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cating what must be restored if fertility is to be maintained and lucrative yields obtained in the future. Such knowledge is well-nigh indispensable at the present day to the grower of grain, roots, and fruit if he is to compete successfully with his intelligent neighbors. Chemistry can tell us, in a large measure, of the relative fertility of a soil and point out what elements of plantfood may be lacking. It is the science that makes the barren and waste lands fruitful and is the chief agent in making “two blades of grass grow where there was but one before." To stock-raisers and dairy farmers it lends its aid in showing the requirements of animals, the daily waste of the animal organism. It ascertains the composition and relative feeding-values of cattle-foods. It analyzes animal products, indicating their comparative worth. Chemistry stamps the value upon artificial fertilizers.
In the by paths of agriculture, too, chemistry is of service. The intelligent investigator in the important subjects of insecticides and fungicides must prosecute his studies by the light of chemistry. And so we might proceed, but space forbids. Let us, however, remember that history emphatically shows that agriculture and agricultural chemistry have progressed with equal strides, and that for the future the indications are that the relationship of these two will be still closer.
If in this short sketch our claim is made good, then we perceive that it is of paramount importance that agricultural chemistry should form part of the education of every boy destined for the farm. Every public school in rural districts should teach it, not merely theoretically, but practically. All the officers of our experiment stations should have a knowledge of its principles, since no department of agriculture is independent of it. They at present are not only investigators but are also the teachers of the adult and practising farmer. How necessary it is then that all their work should be guided by an intimate acquaintance with that science which is not only the foundation of agriculture, but whose laws govern its operations.
THE REAL MOTIONS OF THE FIXED STARS.
BY PROFESSOR A. W. WILLIAMSON, AUGUSTANA COLLEGE, ROCK ISLAND, ILL.
It is very often stated in newspapers, and also stated in a number of text-books on astronomy, that 1830 Groombridge has a greater velocity than the attraction of all known bodies in the universe could give it. We know not how many dead suns may exist, retaining their full power of attraction, though no longer giving light.
We do not, however, need this supposition to account for the velocity of 1830 Groombridge. Granting the laws of gravitation universal, we are able to account for any finite velocity, the at tracting bodies possessing any finite degree of brightness, by supposing these bodies sufficiently large and distant.
be 10108 1036.
Imagine a grand central sun just as dense as ours and a quintillion times as bright, in proportion to its surface. Suppose its distance 1072 times that of our sun. Suppose its periodic time 1054 times that of our earth. Its mass would be (1072)3 ÷ (1064)2 =10216 10108 10108 times that of our sun. Its radius would Its apparent surface would be (1054 ÷ 1036) 2 : (1018) 2 = 10 times less than our sun. Its brightness would therefore be 10—36 × 1 quintillion 10-18 or .000000000000000001 part of that of our sun, that is, it would be as much fainter than an ordinary star as the star is fainter than the sun, invisible even by the Lick telescope.
Our system would therefore move in its orbit around this central sun as many times more rapidly than the earth moves in its orbit, as the diameter of the orbit is greater, divided by the number the periodic time is greater, that is 10" 1054 1018. As our earth moves over eighteen miles in a second, our system must, on this supposition, move over eighteen quintillion miles in a second, or about one hundred trillion times the velocity.
It is difficult to conceive that so great a sun can have any real existence, and still more difficult to imagine we are moving with such velocity. It seems to me, however, not improbable that as the motion of the planets in their orbits is much greater than that
of their satellites, so the motion of the stars around the common centre is far more rapid than that of the planets around our sun. It seems quite likely that all are moving in the same direction, and that the apparent motions of those having a sensible parallax are only the differences of their true motions. The sun may appear to be moving towards Hercules because it is moving in that direction more rapidly than the average of the stars. May it not also be the case that it is really moving in exactly the opposite direction but more slowly than other stars?
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is in all cases required as proof of good faith.
On request in advance, one hundred copies of the number containing his communication will be furnished free to any correspondent.
The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of the journal. The Ancient Libyan Alphabet.
PROFESSOR KEANE in Science, Sept. 23, having acknowledged that he referred to the wrong book, should have been ingenuous enough to say that, in the book he did refer to, the primary form given of every letter in the Libyan alphabet is rectilinear, or a dot. As he was not, I offer to place the book in the hands of the editor of Science for anyone to convince himself that this is the case.
It is a strange misapprehension of the most important point at issue on the part of Professor Keane, to call the form of the letters "of secondary importance." Their disputed origin can be ascertained only by discovering their original forms.
