most compact and satisfactory exposition of our knowledge of the subject which has yet appeared, the facts carefully stated and the opinions maturely formed. To a very important chapter, and the one which for


many readers will be the most interesting in the book, such unreserved praise cannot be extended. This is the chapter on the Relics of Man in the Glacial Period." The author believes there are such relics both in Europe and America, and that they have been discovered and proved. No one will deny that there may be such; it is likely enough; but that any such relics have been found under conditions which remove all doubts as to their authenticity and age is open to considerable question.

Confining our attention to examples in the United States, let us see what is offered. His first instance is the rough implements found by Dr. Abbott in the Trenton gravels. But these gravels are unquestionably post-glacial, and no one can say how much post. The late eminent glacialist, Dr. Carvill Lewis, considered them rather modern, and also maintained that what Dr. Abbott believed to be undisturbed layers, were those of an ancient talus. These statements Dr. Lewis made at an open meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, not long before his regretted death, concerning specimens from Dr. Abbott which I then laid before the Academy. It is the opinion of most glacialists that the Trenton-gravel finds require further study before we can assign their probable age. I have myself found these chipped stones in the Trenton talus, but never in clearly undisturbed strata.

Dr. Wright's next examples are the finds of rough implements, in the glacial gravels in Ohio, by Dr. Metz, Dr. Cresson, and Mr. Mills. The two first-named are eminent archæologists, but neither is a geologist, and it may as well be accepted once for all that no opinion as to the age of a gravel can be received from any but an expert geologist, one who has specially studied this most difficult subject. Not one of these finds, therefore, is conclusive.

The next example offered is the discovery of flint chips and implements in the alleged glacial gravels by Miss Babbitt, near Little Falls, Minnesota. This locality has been re-examined this year by members of the Bureau of Ethnology, with the result of proving that the implement-bearing layer is unquestionably modern, and not glacial, nor post-glacial.

Next, the alleged implements from the Columbia gravels at Claymont, Del., are adduced. These gravels are far older than the last glacial action, and it would indeed be wonderful were they deposits of human industries. I can say that the discovery of such in them is wholly rejected by McGee and Holmes, who have closely compared all the evidence; and I add that the supposed implements from them which I have examined show no sure signs of human workmanship; while the argillite pieces certainly come from a talus.

The remains under Table Mountain, California, which are next brought forward, have been unanimously denied by archæologists any great antiquity. They belong to a modern industry, and in all probability were left in their shafts by the aboriginal golddiggers a few centuries before the conquest. The manner of their deposition alone proves this, and the case is given up by Professor Haynes, in his excellent Appendix to Dr. Wright's book.

Dr. Wright's last example is the feeblest of all-the Nampa image, a "beautifully-formed clay image of a female," said to have been brought up from a depth of 320 feet (!) in the boring of an artesian well, at Nampa, Idaho. It is sad to destroy illusions; but when this same image with its story was laid before a wellknown government geologist, and he at once recognized it as a clay toy manufactured by the neighboring Pocatello Indians, the person displaying it replied with engaging frankness, Well, now, don't give me away!"


These are Dr. Wright's evidences of glacial man in America. It will be seen that his structure is rather slight. Very much more solid evidence than any yet brought forward will be necessary to establish this most important fact. D. G. BRINTON.


"THOUGHTS of Busy Girls" is the title given to a volume of short essays from the pens of working girls, which Miss Grace M. Dodge, the well-known philanthropist, has edited and prefaced. These essays are quite remarkable, considering the disadvantages

under which the writers worked. While they may occasionally trip in their grammar, they show intelligence and thought and have the merit of having been written with all seriousness of purpose. They should act as a stimulant to other working girls. The Cassell Publishing Company will issue the book.

