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From the foregoing measurements it will be seen that, while the length is less, the expanse is greater than those published. These swifts were first observed by Professor Bruner while on a government entomological expedition in the summer of 1891. At the direction of Professor Bruner his ornithological assistant, Mr. J. B. White, shot and prepared the above specimens this past summer. Being in charge of the Morrill geological expedition sent to this region by the University, I had occasion to fall in with Professor Bruner's party, and to observe these swifts personally. We must have seen several hundred at Squaw Canon flying in and out among the buttes which rise with nearly vertical walls five hundred to twelve hundred feet above the Hot Creek Basin.

Having occasion to visit this region several times annually with parties of students, it is to be hoped that we may obtain data for further notes, and that it may be possible to secure their nests and eggs, in spite of their inaccessible abodes.

University of Nebraska, Sept. 30.


Star 1830 Groombridge.

IN Science for Sept. 30, I note the letter of Professor A. W. Williamson, in which he propounds an hypothesis, admitted by himself to be forced and unwarranted by any natural facts, to

Reading Matter Notices. Ripans Tabules: for torpid liver. Ripans Tabules banish pain.


Cabinet Specimens, Collections, and material by the pound, for mineralogists, collectors, colleges, schools, and chemists. Send for 100-page catalogue, paper bound, 15 cents; cloth bound, 25 cents; supplement, 2 cents. GEO. L. ENGLISH & Co., Mineralogists, 788 & 785 B'way, N. Y.



account for the incredible velocity attributed to the Star 1830 of
Groombridge's catalogue. It is not necessary to resort to such
untenable speculations to explain the phenomena referred to. The
only reason for assigning such an extreme velocity to the star in
question is the fact that it exhibits quite a large proper motion
and no appreciable parallax. It may be, however, merely a case
of masked parallax. If we suppose the star to have a large dark
companion (numerous instances of which are known, as Algol,
Procyon, etc.), we only need to assign to it a period and radius of
revolution closely approximating that of the earth in its orbit, and
a favorable position of orbital plane, to render the parallax quite
imperceptible by the old methods. In such case the spectroscope
might solve the problem by determining the orbital velocity, and
thence the other elements, in case the plane of the orbit lay in our
direction, and thus show that this star is really one of the nearest
in the heavens to our system.
Washington, D.C., Oct. 5.

Dr. Brendel's Photographs of Auroras.

IN your issue of July 22, 1892, you copied from The Scottish Geographical Magazine an interesting notice of the expedition made by Dr. Martin Brendel and Herr O. Baschin to Bossekop on the northern coast of Norway, last winter, to study the northern lights and attendant phenomena. Therein mention was made of the photographs of the aurora obtained by Dr. Brendel.

By his courtesy copies of some of these pictures are before me. Dr. Brendel modestly regards them as valuable chiefly for what they promise for the future. He hopes to visit the Arctic regions again with a much better equipment. But he has already achieved a great feat in securing even these photographs, the first of the kind ever taken. Tromholt's attempt in 1885 cannot be regarded as a success. The faintness of the light, the quivering and shifting of the auroral rays, and the non-actinic quality of certain colors, combine to make this a very difficult task. Dr. Brendel


[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character.

Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.1

For Exchange-"The Birds of Kansas, "-Goss, for Gray's Anatomy, or Medical Dictionary. Must be in good condition. Address, J. H. SIMPSON, Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio.

For Sale or Exchange.-The subscriber would like to receive cash offers, or an offer in exchange for the earlier volumes of Poggendorf's Annalen and the later volumes of Silliman's Journal. upon the following list: Chenn-Manuel de Conchylio logie. 2 vols. Nearly 5,000 figures, some hand-colored Paper. Paris, 1859. Edwards. -Butterflies of N. A. 2 vols. Plates hand-colored. Vol. I., half calf Vol. II. in parts. Leyman, Agassiz, Hagen. Ills. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool. at Harvard. No. I. Ophiuridae. No. II., Acalephae. No. III., Astacidae. All bound in one volume. American Naturalist. Cloth. Silliman's WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOV-Vols. I.-VII. Am. Jour. of Science and Arts. Third Series. Vols. I.-X. Cloth. ERY, ON THE ESKIMO, ON ITS PHY-Binney.-Terrestrial Mollusks of N. A. Colored SICAL GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND plates. 4 vols. Stretch.-Zygaenidae and Bombycidae of N. A. Colored plates. Also a considerable NATURAL HISTORY, TOGETHER WITH library of monographs, reports, and scientific A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS, ARTI- books, and a large number of duplicates of fossils, minerals and shells. E. A. STRONG, Ypsilanti, CLES, AND CHARTS RELATING TO Mich., Sept., 1892. THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE LABRADOR PENINSULA.