If Professor Keane had further been ingenuous enough to state why Hanoteau likens the writing of the Touaregs to Arab and Hebrew, he could not have ventured the perfectly incorrect inference he fathers on Hanoteau, that it is "Semitic." Hanoteau refers solely to his belief that the Touareg writing is always read from right to left; in which opinion he was wrong, as I have plenty of documents in tifinar to show.
I shall say nothing further of Professor Keane's view of the pronunciation and meaning of the word tifinar than that every derivation I can find of it by French scholars regards the initial t as part of the radical; which would effectually dispose of the fanciful hypothesis that it comes from Phoenician. D. G. BRINTON.
Media, Penn., Sept. 27.
Twins Among the Indians on Puget Sound.
TWINS among the Indians of Puget Sound are very uncommon; but in former times, when any did appear, they had an exceedingly hard time, as the Indians were superstitiously afraid of them. During the past eighteen years, I have known of but one pair among the Twana Indians, and one pair among the Clallams. The Twanas were well taken care of, as the parents had always lived on the reservation, where the Indian agent had previously had a pair; and so they had had an opportunity of seeing the white customs in regard to them. These parents had also been educated in school, and were quite civilized. To all intents and purposes they were white, and so nothing was done about them except that there was some talk about the former customs in regard to them.
But the pair among the Clallams did not fare so well. Their parents were old-fashioned Indians, were surrounded by oldfashioned Indians, were about eighty miles from the reservation, and they had never had a home on it. The home of their parents was in Fort Discovery, but they were at Neah Bay, catching seals, about eighty miles from home at the time the twins were born. Immediately the Neah Bay Indians became afraid of them, and quickly drove them and their parents away, as they were afraid that the twins would scare all the fish away from their waters. Accordingly, the parents returned to Port Discovery on a steamer, though the Indians were quite unwilling to have them go in that way, fearing that they would frighten all the fish away; and earnestly wished them to walk the entire distance, over mountains and through the forests or on the beach, although there was neither beach or road much of the way.
When they reached home, some of the old Indians of their own tribe were very much afraid. They threatened to kill one of the twins, so that the father did not dare to leave home. Hence he could not go off and work and earn food; neither would they allow him to fish near his home, although the fish at that time were very abundant there, for fear that all the fish would leave. Hence the man was greatly troubled to get food enough for his family to keep them from starving. They told him to live on clams. They would not go near his house if it could be avoided, and, if they had to pass it, would make quite a detour around.
It is said that long ago, when such an event occurred, the other Indians drove the fortunate or unfortunate mother into the woods with the twins, the father going also if he wished, and there they had to live alone, and they were not to return as long as both twins were alive; one must be disposed of in some way. any friends pitied them enough to furnish them with food, it was carried to some place where the parents were not present, and then, when the carrier had retired, the parents could take it to their lonely home.
Other tribes on the Pacific coast bad somewhat similar customs, while others honored the twins greatly, according to the reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which speak of them in British Columbia, and Power's "Tribes of California," which speaks of them in that State. M. EELLS.
THE wide interest in astronomical research is well illustrated by the frequent gifts of large telescopes to astronomical observatories by wealthy donors who are not themselves professional students of astronomy. The number of these gifts is continually increasing, and in no department of science has greater liberality been displayed. Unfortunately, the wisdom shown in the selection of good locations for the telescopes has not equalled the generosity with which they have been given. Political or personal reasons, rather than the most favorable atmospheric conditions, have in almost all cases determined the site. These telescopes have been erected near the capitals of countries or near large universities, instead of in places where the meteorological conditions would permit the best results to be obtained. The very conditions of climate which render a country or city great, are often those which are unfavorable to astronomical work. The climate of western Europe and of the eastern portion of the United States is not suited to good astronomical work, and yet these are the very countries where nearly all the largest observatories of the world are situated. The great number of telescopes thus concentrated renders it extremely difficult for a new one to find a useful line of work. The donor may therefore be disappointed to find so small a return for his expenditure, and the opinion has become prevalent that we cannot expect much further progress in astronomy by means of instruments like those now in use. The imperfections of our atmosphere appear to limit our powers, and are more troublesome relatively with a large than with a small telescope. Accordingly, it has not been the policy of the Harvard College Observatory to attempt to obtain a large telescope to be erected in Cambridge. In order to secure the greatest possible scientific return for its expenditures, large pieces of routine work have by preference been undertaken, which could be done with smaller instruments. These conditions are now, however, changed. station has been established by this Observatory near Arequipa, in Peru, at an altitude of more than eight thousand feet. During a large part of the year the sky of Arequipa is nearly cloudless. A
