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THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION.
In response to an invitation issued by President G. Stanley Hall of Clark University, a preliminary meeting of psychologists from various institutions was held at that university, Worcester, Mass., on July 8.
The meeting was presided over by Professor G. S. Fullerton of the University of Pennsylvania. After a general expression of opinion as to the form of organization, it was determined to refer the entire matter to a committee consisting of President Hall of Clark University, Professor Fullerton of the University of Pennsylvania, Professor Jastrow of the University of Wisconsin, Professor James of Harvard University, Professor Ladd of Yale University, Professor Cattell of Columbia College, Professor Baldwin of the University of Toronto.
This committee was authorized to determine the place, time, and programme for the next meeting and then to report a plan of organization.
It was the sense of those present that these gentlemen should constitute a council to be renewed by frequent elections and should choose from their own number an executive committee to direct the more urgent affairs of the association, and that the first three gentlemen named should act temporarily as such committee.
ship, are as follows: Frank Angell, Leland Stanford, Jr., University; J. Mark Baldwin, Toronto University; W. L. Bryan, Indiana University; W. H. Burnham, Clark University; J. McK. Cattell, Columbia College; Edward Cowles, McLean Asylum; E. B. Delabarre, Brown University; John Dewey, University of Michigan; G. S. Fullerton, University of Pennsylvania; E. H. Griffin, Clark University; G. Stanley Hall, Clark University; J. G. Hume, Toronto University; J. H. Hyslop, Columbia College; William James, Harvard University; Joseph Jastrow, University of Wisconsin; W. O. Krohn, Clark University; G. T. Ladd, Yale University; Herbert Nichols, Harvard University; William Noyes, McLean Asylum; G. T. W. Patrick, University of Iowa; Josiah Royce, Harvard University; E. C. Sanford, Clark University; E. W. Scripture, Yale University; Lightmer Witmer. University of Pennsylvania; H. K. Wolfe, University of Nebraska.
The following additional members were elected: Dr. T. Wesley Mills, McGill College, Montreal; Hugo Münsterberg, Harvard University; A. T. Ormond, Princeton College; Edward Pace, Catholic University, Washington; E. B. Titchener, Cornell University.
Professor Jastrow asked the co-operation of all members for the section of psychology at the World's Fair, and invites correspondence upon the matter.
THE PEST OF FIFLD-MICE IN THESSALY AND LOEFFLER'S SUCCESSFUL METHOD OF COM BATING IT.1
BY MEADE BOLTON.
THE valley of Thessaly was recently threatened with entire destruction of its growing crops by swarms of field-mice, which had suddenly appeared in such alarming numbers that the farmers and the government were at their wits' ends to discover efficient means to combat the pest. Several different poisons were tried at public expense, and it was also attempted to drown the mice out in some places; but owing to the difficulties of application and the inefficiency of these methods, it was found greatly desirable to look for other means. Pasteur was applied to by one of the large landowners for cultures of some microbe which could be used to destroy the mice, and Pasteur promptly referred his correspondent to Loeffler in Greifswald, who had discovered a bacillus which would answer the purpose. Pasteur's answer was sent to the government at Athens, and as the attention of the government had already been called to Loeffler's work by the Grecian ambassador at Berlin, Loeffler was requested to send cultures to be used in the infested districts. Fearing that the tests would not be made in such a manner as to secure success, Loeffler informed the Grecian ambassador, that, although he was willing to give the cultures, he would prefer to make the experiment himself, provided his expenses were paid.
On April 1 Loeffler received notice that if he would come the Grecian government was willing to pay his expenses and those of an assistant. So, after being informed that the mice were of the kind' that he had found susceptible to infection with his bacillus, Loeffler and his assistant, Dr. Abel, set out with a supply of cultures on April 5 from Berlin, and arrived in Athens April 9. On going to the pathological laboratory he was shown some of the mice from Thessaly, and to his chagrin he found they differed from the
1 Centralblatt für Bacteriologie und Parasitenkunde Bd. XII., No. 1. 2 Arvicola arvalis.
kind he had worked on at home. Fortunately, however, it was found that the mice at Athens were even more susceptible to inoculation and also to infection through the alimentary canal than those in Germany. This fact was established in a few days by inoculating and feeding the mice in the laboratory with cultures of the organism. Preparations for experiment on a large scale were at once made, and Loeffler, Dr. Abel, and Dr. Pampoukis, director of the bacteriological laboratory in Athens, set sail on April 16 for Volo, and went by rail from thence to Larissa, the capital of Thessaly.