Exchange. I have the finest shells of Anodonta corpulenta, C'p'r, and Suborbiculata, Say, in the world. Will exchange for fresh water, land, and marine shells, in large or small quantities. Have

By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D. also for exchange 50 varieties of fresh water and

Sportsmen and ornithologists will be interested in the list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Turner, which has been kindly revised and brought down to date by Dr. J. A. Allen. Dr. S H. Scudder has contributed the list of butterflies, and Prof. John Macoun, of Ottawa, Canada, has prepared the list of Labrador plants.

Much pains has been taken to render the bibliography complete, and the author is indebted to Dr. Franz Boas and others for several titles and important suggestions; and it is hoped that this feature of the book will recommend it to collectors of Ameri


land shells from Spoon River, Ill. DR. W. S.
STRODE, Lewistown, Ill.

To exchange for books on birds or insects, or
fo back volumes of American Naturalist: Ecker's
"Anatomy of the Frog," Packard's "Guide,"
Guyot's "The Earth and Man." Rockhill's, "The
Land Lamas," Parker's "Biology, Shoe-
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Dexter's "The Kingdoms of Nature," all new. M. J.
ELROD, Ill. Wes. Univ., Bloomington, Ill.


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GRADUATE of the University of Pennsylvania and a practical mineralogist of twenty years' experience desires to give his services and a cabinet of 25, 00 specimens, all named, with about the same number of duplicates, in minerals, crystals, rocks, gems, fossils, shells, archæological and ethnological specimens and woods to any institution desiring a fine outfit for study. The owner will increase the cabinet to 50,000 specimens in two years and will act as curator. Correspondence solicited from any scientific institution. J. W. Hortter, M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. O. Delivery.

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C Polytechnic, Organic and Analytical, desires a HEMIST AND ENGINEER, graduate German position in laboratory or chemical works. Address 213% E. 7th Street, New York, care Levy.

The American Geologist for 1892.

It is hoped that the volume will serve as a guide to the Labrador coast for the use of travellers, yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as Edited by PROF. S. CALVIN, University of Iowa; DR. E. W. CLAYPOLE, Buchtel College; JOHN EYERMAN. well as those interested in geographical and histori-Lafayette College; DR. PERSIFOR FRAZER, Penu. Hort. Soc.; PROF F. W. CRAGIN, Colorado College; PROF ROBT T. HILL, U. S. Irrigation Survey; DR. ANDREW C. LAWSON. University of California; R. D. cal studies. SALISBURY, University of Wisconsin; JOSEPH B. TYRRELL, Geol. Sur. of Canada; E. O. ULRICH, Minnesota Geological Survey: PROF. I C. WHITE, University of West Virginia; PROF. N. H. WINCHELL, University of Minnesota. Now in its IXth volume. $3.50 per year. Sample copies, 20 cents. Address

513 pp., 8°, $3.50.

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York.


does not say who manufactured the plates which he used; but they measure four by five inches. With a steady, diffused glow on an arch he has had very fair success, with an exposure of between forty seconds and five minutes. With a greatly agitated, curtain-like display, and an exposure of only one minute, he lost all detail. But a very sharp picture was secured, with an exposure of six seconds, of one end of an arch, which was composed of radiant streamers; the structure is distinctly shown. The pictures were obtained between Jan. 4 and Feb. 1, this year. On the night of Feb. 13-14, a heavy snow-storm prevented observations of the famous aurora of that date; but, as has already been mentioned, a remarkable magnetic disturbance was recorded by the needles.

The scientific world will wish Dr. Brendel good luck in his future endeavors, and will watch eagerly to see whether he finds it practicable to determine the parallax of auroras by this method. JAMES P. HALL.

Brooklyn, N.Y., Oct. 8.


The Horse: A Study in Natural History. By WILLIAM H. FLOWER, Director of the British Natural History Museum. New York, D. Appleton & Company.


THE Modern Science Series," edited by the distinguished scientist, Sir John Lubbock, is not primarily designed for the specialist, nor, on the other hand, for the class of readers that reads merely to be entertained. It attempts rather to supply accurately, yet in language divested of needless technicalities, such information as is needed by everyone who desires to keep fairly abreast of the progress of modern knowledge.