Messrs. D. Appleton & Co's list of autumn announcements includes, among other titles, "An Attic Philosopher in Paris," by Emile Souvestre, illustrated by Jean Claude, and uniform with "Colette; "The Story of Columbus," by Elizabeth Eggleston Seelye, edited by Dr. Edward Eggleston, with one hundred illustrations by Allegra Eggleston; "Three Centuries of English Love Songs," edited by Ralph Caine, with frontispiece after Angelica Kauffman; "Abraham Lincoln, the Story of a Great Life," by William H. Herndon and Jesse W. Weik, with an introduction by Horace White, and many illustrations; "Admiral Farragut," by Capt. A. T. Mahan, and Zachary Taylor," by Major-General O. O. Howard, U. S. A., the first two volumes in the Great Commander Series, edited by General James Grant Wilson; Man and the Glacial Period," by Professor G. Frederick Wright; "Along the Florida Reef," by Charles Frederick Holder, illustrated; "Warriors of the Crescent," by W. H. Davenport-Adams, illustrated, and uniform with "Pictures from Roman Life and Story," by Professor A. J. Church; "North America, Vol. III., the United States," by Elisée Reclus; Modern Mechanics," a supplementary volume to Appleton's Cyclopædia of Applied Mechanics, illustrated, edited by Park Benjamin, LL.B.; "Appleton's Atlas of Modern Geography," with maps and illustrations of all countries; "Idle Days in Patagonia," by C. H. Hudson, C. M. Z. S., author of The Naturalist in La Plata; Moral Instruction of Children," by Felix Adler, a translation of "Rousseau's Emile," by W. H. Payne, Ph.D., LL.D., and English Education in the Elementary and Secondary Schools," by Isaac Sharpless, in the International Educational Series; and new editions of "An Englishman in Paris." in one volume; "Lecky's History of England in the Eighteenth Century," in twelve vol

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CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. Philosophical Society, Washington. Oct. 15.-Obituary notice of Mr. A. O. Aldis, by Mr. Jos. K. McCammon; Obituary notice of Mr. William Ferrel, by Mr. Cleveland Abbe; Obituary notice of Mr. J. E. Hilgard, by Mr. O. H. Tittmann; Obituary notice of Mr. C. H. Nichols, by Mr. J. M. Toner; Obituary notice of Mr. C. C. Parry, by Mr. F. H. Knowlton; Obituary notice of Mr. George Bancroft, by Mr. J. B. Marvin.

Biological Society, Washington. Oct. 22.-The principal topic of the even

ing, Botanical Nomenclature: (a) The


umes, of which five are devoted to Ireland; Herbert Spencer's "Principles of Ethics," Vol. I.; Huxley's Essays upon some "Controverted Questions; " Tyndall's "Fragments of Science; and the authorized edition of the "New Drill Regulations of the United States Army."

-The Quarter Centennial Programme of the Kansas Academy of Science, held at Atchison, Oct. 12, 1892, contained the following papers: The Descent of Facial Expression, A. H. Thompson, Topeka; Notes on the Distribution of Kansas Rushes and Sedges, M. A. Carlton, Manhattan; Notes on Ampelopsis quinquefolia Michx., Variation, E. B. Knerr, Atchison; The Relations of the Composite Flora of Kansas, A. S. Hitchcock, Manhattan; A List of Flowering Plants and Ferns collected in Franklin County, Kansas, during the months of April, May, September, and October, 1890–92, W. E. Castle, Ottawa; Some Ornamental Kansas Stones, S. W, Williston, Lawrence; The Analysis of Kansas Building Stones, E. H. S. Bailey and E. C. Case, Lawrence; Some Notes on Condensed Vegetation,in Western Kansas, Minnie Reed, Manhattan; The Organization and Work of Local Scientific Clubs, T. H. Dinsmore, Emporia; On the Horse Flies of New Mexico and Arizona, C. H. Tyler Townsend, Las Cruces, N. M.; Note on Peculiar Acalyptrate Muscid found near Turkey Tanks, Arizona, C. H. Tyler Townsend; The Characteristics of the Glacial Area of North-east Kansas, Robert Hay, Junction City; Kansas Niobrara Cretaceous, S. W. Williston, Lawrence; The Variation in Chemical Composition of Plants Collected at Different Seasons of the Year, Illustrated by the Common Dandelion, L. E. Sayre, Lawrence; Joseph Savage A Memorial, Robert Hay; Astronomical Phenomena in 1892, T. H. Dinsmore; Notes on a Pink Barite Found in Atchison Limestone, with Analysis, E. B. Knerr; Notes on Colorado "Mountain Leather," with Analysis, E. B. Knerr; Notes on Comparative Insect Anatomy (a Laboratory Guide), V. L. Kellogg, Lawrence; Insect Notes, V. L. Kellogg; An Interesting Food Habit of the Plesiosaurus, S. W. Williston; The Archæan Area of Missouri, E. Haworth, Lawrence; On Para-chlor-meta

Publications Received at Editor's Office.