Loeffler had found that the micro-organism, Bacillus typhi murium,' grows very well in a decoction of oat and barley straw to which 1 per cent of peptone and per cent of grape sugar have been added. So a large amount of this liquid was prepared and inoculated. Pieces of bread about the size of a finger were soaked in these cultures after abundant growth was secured, and the bread was then distributed in the openings of the burrows of the mice. A number of mice were also inoculated and turned loose; this was done because the mice eat the bodies of those that die, and spread contagion in this way. It had been amply proved by experiment that the bread soaked in the culture could be eaten by man and various domestic animals with perfect impunity.
In a few days after the holes had been baited, news came from all sides that the infected bread had disappeared from the holes. This news was very satisfactory, as it could by no means be certainly counted upon beforehand that the mice would eat the bread, surrounded as they were with abundance of fresh food. A visit to Bakrena, about nine days after the experiment had been started at that place, showed that the mice had ceased their activity entirely. In two other places, Nochali and Amarlar, a similar result was obtained. Several burrows at these places were opened and found to be empty or to contain sick, dead, or half-eaten mice. There were sick and dying mice sticking in many of the openings. A number of sick and dead mice were carried to Larissa, and examined. They were found to present all the characteristic lesions of the typhoid fever of mice, and to contain the organism in their internal organs.
Reports from other places which Loeffler subsequently received, were all satisfactory. So Loeffler is justified in closing his very interesting account of his expedition with the following words: "The science of bacteriology has thus again proved its great practical significance, and hence also its right to be specially cultivated and advanced."
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Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's nume is in all cases required as proof of good faith.
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The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of the journal.
The Ancient Libyan Alphabet.
IN Science, Aug. 12, Professor Keane offers some inquiries and statements relating to a note of mine on the Libyan alphabet.
The note referred to was partly based on an article by Dr. Collignon, as was indicated. Dr. Collignon is one of the highest authorities living on north African ethnography and archæology, as Professor Keane doubtless knows. He would not make the following statement unless he had good grounds for it: "Quant à la forme même des caractères libyques, on ne peut nier qu'elle ne remonte à une haute antiquité; elle est, en tout cas, antérieure à Carthage." Of course, Dr. Collignon is aware of the common theory that the letters were of Punic origin; but considers it time to discard it.
1 Centralblatt f. Bacteriologie und Parasitenkunde Bd. IX., No. 5.
As to Professor Keane's suggession of the origin of the name tifinar, from Finagh = Phoenician, it is purely fanciful, and his assertion that the stress "still falls on the root fin," is utterly incorrect, as it falls on the last syllable, and not on the penult (see Hanoteau, "Grammaire Tamachek," p. 5).
It is true that in loose language the whole alphabet, or any alphabet, is called tifinar; and it is not quite correct to say that all the tiddebakin are vowels. The proper distinction is thus given: "Les signes exclusivement tracés en traits sont nommés tifinar; ceux tracés avec des points sont nommés tiddebakin." How Professor Keane, quoting Hanoteau's “Grammaire Tamachek," can deliberately write that in the Libyan alphabet occur quite as frequently as straight lines,” can only be explained by the supposition that he never saw the book he quotes. It is before me now, and out of the thirty-five simple and compound letters only three are curvilinear, and all of these are recognized as mere variants, and placed after the true rectilinear forms. I refuse to think that this is a fair example of the accuracy of Professor Keane's quotations.
Whether they were derived from a rectangle or not, has something more than theoretical importance in relation to their possible derivation from Egyptian forms; but it need not be insisted on. That all the original forms were composed of right lines is a point of considerable interest, which has not been disproved.
As to what writers may be considered specialists in the study, there is room for legitimate difference of opinion. When Professor Keane rejects Duveyrier, he rejects the author who beyond all others has a practical acquaintance with the written speech of the Touaregs - the only tribe who still use the tifinar. Professor Newman's works have been laid aside as substantially useless, on account of their phonetic system, by the best French scholars — notably René Basset; and Dr. Oudney never claimed to be an adept in the tongue. D. G. BRINTON.
Media, Pa., Aug. 15.
Remarks on the Migration of Coleopters.
ONE might suppose, on simply looking at the map of the earth, that the animals of the northern hemisphere would exhibit a greater structural uniformity than those south of the equator.
In the north the continents on one side are separated only by the narrow Behring's Strait, on the other the Gulf Stream, and the prevailing west-east storms connect both continents, making migration of insects a possibility.
The similarity of climates of the northern half of the continents is less favorable to the production of generic varieties than are the southern lands, isolated by wide troughs of the ocean, with a variety of climes and altitudes; and, indeed, as we go northwards the varieties decrease in number.