telescope having an aperture of thirteen inches has been erected there, and has shown a remarkable degree of steadiness in the atmosphere. Night after night atmospheric conditions prevail which occur only at rare intervals, if ever, in Cambridge. Several of the diffraction rings surrounding the brighter stars are visible, close doubles in which the components are much less than a second apart are readily separated, and powers can be constantly employed which are so high as to be almost useless in Cambridge. In many researches the gain is as great as if the aperture of the instrument was doubled. Another important advantage of this station is that, as it is sixteen degrees south of the equator, the southern stars are all visible. A few years ago a list was published of all the refracting telescopes having an aperture of 9.8 inches or more (Sidereal Messenger, 1884, p. 193). From this it appears that nearly all of the largest telescopes are north of latitude + 35o, although this region covers but little more than onefifth of the entire surface of the earth. None of the seventeen largest and but one of the fifty-three largest telescopes are south of this region. Of the entire list of seventy-four, but four, having diameters of 15, 11, 10, and 10 inches, are south of +35°. The four largest telescopes north of +35° have apertures of 36, 30, 29, and 27 inches, respectively. But few telescopes of the largest size have been erected since this list was prepared, and the proportion north and south is still about the same. It therefore appears that about one-quarter of the entire sky is either invisible to, or so low that it cannot be advantageously observed by, any large telescope. The Magellanic clouds, the great clusters in Centaurus, Tucana, and Dorado, the variable star 7 Argus, and the dense portions of the Milky Way, in Scorpius, Argo, and Crux, are included in this neglected region. Moreover, the planet Mars when nearest the earth is always far south. The study of the surface of this and of the other planets is greatly impeded by the unsteadiness of the air at most of the existing observatories. Even under the most favorable circumstances startling discoveries — relating, for example, to the existence of inhabitants in the planets are not to be expected. Still, it is believed that in no other way are we so likely to add to our knowledge of planetary detail as by the plan here proposed. The great aperture and focal length and the steadiness of the air will permit unusually high magnifying powers to be employed, and will give this instrument corresponding advantages in many directions.- for instance, in micrometric measures, especially of faint objects. It can be used equally for visual and photographic purposes; and in photographing clusters, small nebulæ, double stars, the moon, and the planets, it will have unequalled advantages.
A series of telescopes of the largest size (including four of the six largest, the telescopes of the Lick, Pulkowa, U. S. Naval, and McCormick Observatories) has been successfully constructed by the firm of Alvan Clark & Sons. But one member of the firm now survives, Mr. Alvan G. Clark; and he expresses a doubt whether he would be ready to undertake the construction of more than one large telescope in the future. The glass is obtained with difficulty, and often only after a delay of years. A pair of discs of excellent glass suitable for a telescope having an aperture of forty inches have been cast, and can now probably be purchased at cost, $16,000. The expense of grinding and mounting would be $92,000. A suitable building would cost at least $40,000. If the sum of $200,000 could be provided, it would permit the construction of this telescope, its erection in Peru, and the means of keeping it at work for several years. Subsequently, the other funds of this Observatory would secure its permanent employment. Since a station is already established by this Observatory in Peru, a great saving could be effected in supervision and similar expenses, which otherwise would render a much larger outlay necessary.
An opportunity is thus offered to a donor to have his name permanently attached to a refracting telescope which, besides being the largest in the world, would be more favorably situated than almost any other, and would have a field of work comparatively new. The numerous gifts to this Observatory by residents of Boston and its vicinity prevent the request for a general subscription; but it is believed that if the matter is properly presented, some wealthy person may be found who would gladly make the
requisite gift, in view of the strong probability that it will lead to a great advance in our knowledge of the heavenly bodies. Any one interested in this plan is invited to address the undersigned. EDWARD C. PICKERING, Director of the Observatory of Harvard College. Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., September, 1892.
Naltunne Tunne Measures.
WHEN the writer was at the Siletz Agency, Oregon, in 1884, he obtained the following units of measurement from Alex. Ross, the chief of the Naltunne tunne, an Athapascan people:
1. The double arm's length, from the meeting of the tips of the thumb and forefinger of one hand to the meeting of the tips of the thumb and forefinger of the other hand.
