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reflection, we can only know of them by their effects on the chain of presentation. The reason for this is that feeling is not presentation, and "what is not presented cannot be re presented." "How can that which was not originally a cognition become such by being reproduced?"
It cannot. But do we need to identify the known with knowing, in order that it may be known? Must feeling be made into a cognition to be cognized? It is obvious enough that no feeling can be revived into a re-presentation of itself, but no more can any cognition or any mental activity. Revival or recurrence of consciousness can never constitute consciousness of consciousness which is an order apart. If cognition is only presentation and re-presentation of objects, we can never attain any apprehension of consciousness, any cognition of a cognition or of a feeling or of a volition, for they are all equally in this sense subjective acts. Re presentation at any degree is never by itself sense of re-presentation or knowledge of the presentation.
Of course, the doctrine of relativity applies to introspection as to all cognition, and subject qua subject is as unknowable as object qua object. We do not know feeling in itself, nor any thing ølse in itself, the subjective like the objective ding an sich is beyond our ken. Yet kinds of consciousness are as directly apprehended and discriminated as kinds of things, but the knowing is, as such, distinct from the known even when knowing is known. Here the act knowing is not the act known and is different in value. The object known is not, at least from the purely psychological point of view, ever to be confounded with the knowing, to be incorporated into cognition by virtue of being cognized. Feeling, then, seems to be as directly known by introspection and reflection as any other process. It is not a hypothetical cause brought in by the intellect to explain certain mental phenomena, but it is as distinctly and directly apprehended as cognition or volition.
The distinction between having a feeling and knowing a feeling is a very real one, though common phraseology confuses them. We say of a brave man, he never knew fear; by which we mean he never feared, never experienced fear, and not that he was ignorant of fear. Again, in like manner, we say sometimes of a very healthy person, he never knew what pain was, meaning he never felt pain. These expressions convey a truth in that they emphasize that necessity of experience in the exercise of the subjective method upon which we have already commented, but still they obscure a distinction which must be apparent to scientific analysis. We cannot know feeling except through realization, yet the knowing is not the realization. Being aware of the pain and the feeling pain are distinct acts of consciousness. All feeling, pain and pleasure, is direct consciousness, but knowledge of it is reflex, is consciousness of consciousness. The cognition of the pain as an object, a fact of consciousness, is surely a distinct act from the pain in consciousness, from the fact itself. The pain disturbance is one thing and the introspective act by which it is cognized quite another.
These two acts are not always associated though they are commonly regarded as inseparable. It is a common postulate that if you have a pain you will know it, or notice it. If we feel pained we will always know it. This seemingly true statement comes of a confounding of terms. If I have a pain I must, indeed, be aware of it, know it. in the sense that it must be in consciousness; but this makes, aware of pain, and knowing pain, such very general phrases as to equal experience of pain or having pain. But there is no knowledge in pain itself, nor pain in the knowing act per se. The knowing the pain must be different from the pain itself, and is not always a necessary sequent. We may experience pain without cognizing it as such. When drowsy in bed I may feel pain of my foot being "asleep," but not know it as a mental fact. We may believe, indeed, that pain often rises and subsides in consciousness without our being cognizant of it, but, of course, in the nature of the case there is no direct proof, for proof implies cognizance of fact. Pain as mental fact, an object for consciousness, not an experience in consciousness, is what is properly meant by knowing pain. Consciousness-of-pain as knowledge of it is not always involved by pain-in-consciousness as experience of it. Consciousness of pain by its double meaning
as cognizance of pain and experience of pain leads easily to obscurity of thought upon this subject. But experience does not, if we may trust the general law of evolution from simple to com plex, at the first contain consciousness of experience. This latter element is but gradually built up into experience, though in the end they are so permanently united in developed ego life that it is difficult to perceive their distinctness and independence.
