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molecular and atomic weights, the periodic law, valency, the constitution of chemical compounds, physical isomerism, density, fusion, refraction, solution, crystallization, diffusion, evaporation, constitution of gases, relations of heat to chemical change, dissociation, electrolysis, migration of ions, speed of chemical change, action of mass and avidity. The following sentences are from the concluding paragraph: "We have gradually receded from the idea of a static state of equilibrium of the atoms, brought about by their powers of affinity, and we now consider the atoms and the molecules, which are built up of atoms, as particles in an active state of movement. Their relations to each other are essentially determined by the magnitude and form of their movements. Chemical theories grow more and more kinetic."
Some Americans, at least, will dissent from the judgment of the author in still making the atomic ratio H:0 equal to 1:15.96; but it may well be hoped that this well-balanced compend of leading theories, in its English dress, will widen the interest already shown in the philosophical aspects of this science. R. B. W. Deafness and Discharge from the Ear. By SAMUEL SEXTON, M.D. Assisted by Alexander Duane, MD. New York, J. H. Vail & Co. 89 p.
THE object of the writers of this small volume is to bring before the profession the merits of the operation of excision of the drum membrane and ossicles in cases of chronic deafness from catarrh. The theory of the operation is stated at length, and a number of cases in which it has proved successful are reported. It would have been more satisfactory if a complete tabulation of all cases had been offered, so that a more accurate estimate could have been formed as to results. From what is stated, however, the procedure is clearly one of much service in some instances.
Human Origins. By SAMUEL LAING. Illustrated. London, Chapman & Hall, 1892.
THIS is an exceedingly well-written and interesting summary of all the theories, facts, and mysterious questions connected with the origin of mankind on earth, by a somewhat remarkable man, whose previous works, Problems of the Future" and "Modern Science and Modern Thought," met with a wide circulation in England. The author, Mr. Samuel Laing, the son of the translator of the Norse Sagas, comes of a good old Scottish family and was second wrangler of his year. Well-known in the House of Commons as "the member for the Orkneys,” Mr. Laing twice served in Mr. Gladstone's administrations, as finance minister to India and financial secretary to the treasury, and is now the president of a prosperous English railroad. This veteran of finance and affairs has always found solace and delight in the study of abstruse scientific problems of the day. His various publications present the results of wide and discriminating reading and research, in a logical, concise, yet comprehensible style for the benefit of those who have not the time to look into such matters for themselves.
In the present volume Mr. Laing deals first with the abundant evidences of the existence of civilized man upon earth at least a thousand years before the date of the creation of the world as given by theological chronologists. A clear outline is presented of the condition of religion, art, science, and agriculture of "Old Time," as revealed by the earliest monumental records and inscriptions of ancient Egypt, Assyria, and Chaldea. These alone afford convincing proof of the great antiquity of civilized man and of the existence of a high grade of culture at the earliest dawn of the historical period, which was preceded by legendary ages of less duration and by the long-forgotten antecedent neolithic era and remoter epoch of palæolithic man.
The evidences of science are then considered as revealed in geological and palæontological records of the past. The effects of the glacial period, Croll's theory of its cause, and Quaternary, Tertiary, post-glacial, and inter-glacial and pre-glacial man are discussed in turn. The geological data from the Old and New Worlds. favorable and opposed to the antiquity of man, are stated with clear impartiality. The author seems well acquainted with the works of American scientists such as Abbott, Morton, Brinton, Wright, Whitney, and Shaler. He shares, however, in the prevalent confusion with regard to the Toltecs. His main argument is
governed by the force of the logical postulate of continuous evolution. "No one now believes," he writes, “in a multiplicity of miracles to account for the existence of animal species. Is man alone an exception to this universal law, or is he, like the rest of creation, a product of what Darwinians call evolution, and enlightened theologians 'the original impress?'" He is therefore led to the conviction of the great antiquity of the human race. He would seek for human origins at least as far back as the Miocene period, and search in the earliest Eocene strata for the collateral ancestors both of the existing races of mankind and surviving species of anthropoid apes. "With this extension of time," he concludes, the existence of man, instead of being an anomaly and a discord, falls in with the sublime harmony of the universe, of which it is the dominant note."
The volume is well illustrated from varied and modern sources. There are a few obvious misprints, such as Tyler for Tylor, trilateral for triliteral, Mortillot for Mortillet; which will doubtless be corrected in the forthcoming second edition. The first is already exhausted. AGNES CRANE.