2. Single arm's length, "one arm,” extending from the tip of the middle finger along the extended arm to the shoulder-joint. 3. From the middle of the sternum along the extended arm to the meeting of the tips of the thumb and index finger.
4. From the inner angle of the elbow to the meeting of the tips of the thumb and index finger.
5. From the middle of the fore arm to the meeting of the tips of the thumb and index finger.
6. From the first wrinkle of the wrist to the meeting of the tips of the thumb and index finger.
7. The width of the hand (when grasping a stick), "one grasp," equal to the width of four fingers (No. 11).
8. One finger width. 9. Two finger widths. 10. Three finger widths.
11. Four finger widths (the hand being open), equal to No. 7. 12. Five finger widths (including the thumb).
13. From the joint of the right shoulder horizontatly across the body to the meeting of the tips of the thumb and forefinger of the extended left arm.
14. From the tip of the right elbow (the right arm being bent and held horizontally, the hand touching the shoulder) horizon
Publications Received at Editor's Office.
DOBBIN. L. and WALKER J. Chemical Theory for Beginners. New York, Macmillan & Co. 16°. 244 p. 70 cts. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TEXAS. Annual Report, 1891. Austin, State. 8°. Paper. 470 p. KIRBY, W. F. Elementary Text-Book of Entomology. New York, Macmillan & Co. 8°. 282 p. Ill. $3.
Elementary Text-Book of Entomology. By W. F. KIRBY. Second Edition. Revised and augmented. Ill. New York, Macmillan & Co. 281 p. 8°. $3.
ENTOMOLOGISTS every where will welcome with pleasure this new edition of Kirby's handbook of reference to the study of insects. As compared with the first edition of the work, we find the present one improved by the addition of a carefully prepared index, and by an appendix and table of contents. The appendix adds considerable new and valuable matter, while the last-named feature answers admirably to present the main divisions of the classification of insects used by the author. Various schemes of the latter are briefly discussed in the introduction, but our space will only admit of our saying here that seven orders are adopted to which the lesser groups of all insects are referred. These are the Coleoptera (including Strepsitera), Orthoptera (including Euplexoptera and Dictyoptera), Neuroptera (including Trichoptera, Thysanura, Collembola, Mallophaga, and Thysanoptera), Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera or Rhynchota (including the suborders Hemiptera - Heteroptera and Hemipteru - Hemoptera, and the Anoplura), and Diptera (including Aphaniptera and possibly Achreioptera). Our author tersely defines these several
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Ripans Tabules: for torpid liver. Ripans Tabules banish pain.
The Paleontological Collection of the late U. P. James, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Many type specimens and thousands of duplicates.
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E. A. STRONG, Ypsilanti, WANTED. A position as zoological artist in con
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To exchange for books on birds or insects, or for back volumes of American Naturalist: Ecker's "Anatomy of the Frog," Packard's "Guide," Guyot's The Earth and Man." Rockhill's, "The Land of the Lamas," Parker's "Biology," Shoemaker's Heredity, Health and Personal Beauty," Dexter's "The Kingdoms of Nature," all new. M. J. ELROD, III, Wes. Univ., Bloomington, Ill.
For Sale. About 1087 volumes of the private library of Dr. Nicolas León, formerly director of special value for Mexicologists, like those of Bishop Zumarraga (16th century), of Siguenza y Gongora, of Aleman, etc., the Missal of Spinoza, all very scarce manuscripts on the history of Michoacán and other Mexican States, on the Tarasco the Indian language of Michoacán) and several works, collection. Parties interested in the sale please address DR. NIC. LEÓN, Portal de Matamoras, Morelia, Mexico.
of which the only copy known to exist is in this
JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1892) desires a position as instructor in mathematics and physics. Address, A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
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groups under their respective heads, in the various divisional chapters of the books which they constitute, while the minor groups below orders are treated under sections of these chapters with more or less detail.