If we abstract from the coleopterous groups genera which are most likely to migrate from one continent to the other by commerce, such as the Staphilinidæ, the Silphidæ, or the phytophagous insects, transportable in their food-plants, the rest of the forms will represent the aboriginal masses of 400 years ago.
In the far north above latitude 50°, and where Asia approaches so near to the American shores, the indigenous genera of both continents differ comparatively little; the genera are common, and some species are identical in both continents. Commerce in these regions was slight, even up to our days, and an uninterrupted natural development manifests itself everywhere.
True northern genera, such as the Carabus, Calosoma, and Cychrus, have species of strict similarity, such as Calosoma sycophanta, indagator, etc., extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the eastern continent, and Cal. scrutator, calidum, and wilcoxii in America; Carabus cancellatus, clathratus, and monilis on one side, Car. serratus, limbatus, and vinctus on the other, and Car. truncaticollis on both sides of Behring Sea.
If we assume that the land holding the greater number of species of one genus constitutes a centre of development, that is the birthplace of that genus. Accordingly, the genera Cychrus and Calosoma are to be taken as of American origin; the first being represented in Europe and Asia by four and in America by thirty species, the
latter in Europe by about half a dozen and in America by twentyfive species; while Carabus is represented in Europe and Asia by the respectable number of 100, and in America by a short dozen species.
My favorite family of Poelaphidæ, unlike their relatives, the Staphilinidæ, seem not very apt to migrate on the lines of commerce, but extend over a space of 60° latitude north and south.
In the colder regions of the north the species of one genus inhabiting both continents are very similar, while the tropical and southern genera, with a comparatively small number of species, differ in form so much that they can hardly be retained under one
Their habits, which suffer an involuntary modification by transportation through atmospheric forces into localities of different nature, produced in the fittest to survive changes of the most grotesque forms, and by repeated dislocations confined them in circumscribed localities.
This holds good for the tropical forms of this family in the large continents; but there are examples of genera occurring in places far apart. Tmesiphorus, Tyrus, and Hamotus are of that nature. To the latter belong Upulona raffray and Cercocerus lecoste, which differ, according to M. Raffray, by the more elongated form of the last joint of the maxillary palpi in Cercocerus, and the former occurs in the Friendly Islands, and the latter, together with the rest of Hamotus, is found in the western regions and on the Pacific coast of America, north and south.
The streams of the Pacific Ocean are directed from west to east, and therefore would not allow a migration against the stream; consequently the original abode of those species must have been situated in the west of America, and their migration, considering the multiplication of forms in America, must date back to the remotest ages.
The Tenebrionidæ present a typical family of non-migrating beetles. The large majority of tenebrionide genera are wingless. They are slow in motion, and live on dead animal and vegetable matter. The generic forms of most of those in America are but distantly related to those of the eastern continent. The genera common to both continents are few, and the few immigrant species are winged, with one exception recently found - Blaps mortiraga — and such genera, which are at present assumed to be common to both lands (as Asida), owe their name to the now accepted basis of analytical marks.
The existence of these analogical forms can be explained only by the different geological and geographical conditions of the surface of the earth in remote ages. But there is always to be considered the axiom that similar conditions produce similar forms. EMIL BRENDEL.
Cause of a National Trait.
IT is a matter of common observation that Hebrews, as a rule, are more than ordinarily devoted to their families, and their homelife is beautiful in many ways. As everything has a cause, the most plausible one in this regard appears to me to be the severe persecutions to which that race has been subjected for centuries, compelling clannishness and affording them their greatest happiness at home. Persistent influences acting through numberless generations would surely institute a racial peculiarity such as this. S. V. CLEVENGER.
Chicago, Aug. 15.
Review of some Recent Publications of the U. S. National Museum.
FOR Some time past the National Museum has been following the very desirable plan of issuing, in separate pamphlet form, the contributions of those authors who publish in the Proceedings or other reports of that institution. These pamphlets are uniformly contained in neat paper-covers, tasteful in color, and bear upon the outside page the title and author of the article and its number, from what standard publication of the Museum extracted, and, finally, the volume, pages, and plates (if any) of the latter. It would be well, indeed, if other institutions and societies always
followed suit in these last two features, for if one thing be more annoying than another to a worker in science with a working library, it is to receive reprints of papers that bear nowhere upon them this very important information; especially when an author desires to quote from reprints that have been submitted to him. At this date the Museum has issued a number of pamphlets of the character to which the attention of the reader has just been drawn, and it is believed that brief remarks upon these may prove to be of interest.