FOREL, F. A. Le Léman, Tome I. Lausanne: F. WANTED BA well qualised, and experienced

Rouge. 8°. Paper. 526 p.
Oct., 1892. Boston, The Harvard Graduates'
LODGE, OLIVER J. Lightning Conductors and Light-
Magazine Association. 8°. Paper. 176 p. 50c.
ning Guards. London, Whittaker & Co. 12°.
556 p.
ogy. Translated by Wm. H. Greene. Phila.,
J. B. Lippincott Co. 12°. 368 p. 75c.


Chief of the Weather Bureau for 1891. Wash-
ington, Government. 8°. Paper. 91 p.

Reading Matter Notices.
Ripans Tabules cure hives.
Ripans Tabules cure dyspepsia.


Cabinet Specimens, Collections, and material by the pound, for mineralogists, collectors, colleges, schools, and chemists. Send for 100-page catalogue, paper bound, 15 cents; cloth bound, 25 cents; supplement. 2 cents. GEO. L. ENGLISH & CO., Mineralogists, 783 & 735 B'way, N. Y.


Present Status of Botanical Nomenclature,
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cal Congress at Genoa, by Geo. Vasey; (c)
Some Controversial Points in Botanical
Nomenclature, by George B. Sudworth.
Other communications: Discovery of Fossil
Plants in the Potomac Formation, at the
New Reservoir, Washington, D.C., and at
Mount Vernon, and Discovery of a Second
Specimen of Saul's Oak (Quercus Prinus +
alba), by Lester F. Ward; The Fauna and
Flora of Roan Mountain, North Carolina, by N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York.

C. Hart Merriam.

Engineer's Club, Philadelphia.

Oct. 1. Strickland L. Kneass, The History and Development of the Injector; Carl G. Barth, Distribution of Pressure in Bearings.

This contains a discussion of the reasons
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science master and associate of the Royal School of Mines, London, aged 26 (at present in England), a mastership in technical college or uniing sciences, geology and mineralogy, physics, chemversity for any of the following subjects: Engineeristry and metallurgy, etc., etc. Can provide excel Sussex St., Rochdale, England. lent references and credentials. Apply, J. G., 17

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GRADUATE of the University of Pennsylvania A and a practical mineralogist of twenty years experience desires to give his services and a cabinet of 25,00 specimens, all named, with about the same number of duplicates, in minerals, crystals, rocks, gems, fossils, shells, archæological and ethnological specimens and woods to any institution desiring a fine outfit for study. The owner will increase the cabinet to 50,000 specimens in two years and will act as curator. Correspondence solicited from any scientific institution.

J. W. Hortter, M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. O. Delivery.

WANTED. A position as zoological artist in con

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The American Geologist for 1892.

Edited by PROF. S. CALVIN, University of Iowa; DR. E. W. CLAYPOLE, Buchtel College; JOHN Eyerman, Lafayette College; DR. PERSIFOR FRAZER, Penn. Hort. Soc.; PROF. F. W. CRAGIN, Colorado College; PROF. ROB'T T. HILL, U. S. Irrigation Survey; DR. ANDREW C. LAWSON. University of California; R. D. SALISBURY, University of Wisconsin; JOSEPH B. TYRRELL, Geol. Sur. of Canada; E. O. ULRICH, Minnesota Geological Survey: PROF. I. C. WHITE, University of West Virginia; PROF. N. H. WINCHELL, University of Minnesota. Now in its IXth volume. $350 per year. Sample copies, 20 cents. Address