Brighton, England, Aug. 1.
Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems. By DR. AUGUST WEISMANN. Authorized translation by Messrs. Poulton, Schönland, and Shipley. New York, Macmillan & Co. 2 vols. 8°.
THOSE who have followed the active discussion of the remarkable investigations and stimulating hypotheses of the author of these volumes will not expect in this place a review of the works which have made his name famous even among those who have not been willing to accept all his conclusions. Such a review would be inadequately accommodated in a volume as large as either of those which are mentioned here. It would amount to a summary of existing biologic theory, which is being added to daily, almost hourly, and from which the teaching effect of time daily dissolves away some misconception or superfluity. In common with the great body of American naturalists we believe that the most talked-about strand in Weismann's woof of hypothesis — the assertion of the non-transmission of acquired characters — is not only an erroneous but an entirely unnecessary assumption, an assumption which, carried vigorously to its necessary conclusions, may well be termed the key-note of a genuine "gospel of despair." This assumption at present is upheld chiefly by a sort of circular argument which explains the "acquired character" to be one acquired by the body solely, exclusive of the reproductive plasma, while any character which is shown to be transmitted is put out of court as having been acquired by the "whole organism." But whatever be the fate of any of these special views, either of Weismann or his opponents, there can be no question as to the great importance of the questions involved, or of the scientific, honorable, and impartial spirit in which the great German naturalist has discussed them.
While many of the problems concerned are strictly scientific and to be adequately discussed by trained naturalists alone, some of the questions, and the conclusions which result from all, are of the utmost importance to every philosopher, theologian, and sociologist. It is therefore a matter for general congratulation that the essays in question have been put into English in a form which excludes all doubt as to the adequacy of the translation or the faithfulness with which his ideas have been presented.
The work appears with the well-known elegance of the Oxford Press, and should find a place in every working library. Darwin, and after Darwin, an Exposition of the Darwinian Theory, and a Discussion of Post-Darwinian Questions. By GEORGE JOHN ROMANES. I. The Darwinian Theory. Chicago, Open Court Publishing Co. xvi., 460 p. 8°. This treatise, the first of two contemplated volumes, has grown out of a series of lectures delivered before the University of Edinburgh, and is devoted to the general theory of organic evolution as Darwin left it. As these lectures were delivered to learners, and in their present form are intended for the general reader, the author states that he has been "everywhere careful to avoid assuming even the most elementary knowledge of natural science
on the part of his readers. The natural consequence of this is that, for the intelligent American reader, who has learned his scientific alphabet long since, the book is liable to appear somewhat prosy and verbose. Having said this, our criticism is concluded, for it is certain that Mr. Romanes is fully conversant with his subject in all its branches, and a careful examination of the book has shown his treatment of the subject to be judicious, accurate, and fair. For all persons who desire a straightforward statement of what is implied by the term Darwinism when strictly cons.rued, the book is to be recommended. Since public speakers, both in favor of and opposed to the doctrines of evolution and natural selection, are only too frequently given to singular misconceptions on this subject, it is fortunate that a work has at last appeared which presents a satisfactory summary of the theory for general reference, and we hope it may be widely circulated and carefully read by the numerous class for whom it is intended. Besides numerous diagrams of fairly good quality, the volume is embellished with Jeens's well-known portrait of Darwin, from the "Nature" series, which will be welcome to all admirers of the great philosopher.
The Indians of Canada; their manners and customs. By JOHN MCLEAN. Third Edition. London, Charles H. Kelly. 351 p. MR. MCLEAN speaks from the experience of nine years spent among the Indians of the North-west, and is therefore excellent
Reading Matter Notices. Ripans Tabules: for torpid liver. Ripans Tabules banish pain.
authority for what came within the scope of his studies. These embraced the languages, literature, native religions, folk-lore, and later Christian life of the wild tribes. He talks in an interesting manner about their heroes, traditions, mode of living, and customs, and describes the land in which the tribes he visited pass their lives. The impression the book gives, however, is that it has been written down to a popular style, and that the author could have prepared a much more valuable production, had he not felt it necessary to consult what he considered the taste of the average reader.
AMONG THE PUBLISHERS.