The name of the author of the present volume is in itself a guarantee of the accuracy and interest of its contents, and in the reading we are not disappointed; for within 204 short pages the


Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, says of Horsford's Acid Phosphate.

horse and its relations to nature are presented in a sketch which is at once attractive and thorough.

In the first chapter the ancestral relations of the horse are especially considered; the second chapter discusses chiefly the horse's living allies; while the third and fourth chapters are devoted to structural features. But what adds unusual interest to the book is that the bearing of the facts upon the origin of the horse is in every chapter constantly kept in view. "The anatomy and history of the horse are . . . often taken as affording a test case of the value of the theory of evolution, or, at all events, of the doctrine that animal forms have been transmuted or modified one from another with the advance of time, whether, as extreme evolutionists hold, by a spontaneous or inherent evolving or unrolling process, or, as many others are disposed to think, by some mysterious and supernatural guidance along certain definite lines of change."

The conclusion is forced home to the reader that the horse is a very highly specialized type derived from a generalized ancestor by slow and gradual change, or evolution. The one-toed animal was once five-toed, and its heel was less raised above the ground than now; its teeth were once fitted for a much wider range of diet; its neck was short and a collar-bone, now absent, was once present; its tail was long; its brain - and especially the cerebrum was small; instead of the open plain, it frequented the shady or often marshy borders of lakes and streams.

The various pages in the history of this evolution are presented as they have been recorded in the book of nature till at last the genealogy is traced back to the five-toed and otherwise generalized type, Phenacodus,, of early Eocene age.

The work is illustrated with twenty-seven clear, well-selected cuts, of which that of the quagga deserves especial notice as being from the first photograph known to have been taken from the living animal.

The external appearance of the book is unusually attractive.


By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. "The book is good, thoroughly good, and will long remain the best accessible elementary ethnography in our language."-The Christian Union.

"We strongly recommend Dr. Brinton's Races and Peoples' to both beginners and scholars. We are not aware of any other recent work on the science of which it treats in the English language." -Asiatic Quarterly.

"His book is an excellent one, and we can heartily recommend it as an introductory manual of ethnology."-The Monist.

"A useful and really interesting work, which deserves to be widely read and studied both in Europe and America."-Brighton (Eng.) Herald.

"This volume is most stimulating. It is written with great clearness, so that anybody can undergrasps very well the complete field of humanity."The New York Times.

stand, and while in some ways, perforce, superficial,

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quires an intelligent guide to a course of ethno

Price, postpaid, $1.75.


By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. "The book is one of unusual interest and value."Inter Ocean.

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Autumn Wraps.


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Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison, Wis.

Baur, G., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich.
Beals, A. H., Milledgeville, Ga.

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwinsville, N. Y.
Bell, Alexander Graham, Washington, D. C.
Boas, Franz, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak.


Anthropology, Current Notes on.

Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn.

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics.
Artesian Wells in Iowa.
Astronomical Notes.
Bacteria, Some Uses of.
Bird on Its Nest, The.

Birds Breeding at Hanover, N. H.
Botanical Laboratory, A.

Botanists, American and Nomenclature.
Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian.
Bythoscopidæ and Cereopida.

Street, Dinner & Evening Costumes. Canada, Royal Society of.


Celts, The Question of the.
Chalicotherium, The Ancestry of.

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School.
Children, Growth of.

Collection of Objects Used in Worship.
Cornell, The Change at.

Deaf, Higher Education of the.
Diamonds in Meteorites.

BOAS, MUFFS and CAPES, Diphtheria, Tox-Albumin,

Mink, Astrachan, Persian Lamb,

Black and Gray Lynx, Seal,

Krimmer, Alaska Sable,

Fur Trimmings to Match.

Dynamics, Fundamental Hypotheses of.

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of.
Eskimo Throwing Silcks.

Etymology of two Iroquoian Compound Stems.

Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain
Facial Expressions.

Family Traits, Persistency of.
Fishes, The Distribution of.
Fossils, Notice of New Gigantic.

Four-fold Space, Possibility of a Realization of.
Gems, Artificial, Detection of.

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York.

WRAPS, Grasses, Homoptera Injurious


Broadway & 19th st.


Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of. "Healing, Divine."

Hemipter us Mouth, Structure of the. Hofmann, August Wilhelm von.

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals.


Hypnotism, Traumatic.

Indian occupation of New York.
Infant's Movements.

Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of.
Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico.

Inventions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect.
Inventors and Manufacturers Association.
Iowa Academy of Sciences.

Papers Jargon, The Chinook.

Fact and Theory Papers

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Jassidae; Notes on Local.
Keller, Helen.