We conclude then that while not all feelings, that is, pains and pleasures, are discovered simply by virtue of being acts of consciousness, and that not all consciousness is apperceptive of itself, yet in general feelings are known as such, and there is nothing in their nature to make them only indirectly observable by consciousness. The direct subjective method certainly presents great difficulties especially in evolutionary psychology, but still it must be accounted the only method for feeling as for all regions of psychic life.1
IN the Lichens the geographical distribution of species is quite as interesting as in phænogamia. I shall in this paper confine myself to observations and collections made in the sub-tropical section of our country. The tracing of species to their native habitats, and thence following them over often wide areas of dispersion until arrested in their progress by conditions unsuitable to their growth, is an important work for the botanist and for science. Florida — more especially its southern extremity - offers an attractive field and unusual advantages. One may draw a line east and west across the State in about latitude 25°, and below this will be found new conditions of soil, climate, and productions. A new and peculiar flora exuberant in growth will come into view. With both shores laved by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, that "river in the ocean," also the Bahamas and Cuba less than one hundred miles distant, the reasons for the similarity of life to that of the Antillean system are plain. One has only to wander along these sunny shores and gather by bushels the proofs of what I say in such species as Guilandina, Bonduc, Mucuna, Urens, etc., that have been brought by the sea from other climes. Then tropical Algæ claim the attention. Approximately the line I have mentioned represents two vast and dissimilar floras, each overstepping somewhat the territory of the other, but retaining the mastery in their respective fields. Here northern forms become intruders, southern less common. Many arborescent ones dwindle to shrubs. Per contra, further north the same law obtains. Thus hath nature set her limits. Standing on this borderland, and amazed at the change in the higher orders, I wished to know about the lower. In this field not much has been done. Our knowledge of the lichens has been until recently limited. It is my purpose to extend this knowledge somewhat, believing that it may be useful,
Most of the species described by Nylander and Tuckerman, as from Cuba and some from further south, will be found in Florida. The great order Graphidacei, one of the most perplexing, abounds in new species, and I am satisfied that further research will add to the number in this and other orders. I now make nearly four hundred and fifty species, which is indeed a great number for one section when we remember that only a few years ago Willey estimated that ultimately one thousand might be found on the entire continent. The final total in Florida will exceed five hundred; and I allow for some reductions which must follow their final resolution, for, as hinted in a former paper, this is more important than new species, especially if, as asserted, "species only exist in text-books," a proposition from which I dissent.
The following observations will only embrace a few of the rarer and little-known forms collected by me, and some others of my discovery described as new to science: Gyalecta cubana Nyl. On calciferous rocks, Keys of Florida, and on the main land Also in Cuba. Identified by Dr. Nylander. Chiodecton sphærale Nyl. A rare tropical form first found by me near Jacksonville - and
1 For a special carrying out of the principles herein advocated see the writer's article on Primitive Consciousness in the Philosophical Review, July, 1892.
south- on Nyssa aquatica. Trypethelium sprengelii Nyl. various barks of trees, Key West to Jacksonville. Opegrapha diapharoides Nyl. On oaks from Jacksonville south. The great genus Biatora has many species. Of these B. carneo-albens Nyl. and B. Floridensis Nyl., found by me on Carpinus, are new, and of tropical derivation. Two other great genera, Arthonia and Graphis, teem with new species and rare forms. These find here their greatest expression, and the latter is reduced north of Florida to a very few species.
CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY.—XVI.
[Edited by D. G. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.]
WHEN one surveys the works on linguistics which have appeared in the last few years, especially such as deal with the principles of changes in languages, it is easy to classify their writers into two groups, the one preferring to explain such changes by processes of mind, the other by purely physical conditions. This distinction goes back to that which would regard linguistics as a branch of natural history, and its laws no other than purely physical ones; or, on the other hand, that which claims the changes in language come chiefly through principles of psychology, logic, and metaphysics.
Some have aimed at a compromise by saying that linguistics is in its contents a mental science, but in its methods a natural science. Professor H. Schuchardt remarks, in a late number of the Literaturblatt für Ger. und Roman. Philologie, that it would be just as correct to reverse this statement, or to take the position that it is half a natural and half a historical science; provided that in the latter case we understand the two members of the proposition to be successive and not contradictory, the natural element passing into the historical. "Because," he concludes, with a remarkable expression of his position, "I believe in the unity of the science, and hold that there is no greater difference between biology and linguistics than between biology and chemistry."
Gerland's Atlas of Ethnography.
I have had at hand all summer the "Atlas der Völkerkunde," by Dr. Georg Gerland, professor at the University of Strasburg (1 Vol., Gotha, Justus Perthes, 1892), and can speak of it now after that much use. It is composed of fifteen folio maps, and, as it is, I believe, the first complete ethnographic atlas ever published, it will not be out of place to give its contents. They are: I., Distribution of skin and hair; II., Density of population; III., Distribution of religions; IV., Distribution of diseases; V., Clothing, food, dwelling, and occupations; VI, Location of peoples in 1500 and 1880; VII., Europe in 1880; VIII., Asia in 1880; IX., South-east Asia; X., Oceanica; XI., Africa; XII,, Aboriginal America; XIII., America in 1880; XIV., Linguistic map; XV., Europe about 100-150 after Christ.