THERE is now in press a work specially written for the Jewish Publication Society by Israel Zangwill, of London. It is entitled "Children of the Ghetto, being pen-pictures of a peculiar people." It will be forwarded to members in the forthcoming autumn. Arrangements have also been made for the publication, this year, of the second volume of Graetz's "History of the Jews."
- Close upon the recent invasion of Manhattan Island by thousands of enthusiasts in the cause of the elevation of the human race, comes the dread news, says The Publishers' Weekly, of the stealthy entry of two enemies that has struck terror into the heart of every man who owns a book worth having. So wily has been their insinuation into our midst that it would be difficult to
[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.]
Taxidermist going out of business has quantity of finely-mounted specimens of North American birds, mammals and reptiles and skis of birds for sale, including a full local collection of bird skins, showing some great variations of species; also quantity and mounted heads of same. Will give good ex change for Hawk Eye camera with outfit Apply quickly to J. R. Thurston, 265 Yonge St., Toronto, Canada.
International Entomological Society, Zu- of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, rich-Hottingen, Switzerland.
Annual fee, ten francs.
The Journal of the Society appears twice a month, and consists entirely of original articles on entomology, with a department for advertisements. All members may use this department free of cost for advertisements relating to entomology.
The Society consists of about 450 members in all countries of the world.
The new volume began April 1. 1892. The numbers already issued will be sent to new members.
For information address Mr. FRITZ RUBL, President of the Societas Entomologica, Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.
Te exchange; Experiment Station bulletins and reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. ROLFS, Lake City, Florida.
For exchange.-A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather covered case. for a photograph camera suitable for making lantern slides. Flute cost $27, and is nearly new. U. O. COX, Mankato, Minn.
Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. PERRY, State Geologist, Rutland, Vt.
Any person seeking a position for which he is qualihed by his scientific attainments, or any person seeking of a teacher of science, chemist, draughtsman, or what some one to fill a position of this character, be it that not, may have the Want' inserted under this head FREE OF COST, if he satisfies the publisher of the suitable character of his application. Any person seeking any scientific man, or who can in any way use this information on any scientific question, the address of column for a purpose consonant with the nature of the paper, is cordial y invited to do so.
WANTED. A position as zoological artist in con
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For exchange.-Three copies of American State Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation," 1891, 82.50, new and unused, for "The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and Abuses," by W. L. Fisher, 1859; "Humorous Phases of the Law, by Irving Browne; or other works amounting to value of books exchanged, on the question of govern
1840; "The Sabbath." by A. A Phelps, 1842; History C
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A YOUNG MAN, with a thorough training in Analytical Chemistry (including analysis of minerals, food, water, etc), and holding a diploma of the School of Practical Science, of Toronto, and good tes timonials, desires a position as Analytical Chemist or as assistant to such. Address to WM. LAWSON, 16 Washington Ave., Toronto, Ontario.
Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey,
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JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1892) desires a physics. Address A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
made previous to 1870 preferred. Also old and curious stamps on original letters, and old entire U S. stamped envelopes. Will pay ash or give in exchange first-class fossils, including fine crinoids. WM. F. E. GURLEY, Danville, Ill.
WANTED.-To purchase laboratory outfit; balauces, evaporating dishes, burettes, etc.. wanted immediately for cash. C. E. SPEIRS, 23 Murray street, New York. P. O. Box 1741.
fix the exact date of their immigration. Their history really begins with the fine morning. last week, on which Mr. W. E. Benjamin of 751 Broadway, New York City, took from his shelf a worn leather-bound copy of Seneca, published in London in 1675, and found two healthy specimens of the genus Aglossa pinguinalis ensconced in a burrow through the bottom of the precious book.
- Harper & Brothers have in preparation an illustrated edition of Green's Short History of the English People," a work which has probably been more widely read and enjoyed than any other of its kind. The illustrations have been selected with the purpose of carrying out the favorite wish of the author, to interpret and illustrate English history by pictures which should show how men and things appeared to lookers-on of their own day, and how contemporary observers aimed at representing them Besides a large number of elegant wood-engravings, the work will contain several colored plates, including reproductions from manuscripts, illumi nated missals, etc., executed in the highest style of chromo
lithography. An exhaustive series of portraits of eminent persons will also be a prominent feature. The first volume may be expected shortly.