Mr. Kirby, being an Englishman and a member of the British Museum staff, it is no more than natural that in his volume he has given British entomology especial consideration, but in so doing he has hardly impaired its value for a text-book to the science of the entire subject. Indeed, the American entomologist's library will be lacking a most useful auxiliary to monographic treatises unless possessed of a copy of this manual. Of all the species making up his seven orders, he states that no less than 12,600 are to be found in Britain, as compared with the 270,000 making up the insect fauna of the world. We see the book's greatest weakness in his introduction, where not sufficient attention has been given to the anatomy of insects, their study from a general standpoint. their distribution in time, their taxonomy and similar matters, all of which give the works of Packard such a peculiar value. Not a single cut illustrates the fourteen pages devoted to his introduction in a volume of nearly three hundred. On the other hand, it would be hard to accord too much praise to the 650 figures contained on 87 plates that embellish the book. To the general student, as a means of diagnosis of the main groups, they must prove of the very greatest assistance, portrayed as they are with marked accuracy, strength, and clearness. For the purpose mentioned, the Coleoptera are especially good, bold, and well drawn, though perhaps lacking in that refinement of detail which lends such beauty to the productions of Riley's pencil
Throughout the pages of Mr. Kirby's work we are pleased to find that he has not altogether neglected to consider the economic importance, or the reverse, of many insects to the agriculturalist, and to vegetation, forests, and plant-life, generally-a department now attracting such universal attention in this country.
Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, says of Horsford's Acid Phosphate. "A wonderful remedy which gave me most gratifying results in the worst forms of dyspepsia."
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Descriptive pamphlet free on application to Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.
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Upon the whole, we may say that this handsomely gotten-up manual presents but little for adverse criticism, when we come to consider what the volume aims to give, while it offers a great deal to commend it, and it is a work that any entomologist in this country will be proud to see upon the shelves of his library, as it is one that the student of entomology will be constantly called upon to consult. R. W SHUFELDT. Primitive Man in Ohio. Vol. I. By WARREN K. MOOREHEAD. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 246p. 8vo. Illustrated. THE problem, Who were the mound builders? has long been one which has interested students of the antiquities of the valley of the Ohio, without much unanimity of conclusion on the part of those who undertook to answer it. Whoever these ancient peoples were, Mr. Moorehead and his collaborators in the work before us have been enabled by a series of admirably conducted investigations to throw a new light on their arts and institutions. These collaborators are Mr. Gerard Fowke, Dr. H. T. Cresson, and Mr. W. H. Davis; each of whom contributes one or two chapters to the book, on special fields.
After an opening chapter on palæolithic man, there are descriptions of excavations in various sites, the most celebrated of which are Fort Ancient, Madisonville, and Hopewell's Tumuli. The discoveries in the latter were especially rich, and will figure prominently in the archæological department of the Chicago Exhibition. They are particularly interesting as indicative of an extended use of metals, notably copper.
An examination of the skulls unearthed shows the contemporary existence of two groups, the one short-headed, the other longheaded; or, are they simply two cranial forms within the same population? This seems quite as likely.
The illustrations in the work are faithfully and well executed from the objects, and add both to the beauty and utility of the volume.
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Agriculture, Experimental, Status of. Amenhotep, King, the tomb of.
Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison, Wis.
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Merino, Silk and Balbriggan Anatomy: The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak.
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Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian.
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Collection of Objects Used in Worship.
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Etymology of two Iroquoian Compound Stems.
Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain
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Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York.
Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of.
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Indian occupation of New York.
Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of.
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Jargon, The Chinook.
Jassidae; Notes on Local.
Klamath Nation, Linguistics.
Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phenomena.
Bolles, Frank, Cambridge, Mass.
Davis, W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.
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Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C.
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Kellerman, Mrs. W. A., Columbus, O.
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Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y.
Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y.
Loeb, Morris, New York City.
Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.
Macloskie, G., Princeton, N.J.
McCarthy, Gerald, Agric. Station, Raleigh, N. C.
Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J.
Lightning, New Method of Protecting Buildings from.
Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of.
Rice-Culture in Japan, Mexico and the United
Sistrurus and Crotalophorus.
Storage of Storm-Waters on the Great Plains.
JOHN IRELAND'S Bookstore, 1197 Broadway Tiger, A New Sabre-Toothed, from Kansas.
near 29th St., is convenient to the residence quarter of the city; it is a good place to drop into on the way up or down town to select books or stationery. His stock is well selected and embraces all the new and standard books as soon as issued. Out-of-town purchasers can order by mail with every confidence that their wants will be as well supplied as if buying in person.
Timber Trees of West Virginia.
Will, a Recent Analysis of.
Wines, The Sophisticated French.
Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C.
AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. Material arranged and compiled for all kinds of works, excepting fiction. Statistics a specialty. Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. Indexing and cataloguing. Address G. E. BIVER, 835 N. 16th Street, Philadelphia.
Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa.
Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Inst, Washington, D. C. Mill-paugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va Morse, Edward S., Salem, Mass.
Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass.
Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Sanford, Edmund C., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass.
Shufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C.
Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
Stevens, George T., New York City.