Klamath Nation, Linguistics.
Laboratory Training, Aims of.

Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phenomena.

Bolles, Frank, Cambridge, Mass.
Bostwich, Arthur E., Montclair, N.J.
Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass.
Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa.
Call, E. Ellsworth, Des Moines, Ia.
Chandler, H., Buffalo, N. Y.
Comstock, Theo. B., Tucson, Arizona.
Conu, H. W., Middletown, Conn.
Coulter, John M., Indiana University.
Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, Col.
Cresson, Hilborne T., Philadelphia, Pa.

Davis, W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.
Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H.
Dixon, Edward T., Cambridge, England.
Farrington, E. H., Agric. Station, Champaign, Ill.
Ferree, Barr, New York City.

Fessenden, Keginald A., Lafayette, Ind.

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md. Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y."

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C.
Garman, S., Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Gibbs, Morris, Kalamazoo, Mich.

Golden, Katherine E., Agric. College, Lafayette, Ind.
Grinnell, George B., New York City.
Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, Ill.

Hale, George S., Boston, Mass.

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada.

Halsted, Byron D., Rutg. Coll, New Brunswick, N.J.
Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa.
Hay, O. P., Irvington, Ind.

Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mass.

Hazen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Ethnol., Washington, D. C.

Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb.

Hill, E. J., Chicago, Ill.

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.

Hitchcock, Romyn, Washington, D.C.

Holmes, E. L. Chicago, Ill.

Hoskins, L. M., Madison, Wis.

Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, Va.

Houston, Edwin J., Philadelphia, Pa.

Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky.

Jackson, Dugald C., Madison, Wisconsin
Hubbard, Gardiner G., Washington, D.C.

James, Joseph F., Agric. Dept., Washington, D.C.
Johnson, Roger B., Miami University, Oxford, 0.
Keane, Á. H., London, England.

Kellerman, Mrs. W. A., Columbus, O.

Kellicott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O.
Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y.

Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y.

Loeb, Morris, New York City.

Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.
Macloskie, G., Princeton, N.J.

Lightning, New Method of Protecting Buildings from. McCarthy, Gerald, Agric. Station, Raleigh, N. C.

Lion Breeding.

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MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C.
MacGregor, J. C., Halifax, Nova Scotia.

MacRitchie, David, Easter Logle, Perthshire, Scotland.

Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J.

Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. Millspaugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va. Morse, Edward S., Salem, Mass.

Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass.

Physa Heterostropha Say, Notes on the Fertility of. Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore Pict's House, A.

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of.
Polariscopes, Direct Reflecting.
Psychological Laboratory at Toronto.
Psychological Training. The Need of.
Psylla, the Pear-Tree.


Rice-Culture in Japan, Mexico and the United
Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska.
Scientific Alliance, The.
Sistrurus and Crotalophorus.

Star Photography, Notes on.

Star, The New, in Auriga.

Storage of Storm-Waters on the Great Plains.
Teaching of Science.

Tiger, A New Sabre-Toothed, from Kansas.
Timber Trees of West Virginia.
Trachea of Insects, Structure of.
Vein-Formation, Valuable Experiments in.
Weeds as Fertilizing Material.
Weeds, American.

Will, a Recent Analysis of.
Wind-Storms and Trees.

Wines, The Sophisticated French.

TO VOLUME XVIII OF Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C.

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Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Osborn, Henry F., Columbia College, New York City.
Osborn, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa.
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa.
Pillsbury, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
Preble, Jr., W. P., New York City.
Poteat, W. L., Wake Forest, N. C.
Prescott, Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich.
Riley, C. V., Washington, D. C.

Ruffner, W. H., Lexington, Va.

Sanford, Edmund C., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. Scripture, E. W., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Seler, Dr. Ed., Berlin, Germany.

Shufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C.

Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Smith, John B., Rutgers Coll., New Brunswick, N. J.
Southwick, Edmund B., New York City.

Stevens, George T., New York City.
Stevenson, S. Y., Philadelphia, Pa.
Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, Col.
Taylor, Isaac, Settrington, England.
Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C.

True, Frederick W., Nat. Mus., Washington, D.C.

Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Todd, J. E., Tabor, Iowa.

Turner, C. H., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O.
Ward, H. DeC., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.
Wake, C., Staniland, Chicago, Ill.
Ward, Stanley M., Scranton, Pa.
Warder, Robert B., Howard Univ., Washington, D.C.
Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md.
West, Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Williams, Edward H., Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pa.

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Is there a Sense of Direction? Fred Mather. 248
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