In No. 898 Mrs. M Burton Williamson gives "An Annotated List of the Shells of San Pedro Bay and Vicinity," in which two new species are described by W. H. Dall. This list is brought quite up to date, carefully describes a great many species, is systematically arranged, and is illustrated by 39 excellent figures on plates. It will, no doubt, prove of use and value to the conchologists of the Pacific coast and elsewhere. Dr. Edwin Linton, in No. 893, gives some very full and valuable Notes on Avian Eatozoa," illustrated by nearly 100 figures of structural details. Entozoa found in specimens of Larus californicus, Fuligula vullisneria, Oedemia americana, and Pelecanus erythrorhynchus are described, in addition to parasites found in other birds collected by Mr. P. L. Jouy at Guaymas. Mexico. "One new genus was met with among the parasites of the duck, Oedemia americana. This genus, which I have named Epision, is characterized by a singular modification of the anterior part of the body into an organ for absorption and adhesion." In a brief paper, entitled "A Maid of Wolpai," with one plate, Dr. R. W. Shufeldt gives an account of the customs and dress of the young women of that Pueblo (No. 889); and the same writer, in another paper (No. 902) entitled "The Evolution of House Building among the Navajo Indians," describes the gradual improvement observed by him in the building of their houses by those Indians in New Mexico, since their contact with the whites The paper is accompanied by three plates illustrating the subject. Lieut. T. Dix Bolles of the navy comments briefly on "Chinese Relics in Alaska" (No. 899, one plate), and from his studies of them he is forced to believe that at least two centuries ago a Chinese junk must have been driven upon the Alaskan coast. A very useful paper is that by Mary J. Rathbun, giving a Catalogue of the Crabs of the Family Periceridæ in the U. S. National Museum" (No. 901), and it is illustrated by numerous figures of various species of that group Papers of this class are especially desirable, and at the time of its appearance there were to be found in the collections of the Museum 48 species of Periceridæ, for which a valuable synonomy is given, with a "Key" to genera and species. Akin to this last is still another beautifully illustrated paper by Mr. James E. Benedict, on "Corystoid Crabs of the genera Telmessus and Erimacrus." Very little is known of these forms, and the writer's article is based on specimens collected in Alaska by Dall, and on the Albatross collections (No. 900). No less interesting are two admirable papers by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, both of which are illustrated (Nos. 894, 904). The first gives a “Preliminary description of a new Genus and Species of Blind Cave Salamander from North America,”. '— a remarkable form from the Rock House Cave, Missouri. "A new genus and species of salamander may not be such a startling novelty even at this late date, but the interest is considerably heightened when we have to do with the first and only blind form among the true salamanders." It has been named by the author Typhlotriton spelæus. Dr. Stejneger's second paper is of considerable length, presenting, as it does, extensive "Notes on a Collection of Birds made by Harry V. Henson in the Island of Yeso, Japan." It contains many excellent embryological plates. Professor Carl H. Eigenmann, in No. 897, makes a contribution to the study of "The Fishes of San Diego," in which "especial attention has been paid to the spawning habits and seasons, the embryology, and migration of the fishes of Southern California." The paper is of great economic value, and lacks not in interest to the anatomist.
Finally, we have three very thorough entomological articles from the pen of Dr. John B. Smith (No3. 890-892). They deal with a "Revision of the Genus Cucullia; Revision of the Dicopinæ; Revision of Xylomiges and Morrisonia" (plates II., III.). These contributions will be welcomed by the entomologist, fully
The Color of the Blood in Man.
HAVING recently examined a large number of specimens of human blood from persons of different ages ranging from four to seventy-six years, some being those in robust health, others being tuberculous, I was struck with the great difference in the shade of color presented, some being of a very rich tint, others very pale. The richest color was in the blood of a girl twentysix years of age, a graduate of Vassar College, who had the highest anthropometric measurement for respiratory capacity in a class of about 500 girls. Her health was excellent, and she consumed rather more flesh-food than is usual. The next highest tint was found in the blood of a woman about seventy years old, with a somewhat unusual chest measurement, having also excellent respiratory capacity and being in fine health. This woman, on the contrary, does not eat flesh at all. I expected in her case to find a more than ordinary number of white blood corpuscles; but there were far less than usual, it being difficult to find them, they were so few. The palest blood was from a chlorotic Irish servant-girl of twenty-five years, and in a tuberculous boy of four. There was not much perceptible difference in their cases. The girl had naturally good respiratory power, but she had lessened it by tight clothing and an almost constant in-door life for a long time. After spending a month at the seaside, I examined her blood again, and found the tint somewhat deeper than before. As we know, the color of the blood is caused by the hæmoglobin in the red blood corpuscles, and if this is greater when the respiratory capacity is greatest, may not the color of the blood be heightened by enlarging the chest and increasing the lung-power? From some observations I have made I believe it can. M. L. HOLBROOK.
