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From the foregoing measurements it will be seen that, while the length is less, the expanse is greater than those published. These swifts were first observed by Professor Bruner while on a government entomological expedition in the summer of 1891. At the direction of Professor Bruner his ornithological assistant, Mr. J. B. White, shot and prepared the above specimens this past summer. Being in charge of the Morrill geological expedition sent to this region by the University, I had occasion to fall in with Professor Bruner's party, and to observe these swifts personally. We must have seen several hundred at Squaw Canon flying in and out among the buttes which rise with nearly vertical walls five hundred to twelve hundred feet above the Hot Creek Basin.
Having occasion to visit this region several times annually with parties of students, it is to be hoped that we may obtain data for further notes, and that it may be possible to secure their nests and eggs, in spite of their inaccessible abodes.
University of Nebraska, Sept. 30.
ERWIN H. BARBOUR.
Star 1830 Groombridge.
IN Science for Sept. 30, I note the letter of Professor A. W. Williamson, in which he propounds an hypothesis, admitted by himself to be forced and unwarranted by any natural facts, to
Reading Matter Notices. Ripans Tabules: for torpid liver. Ripans Tabules banish pain.
Cabinet Specimens, Collections, and material by the pound, for mineralogists, collectors, colleges, schools, and chemists. Send for 100-page catalogue, paper bound, 15 cents; cloth bound, 25 cents; supplement, 2 cents. GEO. L. ENGLISH & Co., Mineralogists, 788 & 785 B'way, N. Y.
THE LABRADOR COAST.
A JOURNAL OF TWO SUMMER CRUISES
account for the incredible velocity attributed to the Star 1830 of
Dr. Brendel's Photographs of Auroras.
IN your issue of July 22, 1892, you copied from The Scottish Geographical Magazine an interesting notice of the expedition made by Dr. Martin Brendel and Herr O. Baschin to Bossekop on the northern coast of Norway, last winter, to study the northern lights and attendant phenomena. Therein mention was made of the photographs of the aurora obtained by Dr. Brendel.
By his courtesy copies of some of these pictures are before me. Dr. Brendel modestly regards them as valuable chiefly for what they promise for the future. He hopes to visit the Arctic regions again with a much better equipment. But he has already achieved a great feat in securing even these photographs, the first of the kind ever taken. Tromholt's attempt in 1885 cannot be regarded as a success. The faintness of the light, the quivering and shifting of the auroral rays, and the non-actinic quality of certain colors, combine to make this a very difficult task. Dr. Brendel
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For Exchange-"The Birds of Kansas, "-Goss, for Gray's Anatomy, or Medical Dictionary. Must be in good condition. Address, J. H. SIMPSON, Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio.
For Sale or Exchange.-The subscriber would like to receive cash offers, or an offer in exchange for the earlier volumes of Poggendorf's Annalen and the later volumes of Silliman's Journal. upon the following list: Chenn-Manuel de Conchylio logie. 2 vols. Nearly 5,000 figures, some hand-colored Paper. Paris, 1859. Edwards. -Butterflies of N. A. 2 vols. Plates hand-colored. Vol. I., half calf Vol. II. in parts. Leyman, Agassiz, Hagen. Ills. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool. at Harvard. No. I. Ophiuridae. No. II., Acalephae. No. III., Astacidae. All bound in one volume. American Naturalist. Cloth. Silliman's WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOV-Vols. I.-VII. Am. Jour. of Science and Arts. Third Series. Vols. I.-X. Cloth. ERY, ON THE ESKIMO, ON ITS PHY-Binney.-Terrestrial Mollusks of N. A. Colored SICAL GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND plates. 4 vols. Stretch.-Zygaenidae and Bombycidae of N. A. Colored plates. Also a considerable NATURAL HISTORY, TOGETHER WITH library of monographs, reports, and scientific A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS, ARTI- books, and a large number of duplicates of fossils, minerals and shells. E. A. STRONG, Ypsilanti, CLES, AND CHARTS RELATING TO Mich., Sept., 1892. THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE LABRADOR PENINSULA.
Exchange. I have the finest shells of Anodonta corpulenta, C'p'r, and Suborbiculata, Say, in the world. Will exchange for fresh water, land, and marine shells, in large or small quantities. Have
By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D. also for exchange 50 varieties of fresh water and
Sportsmen and ornithologists will be interested in the list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Turner, which has been kindly revised and brought down to date by Dr. J. A. Allen. Dr. S H. Scudder has contributed the list of butterflies, and Prof. John Macoun, of Ottawa, Canada, has prepared the list of Labrador plants.