The first impression one has in examining the Atlas- and with me it is one that remains is that entirely too much is attempted for a work of the size. The charts are necessarily on too small a scale and omit too much to be satisfactory for the special student; and what student is not special nowadays? The list of subjects above given will be enough to convince the reader that detail cannot be attempted in most of the charts. Turning to the map of the American aborigines, there is an evident lack of classification. For instance, what does "Peruvian peoples" mean? It is neither a linguistic nor physical group, and scarcely a political one. All tribes of Chili, Patagonia, the Pampas, and Tierra del Fuego are included under one rubric, and called "Chilians or Patagonians." Such classifications are worse than worthless, because they are misleading; and these by no means stand alone.
But it would be unfair to measure this atlas by its treatment of America, which, as usual in all works of the kind, suffers the most. In general, the Atlas is one of immense labor and of corresponding value. It ought to be in the library of every geographer and student of ethnography.
To Deduce the Stature from the Measurements of the Long Bones.
This is a problem which has occupied anatomists considerably, without leading to as uniform conclusions as one could wish. There are important ethnic variations in the length of the long bones of both extremities, as is well known, and others run in families, or are peculiar to the individual. Scott says of Rob Roy, that standing straight he could tie his garter below the knee. Such a statement makes an osteologist wish for his bones! Long fore-arms are ethnically a sign of an inferior race. Hence all proportions must to some extent be modified by considerations of
A general formula has lately been advanced by M. Etienne Rollet, which seems to me, after comparing it with the measurements in Topinard, Schmidt, and others, the most convenient I have seen, and sufficiently accurate. The list of coefficients is stated as follows in the Revue Scientifique for August:
4.53 4 61
Femur. Tibia. Fibula. Humerus. Radius. Ulna. Min. 3.66 6.86 Max. 3.71 by the coefficient given above, to obtain the height; and by taking It is enough to multiply the length of the long bone named
the average of a number of such measurements we reach a figure accurate enough for the height of either sex. I say accurate enough, because there is no use in being excessively precise on this question. It is well known that there is quite a difference in our stature when we rise in the morning, and when we go to bed after a hard-day's walk.
The Birch-Tree as an Ethnic Landmark.
In a late number of the Globus, Dr. Krause of Kiel reviews the question of the origin of the Aryan nations as shown by the word for birch. The terms for birch and willow are the only two treenames which are common, or practically so, to all tongues of the Indo-Germanic group. The ancestors of all must have come, therefore, from some locality where these trees were indigenous, and where they were of importance in the economics of the ancestral horde. The birch meant is the Betula alba, or white birch, and its uses in primitive conditions are numerous and familiar, as are also those of willow twigs.
All this is well known, and therefore not new. But the conclusion which has been drawn from it in favor of the derivation of the Indo-Germanic peoples from the habitat of the birch in the north of Europe is seen to be unsubstantiated, when we learn that the Betula alba flourishes all through Siberia, from the highlands of Afghanistan to Japan, and that two closely allied species, the acuminata and the bhojpattra. are found in various parts of the Himalayas, and in the mountains of central Asia. In Iran and on the plains of Turkestan none of these trees occurs. It would seem, therefore, that this single verbal identity does not carry us far.
To show how close the correspondences of the names of the tree are, I will quote some: English, birch; High German, birke; Hindustanee, burj; Sanscrit, bhurja ; Italian, bedoja; Latin, betula; Irish, beithe, etc. It is a marvel to see how through unnumbered generations and over so many thousands of miles the word has retained its physiognomy.
Dr. Lubor Niederle is privat-docent in the branches of anthropology and pre-historic archæology at the University of Prague. That city is quite decidedly Check or Slavic, and much of the instruction is carried on in the Bohemian dialect of that tongue. In it, also, Dr. Niederle publishes his works, the last of which treats of pre-historic man in Europe with especial reference to the archæology of the Slavic countries. The title is "Lidstvo v Době Prědhistorické." It is to be hoped that of a portion of it he will prepare an abstract in French or German, as the Bohemian is a dialect with which most scientists are not familiar. The importance of such an abstract is the greater because many Slavic observers, especially local archæologists, have in late years taken
to publishing their articles exclusively in journals in their own tongue, and it thus becomes very difficult to follow their researches.