nitro-benzyl-chloride and its Derivatives, E. C. Franklin, Lawrence; Harmonic Forms, B. B. Smyth, Topeka; The Effect of Some Grass Diseases on the Tissue of the Host, W. C. Stevens, Lawrence; Some Useful Apparatus for the Botanical Laboratory, W. C. Stevens; On Echinacea angustifolia, S. R. Boyce, Lawrence; Additions to the Flora of Kansas, B. B. Smyth, Topeka; Catalogue of the Kansas State Herbarium, B. B. Smyth; Additions to the Minerals of Kansas, G. H. Failyer and E. H. S. Bailey; The Yield of Extractive of Various Vegetable Substances, L. E. Sayre; A Breathing Well in Logan County, Kansas, J. T. Willard, Manhattan; The Improvement of Sorghum by Seed Selection, J. T. Willard; A Résumé of the Current Opinion on the Structure of the Nervous System, C. Judson Herrick, Ottawa; Maximum Binding Moments for Moving Loads in a Swing Beam, E. C. Murphy, Lawrence; Notes on some Kansas Weeds, A. S. Hitchcock; The Distribution of the Genus Vitis in Kansas, A. S. Hitchcock; Notes on the Occurrence of Granite in a Deep Boring in Eastern Kansas, Robert Hay.

- Macmillan & Co. are to publish very shortly a work by Dr. S. S. Laurie entitled "The Institutes of Education, comprising a Rational Introduction to Psychology." Dr. Laurie is author of "Occasional Addresses on Educational Subjects," "Lectures on Language and Linguistic Methods," etc., and writes from long experience on the meaning and importance of a science of education.

- Macmillan & Co.'s October announcements include, The Beauties of Nature, and the Wonders of the World We Live In, by Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock; Charing Cross to St. Paul's, by Justin McCarthy, illustrated by Joseph Pennell, new edition; The English Town in the Fifteenth Century, by Alice Stopford Green; Sketches of Life and Character in Hungary, by Margaret Fletcher; History of Federal Government, From the Foundation of the Achaian League, General Introduction, History of the Greek Federations, new edition; Life in Ancient Egypt, trans


Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, says of Horsford's Acid Phosphate.

"A wonderful remedy which gave me most gratifying results in the worst forms of dyspepsia."

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lated from the German of Professor Erman by Mrs. Tirard; A Defense of Philosophic Doubt, by the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, being an Essay on the Foundations of Belief, new edition; The Theory of Wages, and its Application to the Eight-Hours Question, by Herbert M. Thompson; A text-Book of Pathology, Systematic and Practical, by Professor D. J. Hamilton, Vol. II.; A Text-Book of Physiology, Part V. -Appendix, The Chemical Basis of the Animal Body, by A. Sheridan Lea; Metal Coloring and Bronzing, by Arthur H. Hiorns; Hygiene, by Edward F. Willoughby, new and enlarged edition; Scientific Papers, by Oliver Heaviside, two volumes; Pioneers of Science, by Professor Oliver Lodge, with portraits and other illustrations; Hereditary Genius, An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences, by Francis Galton, F.R.S, new edition; Chemical Theory for Beginners, by James Walker and Leonard Dobbin; Materials for the Study of Variation in Animals, Part I., Discontinuous Variation, by William Bateson; On Color Blindness, by Thomas H. Bickerton; The Great World's Farm, or, How Nature Grows Her Crops, by Selina Gaze, with a Preface by Professor Boulger; Text Book of Embryology, Man and Mammals, by Dr. Oscar Hertwig, translated and edited from the Third German Edition by Dr. E. L. Mark; Text-Book of Embryology, Invertebrates, by Drs. Korschelt and Heider, translated and edited by Dr. E. L. Mark and Dr. W. McMichael Woodworth; The Photographer's Pocket-Book, by Dr. E. Vogel, translated by E. C. Conrad; Physiological Psychology, by Dr. Th. Ziehen, adapted by Dr. Otto Beyer and C. C. Vanliew; The City State of Greek and Roman Antiquity, by W. Warde Fowler; Atlas of Classical Antiquities, edited for English use by Professor W. C. S. Anderson; Principles of Elementary Algebra, by Nathan F. Dupuis; Introductory Modern Geometry of the Point, Ray, and Circle, by William B. Smith; The Elements of Graphical Statics, A Text-Book for Students of Engineering, by Leander M. Hoskins; A Review of the Systems of Ethics founded in Evolution, by C. M. Williams; and Theory of Functions, by James Hark




By DANIEL G, BRINTON, M.D. "The book is good, thoroughly good, and will long remain the best accessible elementary ethnography in our language."-The Christian Union.

"We strongly recommend Dr. Brinton's Races and Peoples' to both beginners and scholars. We are not aware of any other recent work on the science of which it treats in the English language." -Asiatic Quarterly.