Prof. Bernard Bosanquet of London, whose "History of Esthetics" has recently been published by Macmillan & Co., has just completed a course of fifteen lectures at the School of Applied Ethics, Plymouth, Mass. His theme was an historical survey of Greek ethics, tracing to the present day the influence of Plato and Aristotle. In clearness, precision, and in power to interest and stir his hearers Mr. Bosanquet proved as effective a teacher as England has ever sent across the sea. His ability as a thinker has been familiar to American students through his work on logic, which takes high rank as an authority. A recently published volume in the Contemporary Science Series presents his "Essays and Reviews," showing him to be one of the most incisive and sympathetic writers of the time in the fields of ethical and philosophical inquiry. Mr. Bosanquet intends to visit Colorado and the Yellowstone region before returning to England next month.
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Can any reader of Science cite
a case of lightning stroke in
TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE.
which the dissipation of a small Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since | Baur, G., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich.
Boas, Franz, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa.
Anthropology. Current Notes on.
Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn. Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics.
Artesian Wells in Iowa.
Botanical Laboratory, A.
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Bythoscopidæ and Cereopida.
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Chalicotherium, The Ancestry of.
Call, E. Ellsworth, Des Moines, Ia,
Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, Col.
Davis. W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H.
Farrington, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign, Ill.
Ferree, Barr, New York City.
Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y.
Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C.
Children, Growth of.
ing is not injured to the extent
Collection of Objects Used in Worship.
Deaf, Higher Education of the.
volumes of Philosophical actions at the time when lightning was attracting the attention of the Royal Society), but not an exception is yet known, although this query has been pub lished far and wide among elec. tricians.
Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. Eskimo Throwing Sticks.
Etymology of two Iroquoian Compound Stems. Eye-Habits.
Garman, S., Museum of Comp. Zool., Cambridge,
Golden, Katherine E., Agricultural College, Lafay-
Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, Ill.
Hale, George S., Boston, Mass.
Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada.
Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Ma88. Halsted, Byron D., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J.
Facial Expressions. Motor Muscles of, to Certain Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa.
Family Traits, Persistency of.
Fishes, The Distribution of.
Fossils, Notice of New Gigantic.
Four-fold Space, Possibility of a Realization of.
Gems, Artificial, Detection of.
Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York. Grasses, Homoptera Injurious to.
Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of.
Hemipterus Mouth, Structure of the.
Hofmann, August Wilhelm von.
Indian occupation of New York.
First inserted June 19, 1891. No re- Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of. sponse to date.
N. D. C. HODGES,
874 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
By DANIEL S. TROY. This contains a discussion of the reasons for their action and of the phenomena presented in Crookes' tubes.
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THE BOTANICAL GAZETTE.
A monthly illustrated journal of botany in all its departments.
25 cents a number, $2.50 a year.
Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico.
Iowa Academy of Sciences.
Jargon, The Chinook.
Jassida; Notes on Local.
Klamath Nation, Linguistics.
Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phenomena.
Lissajou's Curves, Simple Apparatus for the Produc
Maize Plant, Observations on the Growth and Chemical Composition of.
Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of.
Hay, O. P., Irvington, Ind.
Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mass.
Hazen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C.
Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb.
Hill, E. J., Chicago, Ill.
Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.
Hitchcock, Romyn, Washington, D.C.
Holmes, E. L. Chicago, Ill.
Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, Va.
Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky.
Hubbard, Gardiner G, Washington, D.C.
Jackson, Dugald C., Madison, Wisconsin
James, Joseph F., Agricultural Dept., Washington, D.C.
Johuson, Roger B., Miami University, Oxford, 0.
Kellicott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O.
Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y.
Loeb, Morris, New York City.
Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.
Macloskie, G., Princeton, N.J.
McCarthy, Gerald, Agricultural Station, Raleigh,
MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C.
Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
Mineral Discoveries, Some Recent, in the State of Osborn, Henry F., Columbia College, New York Washington.
Museums, The Support of.
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Physa Heterostropha Lay, Notes on the Fertility of.
Psychological Laboratory in the University of To
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Tiger, A New Sabre-Toothed, from Kansas.
Wines, The Sophisticated French.
Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C.
AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. Material arranged and compiled for all kinds of works, excepting fiction. Statistics a specialty. Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. Indexing and cataloguing. Address G. E. BIVER, 835 N. 16th Street, Philadelphia.
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Scripture, E. W., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
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AUGUST 26, 1892.
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