All who have interested themselves in proto-historic European ethnology are aware of the obscurity that reigns over the relationship of the early Slavonic tribes; it is only one degree better than the quite impenetrable fog surrounding the Celts. Their craniology is wholly conflicting; and to-day, if an anthropologist were to speak of "the Slavonic type," I should not have any idea whether he meant a blonde or a brunette, a long skull or a broad skull, a short or a lofty stature, narrow or wide eyes. The Slavonic languages, however, are permanent testimonies to a former linguistic unity.
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The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of the journal.
A Gynandrous Flower-Head.
A GYNANDROUS flower-head of the Iceland poppy is now in my possession. The ordinary seed-case is perfectly formed, including the stigmas. Round it are what should be the stamens; but twenty or more of these are thickened gradually upwards from
the base of the filament, ending in a golf-club-like head. On the outer side some of these have anthers more or less completely developed; but in all the inner side is concave, containing three to fifteen or more ovules attached round the edge. The sketch will assist in explaining this extraordinary botanical monstrosity. J. EDMUND CLARK.
Is There a Sense of Direction?
A RECENT article in Science by the facile pen of Dr. Hall on the "Sense of Direction" concedes the absence of such a faculty in civilized man at least, and possibly also in the semi-civilized as well; but he believes beyond cavil that the lower animals do have this gift denied to man.
That which appears to be a "sense of direction" in animals can, I believe, in every case be explained by the power of observation and memory, or by accident.
Men and animals alike, under given circumstances, are compelled to both observe and remember, until the one becomes as easily and unconsciously done as the other, and, for all the purposes of this article, the memory to have existence must be established upon facts learned by observation. It is very well known that an unguided horse returning to familiar haunts will do so over the same route by which he left them, rather than in a direct line by sense of direction. The very few instances recorded of animals returning from incredible distances, over which they had been carried, can doubtless be explained by their having been able to observe the route travelled, or by accident, or by the fact of their being unauthenticated nursery tales, with the possible exception of the homing pigeon, birds of wonderful flight and sight, many of which never reach home, while the arrival of many more is unaccountably delayed. Their ability to return is, I be
lieve, no more fully explained than is the no less wonderful one of the wild water-fowls, which are taught to fly north in spring and south in autumn, or why they fly low one season and high the next, possibly in both instances determined by the character of the upper air-currents.
The case, instanced by the doctor, of the Mexican sheep-herder's ability to minutely describe travellers who had passed days previously might very aptly be used to illustrate the similarity of the mental processes necessary alike in man and animals in the matter of direction. The Mexican herder saw the travellers, to him an unusual sight, his mental perception, unoccupied by impressions other than those caused by these travellers, accurately photographed on his mind, as upon the sensitive plate of the camera, every feature of the outfit. In the case of the man, he perceived as well as saw, and could again reproduce the picture, call it up for the inspection of the mind's eye at will; but in the case of the brute that which has been seen has passed beyond possibility of recall, except by the stimulus of the same impressions repeated, when the impression is recognized as familiar. This is brute memory, possible only as a result of having seen or felt, and capable of being reproduced only by the same external agencies, and their so-called "sense of direction" is rather the faculty of recognizing at sight as familiar that which has already been seen.
If the sense of direction be inherent in animals, we would naturally inquire why it is not exhibited before they have reached mature age and been taught by experience, for it is a matter of common observation with those familiar with domestic animals that the stable-reared animal of whatever species is utterly lacking in anything bearing the faintest semblance to a sense of direction; and it is a fact within the common knowledge of most farmers' boys that cats, foragers by instinct and practice, may be carried a very few miles in a sack and never return, and that the barn-yard cock will not return from a distance of one hundred rods, although mercilessly maltreated by his new associates, for his sense of direction is determined by sight only.
All admit that many animals can and do return to their homes, but the explanation of their ability to do so need not be sought and developed by an intricate process of reasoning, if it is, as we believe, necessary that the animal first traverse the road before it can with certainty return. And in conclusion it is sufficient for me to say that, whatever instincts animals may have in this direction, man has the same, with the additional faculty of reason. In both, observation and memory can be highly cultivated, in the animal by necessity alone, and in both by experience only. Pueblo, Colorado. H. WORK.