"His book is an excellent one, and we can heartily recommend it as an introductory manual of ethnology."-The Monist.

"A useful and really interesting work, which deserves to be widely read and studied both in Europe and America."-Brighton (Eng.) Herald.

"This volume is most stimulating. It is written with great clearness, so that anybody can undergrasps very well the complete field of humanity."The New York Times.

stand, and while in some ways, perforce, superficial,

"Dr. Brinton invests his scientific illustrations and

measurements with an indescribable charm of narration, so that 'Races and Peoples,' avowedly a record of discovered facts, is in reality a strong stimulant to the imagination."-Philadelphia Public Ledger.

"The work is indispensable to the student who requires an intelligent guide to a course of ethnographic reading."-Philadelphia Times.

Price, postpaid, $1.75.



"The book is one of unusual interest and value."

Inter Ocean.

"Dr. Daniel G. Brinton writes as the acknowledged authority of the subject."-Philadelphia Press.

"The work will be of genuine value to all who wish to know the substance of what has been found out about the indigenous Americans."-Nature.

"A masterly discussion, and an example of the successful education of the powers of observation." -Philadelphia Ledger.

Price, postpaid, $2.


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For use in Colleges and Normal Schools. Price 50 cents Sent free by post by

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874 Broadway, New York City.]

Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since | Ball, V., C. B., LL.D., F.R.S., Dublin, Ireland.

Jan. 1, 1892.

Aboriginal North American Tea.


Agriculture, Experimental, Status of.
Amenhotep, King, the tomb of.

Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical

Meltons, Kerseys, and English Anthropology, Current Notes on.

Box Cloths.


Black, Blue, and Colored Worsteds.

Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn.
Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics.
Artesian Wells in Iowa.
Astronomical Notes.
Bacteria, Some Uses of.
Bird on Its Nest, The.

Birds Breeding at Hanover, N. H.
Botanical Laboratory, A.

Botanists, American and Nomenclature.
Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian.

OVERCOATINGS Bythoscopida and Cereopida.


Canada, Society

Celts, The Question of the.
Chalicotherium, The Ancestry of.

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School.
Children, Growth of.

Irish Friezes, Ribbed Cheviots, Whip and Collection of Objects Used in Worship.

Bedford Cords.

LADIES' CLOTHS. New & Fancy Shades for Autumn Wear.

Cornell, The Change at.

Deaf, Higher Education of the.

Diamonds in Meteorites.

Diphtheria, Tox-Albumin.

Dynamics, Fundamental Hypotheses of.

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. Eskimo Throwing Sticks.

Etymology of two Iroquolan Compound Stems.


Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain
Facial Expressions.

Family Traits, Persistency of.

19th St. Fishes, The Distribution of

Broadway & 19th st.


Fossils, Notice of New Gigantic.

Four-fold Space, Possibility of a Realization of.
Gems, Artificial, Detection of.

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York.
Grasses, Homoptera Injurious to.
Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of.

Fact and Theory Papers Healing, Divine."

12°. 40c.

By APPLETON MORGAN, Esq. 12°. 20 cents.
C. F. Cox. 12°. 75 cents.

Hemipter us Mouth, Structure of the.
Hofmann, August Wilhelm von.
Hypnotism among the Lower Animals.
Hypnotism, Traumatic.

Indian occupation of New York.
Infant's Movements.

Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of.
Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico.
Inventions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect.
Inventors and Manufacturers Association.
Iowa Academy of Sciences.

By Jargon, The Chinook.

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Jassida; Notes on Local.
Keller, Helen.

Klamath Nation, Linguistics.
Laboratory Training, Aims of.

Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phenomena.
Lightning, New Method of Protecting Buildings from.
Lion Breeding.

Lissajou's Curves, Apparatus for the Production of.
Maize Plant, Growth and Chemical Composition of.
Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of.
Medicine, Preparation for the Study of.
Mineral Discoveries, Washington.
Museums, The Support of.
Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of.
Patent Office Building, The.

Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison, Wis.
Baur, G., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich.
Beals, A. H., Milledgeville, Ga.

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwinsville, N. Y.
Bell, Alexander Graham, Washington, D. C.
Boas, Franz, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak.