Much pains has been taken to render the bibliography complete, and the author is indebted to Dr. Franz Boas and others for several titles and important suggestions; and it is hoped that this feature of the book will recommend it to collectors of Ameri
land shells from Spoon River, Ill. DR. W. S.
To exchange for books on birds or insects, or
GRADUATE of the University of Pennsylvania and a practical mineralogist of twenty years' experience desires to give his services and a cabinet of 25, 00 specimens, all named, with about the same number of duplicates, in minerals, crystals, rocks, gems, fossils, shells, archæological and ethnological specimens and woods to any institution desiring a fine outfit for study. The owner will increase the cabinet to 50,000 specimens in two years and will act as curator. Correspondence solicited from any scientific institution. J. W. Hortter, M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. O. Delivery.
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The American Geologist for 1892.
It is hoped that the volume will serve as a guide to the Labrador coast for the use of travellers, yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as Edited by PROF. S. CALVIN, University of Iowa; DR. E. W. CLAYPOLE, Buchtel College; JOHN EYERMAN. well as those interested in geographical and histori-Lafayette College; DR. PERSIFOR FRAZER, Penu. Hort. Soc.; PROF F. W. CRAGIN, Colorado College; PROF ROBT T. HILL, U. S. Irrigation Survey; DR. ANDREW C. LAWSON. University of California; R. D. cal studies. SALISBURY, University of Wisconsin; JOSEPH B. TYRRELL, Geol. Sur. of Canada; E. O. ULRICH, Minnesota Geological Survey: PROF. I C. WHITE, University of West Virginia; PROF. N. H. WINCHELL, University of Minnesota. Now in its IXth volume. $3.50 per year. Sample copies, 20 cents. Address
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does not say who manufactured the plates which he used; but they measure four by five inches. With a steady, diffused glow on an arch he has had very fair success, with an exposure of between forty seconds and five minutes. With a greatly agitated, curtain-like display, and an exposure of only one minute, he lost all detail. But a very sharp picture was secured, with an exposure of six seconds, of one end of an arch, which was composed of radiant streamers; the structure is distinctly shown. The pictures were obtained between Jan. 4 and Feb. 1, this year. On the night of Feb. 13-14, a heavy snow-storm prevented observations of the famous aurora of that date; but, as has already been mentioned, a remarkable magnetic disturbance was recorded by the needles.
The scientific world will wish Dr. Brendel good luck in his future endeavors, and will watch eagerly to see whether he finds it practicable to determine the parallax of auroras by this method. JAMES P. HALL.
Brooklyn, N.Y., Oct. 8.
The Horse: A Study in Natural History. By WILLIAM H. FLOWER, Director of the British Natural History Museum. New York, D. Appleton & Company.
THE Modern Science Series," edited by the distinguished scientist, Sir John Lubbock, is not primarily designed for the specialist, nor, on the other hand, for the class of readers that reads merely to be entertained. It attempts rather to supply accurately, yet in language divested of needless technicalities, such information as is needed by everyone who desires to keep fairly abreast of the progress of modern knowledge.
The name of the author of the present volume is in itself a guarantee of the accuracy and interest of its contents, and in the reading we are not disappointed; for within 204 short pages the
Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, says of Horsford's Acid Phosphate.
horse and its relations to nature are presented in a sketch which is at once attractive and thorough.
In the first chapter the ancestral relations of the horse are especially considered; the second chapter discusses chiefly the horse's living allies; while the third and fourth chapters are devoted to structural features. But what adds unusual interest to the book is that the bearing of the facts upon the origin of the horse is in every chapter constantly kept in view. "The anatomy and history of the horse are . . . often taken as affording a test case of the value of the theory of evolution, or, at all events, of the doctrine that animal forms have been transmuted or modified one from another with the advance of time, whether, as extreme evolutionists hold, by a spontaneous or inherent evolving or unrolling process, or, as many others are disposed to think, by some mysterious and supernatural guidance along certain definite lines of change."
The conclusion is forced home to the reader that the horse is a very highly specialized type derived from a generalized ancestor by slow and gradual change, or evolution. The one-toed animal was once five-toed, and its heel was less raised above the ground than now; its teeth were once fitted for a much wider range of diet; its neck was short and a collar-bone, now absent, was once present; its tail was long; its brain - and especially the cerebrum was small; instead of the open plain, it frequented the shady or often marshy borders of lakes and streams.
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