A RECENT number of Science contained a note by Professor William P. Mason referring to a statement of mine concerning the early years of laboratory teaching in chemistry. I need not state that I had no intention of withholding credit from any of the pioneers in the development of scientific education, especially from such institutions as the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, which, as everyone knows, from the first has been in the foremost rank. I had in mind the course of laboratory instruction in general chemistry which was established for the training of large classes at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Professors Eliot and Storer. This method of instruction, adapted to later advances in knowledge and to the needs of individual laboratories, is now in very general use in teaching elementary chemistry.
CHARLES F. MABERY.
ALL sorts of theories have been advanced to explain generally the real use of these luminous emanations. Some have supposed that the light is intended as an effective aid to the night birds that feed upon this gorgeous fare. But that would certainly be a left-handed provision of nature, quite out of her usually kindly protection. Others, again, guess that the firefly's flash-light is a device to assist him in the search of his own prey. With none of these theories, however, is science fully satisfied, and in the
judgment of the most prudent naturalists the real use of the luminosity of these insects is still utterly unknown.
Can any of the readers of Science give me "a great light" on the subject in dispute? CHARLES NIEDLINGER.
New York, 5 East 16th St., Sept. 26.
An Account of the Principal Facts and Theories Relating to the Colors and Markings of Animals. By FRANK E. BEDDARD, M.A. New York, Macmillan & Co. 8°. $3.50. THERE is significance in the number of recent works involving a discussion of questions of biological philosophy and a presentation of fundamental principles to intelligent non-scientific thinkers. Starting with Darwin's “Origin of Species," a steadily increasing volume of this kind of literature has been produced to supply an intellectual demand, in itself a grateful proof of the re-adjustment and betterment of the relations between scientists and other thinkers.
Among these newly developed lines of thought, none is more interesting than the significance of coloration in the organic world; and none deals with a subject more intrinsically beautiful. The work under review is an attractive book on an attractive subject. The press-work is good, the type clean and sufficiently large. The four colored plates are a feature which will be much appreciated, while the wood-cuts are well selected and well executed, with the exception of the illustration of the sloth, which is little short of execrable.
The classification of colors according to their supposed purpose is much less intricate than that adopted by Poulton, and not very unlike that of Wallace. A compromise between Poulton and Beddard would have its advantages. Contrary to the promise of the author in the introductory chapter, he has used insects almost, if not quite, as much as Poulton in the presentation of his subject. The author says that his book contains nothing novel," but we
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think that he is over modest in this, for his excellent series of experiments for the purpose of determining the palatability of various animals is both new and very much to the point.
In the introductory chapter the origin of animal coloration is explained, and an indication of the anti-Darwinian trend of the work is furnished by a denial of the fact that coloration is always in harmony with the mode of life of the animal, a question which might still be left sub judice. Albinism is considered an individual variation, although there is much to indicate that it is a physiological weakness or dermal disease. Although Mr. Beddard does not touch upon the transmission of acquired characters, perhaps thereby showing his wisdom, he is evidently intensely Lamarckian in his beliefs. A comparison between Wallace's “Darwinism" " and Beddard's "Coloration of Animals" would be instructive perhaps, but sorely perplexing to the general student, who cares more for ascertaining the truth than being au fait in theories. Natural selection is apotheosized by the former, while no author is more persistent in his attempts to minimize the effects of natural selection than the latter. Here again middle ground would seem more safe.
Our author concludes that "the brilliant and varied coloration of deep-sea animals is totally devoid of meaning," a conclusion that will doubtless meet with considerable opposition.
Chapter II., on coloration as affected by environment, is a thoroughly Lamarckian chapter with many significant facts. The nature and quantity of food is held to materially affect coloration. Moisture deepens colors, while a dry climate lightens them. The white of Arctic animals, it is maintained, is due to environment. although this proposition can hardly be said to be substantiated in a satisfactory manner.