Bolles, Frank, Cambridge, Mass.
Bostwich, Arthur E., Montclair, NJ.
Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass.
Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa.
Call, E. Ellsworth, Des Moines, Ia.
Chandler, H., Buffalo, N. Y.
Comstock, Theo. B., Tucson, Arizona.
Conn, H. W., Middletown, Conn.
Coulter, John M., Indiana University.
Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, Col.
Cresson, Hilborne T., Philadelphia, Pa.

Davis, W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.
Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H.
Dixon, Edward T., Cambridge, England.
Farrington, E. H., Agric. Station, Champaign, Ill.
Ferree, Barr, New York City.

Fessenden, Reginald A., Lafayette, Ind.

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md. Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N. Y.

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C. Garman, S., Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. Gibbs, Morris, Kalamazoo, Mich.

Golden, Katherine E., Agric. College, Lafayette, Ind. Grinnell, George B., New York City.

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, Ill.

Hale, George S., Boston, Mass.

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada.

Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Halsted, Byron D., Rutg. Coll, New Brunswick, N.J.
Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa.
Hay, O. P., Irvington, Ind.

Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mass.

Hazen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Ethnol., Washington, D. C.

Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb.

Hill, E. J., Chicago, Ill.

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.

Hitchcock, Romyn, Washington, D.C.

Holmes, E. L. Chicago, Ill.

Hoskins, L. M., Madison, Wis.

Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, Va.

Houston, Edwin J., Philadelphia, Pa.

Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky.

Hubbard, Gardiner G, Washington, D.C.

Jackson, Dugald C., Madison, Wisconsin.

James, Joseph F., Agric. Dept., Washington, D.C.. Johnson, Roger B, Miami University, Oxford, 0. Keane, Á. H., London, England.

Kellerman, Mrs. W. A., Columbus, O.

Kellicott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O

Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y.

Lintuer, J. A., Albany, N. Y.

Loeb, Morris, New York City.

Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.

Macloskie, G., Princeton, N.J.

McCarthy, Gerald, Agric. Station, Raleigh.N. C

MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C.

MacGregor, J. C., Halifax, Nova Scotia.

MacRitchie, David, Easter Logie, Perthshire, Scotland.

Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J.

Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. Millspaugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va. Morse, Edward S., Salem, Mass.

Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass.

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TO VOLUME XVIII OF Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska.


Scientific Alliance, The.
Sistrurus and Crotalophorus.
Star Photography, Notes on.
Star, The New, in Auriga.

Storage of Storm-Waters on the Great Plains.
Teaching of Science.

is in preparation, and will be Tiger, A New Sabre Toothed, from Kansas.

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Timber Trees of West Virginia.
Trachea of Insects, Structure of.

Vein Formation, Valuable Experiments in.
Weeds as Fertilizing Material.
Weeds, American.

Will, a Recent Analysis of.
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Wines, The Sophisticated French.

Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C.

Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan.
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Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Osborn, Henry F., Columbia College, New York City.
Osborn, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, lows.
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa.
Pillsbury, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Mass
Preble, Jr., W. P., New York City.
Poteat, W. LI, Wake Forest, N. C.
Prescott, Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich.
Riley, C. V., Washington, D. C.

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Sanford, Edmund C., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass
Scripture, E. W., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Seler, Dr. Ed., Berlin, Germany.
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Slade, D.D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Smith, John B., Rutgers Coll., New Brunswick, N.J.
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Taylor, Isaac, Settrington, England.
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Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Todd, J. E., Tabor, Iowa.
True, Frederick W., Nat. Mus., Washington, D.C.
Turner, C. H., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O.
Wake, C., Staniland, Chicago, Ill.
Ward, R. DeC., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.
Ward, Stanley M.. Scranton, Pa.
Warder, Robert B., Howard Univ., Washington, D.C
Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md.
West, Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Williams, Edward H., Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pa


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Ancient Mexican Heraldry, Agnes Crane. 261
Reticulated Protoplasm of Pelomyxa. A.
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The Fundamental Hypotheses of Abstract
Dynamics. J. G. MacGregor..

The Libyan Alphabet. A. H. Keane.


Is There a Sense of Direction? J. M. Aldrich,
Charles E. Bessey...


Solid Glycerine. C. C. Smith

On Biological Nomenclature. S. W. Williston..




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