In Chapter III., on protective coloration, this well-worn but never tiresome subject is illustrated by a large number of examples in much the usual way. The author is surprised at the small number of green animals frequenting trees. We are inclined to think the number much greater than he admits. For instance, a
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For Sale. About 1087 volumes of the private library of Dr. Nicolas León, formerly direct r of position as instructor in mathematics and the Museum at orelia, embracing publications of special value for Mexicologists, like those of Bishop physics. Address A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins Zumarraga (16th century), of Si uenza y Gongora, University, Baltimore, Md. of Aleman, etc, the Missal of Spinoza, al very scarce ma uscripts on the history of Michoacán
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vast multitude of birds are green or olivaceous, at least dorsally. On the other hand, tree-frequenting animals, perhaps a majority of them, are better protected by a color-resemblance to bark than to leaves, and they are certainly so protected. The author combats here, as elsewhere, the exclusive or even general agency of natural selection. He confesses that "at every step, in fact, in the study of animal coloration we are met with closed doors, which can only be unlocked by keys furnished by an intimate chemical and physiological knowledge, such as we do not at present possess."
In Chapter IV., on warning coloration, we find the most valuable original feature of the work - the numerous experiments with the palatability of animals, especially insects generally supposed to illustrate warning coloration. These experiments, although furnishing somewhat contradictory evidence, are in the main a valuable confirmation of previous ideas. Dr. Eisig's theory of warning colors is advocated. He thinks that "the brilliant colors have caused the inedibility of the species, rather than that the inedibility has necessitated the production of bright colors as an advertisement," a somewhat startling if not revolutionary idea.
Chapter V. is on protective mimicry. This ever-delightful theme is well handled, although we can hardly repress an instinctive shudder at the iconoclasm which seeks to tear down the exquisite structure so beautifully wrought by Bates, Wallace, Belt, and others, and we hope to be forgiven for expressing a perhaps unscientific but deep-seated aversion to this attempted destructive criticism of the conclusions of those whose knowledge was gained in the woods and fields rather than in the laboratory or dissecting-room.
Chapter VI. treats of sexual selection; but lack of space forbids more than a mention of this chapter, except to enter a protest against the idea that birds do not possess an exalted æsthetic sense. Here again the field-naturalist will be apt to agree with Poulton, who, after presenting a large array of facts, says: "Such facts
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point toward the existence of a widespread æsthetic sense in the higher animals."
The book as a whole is a valuable contribution to the literature of an intensely interesting subject, and will doubtless be read with pleasure and profit by thousands who do not claim to be scientists. C. C. NUTTING.
State University, Iowa City, Iowa. Handbook of School Gymnastics of the Swedish System. By BARON NILS POSSE. Boston, Lee & Shepard.
THE merit of the Swedish system consists in the effort to develop in a scientific and systematic manner all the parts of the body. It is not an attempt to make a derrick of the human body by the excessive development of a few lifting muscles, nor does it aim at drills which make an attractive show by the simultaneous movements of identical parts of the body. It discards the old rhythmical and automatic movements as being of but little value. The fundamental principles and advice which form the introductory portion of this little handbook give this definition: "The aim of educational gymnastics is to develop the body into a harmonious whole under the perfect control of the will. It is not to produce great bulk of muscle, but to cause that already present to respond readily to volition, to improve the functional activity of the body, and to counteract and correct tendencies to abnormal development, especially those resulting from the artificial life of civilization.' Movements are chosen for physical and physiological effects, local or general, so that only those exercises. are used whose effects are needed, and those are excluded whose effects are doubtful or pernicious."
Attention in this country was first called to the Swedish gymnastics by the introduction of the Swedish movement-cure. Though we derive this massage treatment from Sweden, the Japanese have practised a similar method for centuries, utilizing blind people as masseurs.
This handbook will be of great assistance to those who have studied the system.
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A JOURNAL OF TWO SUMMER CRUISES TO THAT REGION.
WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOVERY, ON THE ESKIMO, ON ITS PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY, TOGETHER WITH A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS, ARTICLES, AND CHARTS RELATING TO THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE LABRADOR PENINSULA.
By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D.
Sportsmen and ornithologists will be interested in the list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Turner, which has been kindly revised and brought down to date by Dr. J. A. Allen. Dr. S H. Scudder has contributed the list of butterflies, and Prof. John Macoun, of Ottawa, Canada, has prepared the list of Labrador plants.
Much pains has been taken to render the bibliography complete, and the author is indebted to Dr. Franz Boas and others for several titles and important suggestions; and it is hoped that this feature of the book will recommend it to collectors of Ameri
It is hoped that the volume will serve as a guide to the Labrador coast for the use of travellers, yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as well as those interested in geographical and historical studies.
513 pp., 8°, $3.50.
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