New York, Aug. 16.
Snake Eats Snake.
WHILE walking over a dry mesa, yesterday, I noticed a small snake slowly crawling to the shelter of a mesquit bush. capturing it, I found it to be of a very dark olive-green color, in large, square pattern, the lines between the plaids being of lighter green; underneath, white, with very dark-green blotches. Its head was very dark green, and rather small; it had small fangs. The length of the snake was nineteen inches. Noticing that the body seemed much distended, I opened it, and found, nicely packed away inside, the body of an ordinary, brown, striped "grass snake," as we call them here, twenty-two inches long. This green snake may be a new species of snake-eating serpent. The grass snake is very swift, and I am puzzled to know how the green snake caught it; it was swallowed head-first.
Oro Blanco, Arizona, Aug. 8.
Cleistogamy in the Pansy.
C. W. KEMPTON.
MR. DARWIN, in "Forms of Flowers," notes that, though cleistogamy is the rule in the genus Viola, the pansy, Viola tricolor, has not been known to exhibit it. though it does sometimes produce very small and closed self-fertilizing flowers, which would critically be termed cleistogamic if some portions of the floral organs were to abort. In our country this condition may more readily occur than in the Old World. In many localities the pansy has become partially wild and cleistogamy may be looked for. Mr. Chalkley Palmer has sent me some specimens in fruit, found wild in some place in New Jersey, which are certainly in one or the other condition noted by Mr. Darwin. They appear to be truly cleistogamic, but were too far advanced to determine with accuracy. THOMAS MEEHAN. Germantown, Pa.
Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas for 1890. Vol. III. Whetstones and the Novaculites of Arkansas By L. S. GRISWOLD. Little Rock, Arkansas.
THE history of the rise and progress of geology in the United States remains to be written. It dates back to early in the century; for in 1807 McClure published a paper containing geological observations. Mitchell, Eaton, Dewey, Silliman, and hosts of others followed one another in rapid succession. Nor were the observations of private individuals all that appeared in the early decades, for in 1823 Olmsted published a report on the geology of North Carolina, as one result of a regularly organized State survey, while Hitchcock in 1831 reported upon the geology of Massachusetts. Between that date and 1840 State surveys had been organized and reports had been published in Maine, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. The general government, too, had sent expeditions to the north-west, Schoolcraft reporting upon the Michigan region as early as 1820. It is true that many of the State surveys ceased after the issuance of a few documents, but their existence even for a brief period was evidence of the belief in their value. Some of the States organized second surveys at a later date and published numerous volumes, among which New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky are especially to be noted. The survey of New York has been continued from 1837 until the present time.
In those olden times the State survey reports were general; observations were made over an extended area; profuse details were given of township or county geology; but no one subject was treated in an exhaustive manner. The result was that, when ten or a dozen or more volumes had been published, it still remained to collate and epitomize the information. For the States of New York, Pennsylvania,' Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois and others this has never been done, and the numerous volumes of these surveys are masses of details with full and comprehensive accounts of scarcely a single subject. Dr. Branner, as the State Geologist of Arkansas, has seen fit to change this ancient order of things, and as a result in his annual reports we have volumes describing the Mesozoic geology, the gold and silver fields, and the coal of the State, as well as exhaustive volumes on Manganese and the Novaculites. The first geological survey of Arkansas published two reports, in 1859 and 1860. The beginning of the war put a stop to the work, however, and it was not until 1888 that any further work in the State was published. The report for that year, and those for 1889 and 1890, of which the volume under review is the third, contain much information valuable alike to the State and to the world at large.
Whetting, or sharpening, is one of the ancient arts. That it was practised by early civilized man is evidenced by the existence in the Sanscrit of the word ça, meaning to sharpen or whet. From this comes the Latin cos, a whetstone, hone or flint-stone, and hence cotaria, a whetstone quarry. Coticula, meaning a small touch-stone, is also a derivative, and from this comes the French coticule, meaning a whetstone of a fine quality. Novaculite comes from novacula, a sharp knife or razor, and this in turn is derived from the Latin novare, to renew or to make fresh.
Many writers from Pliny down discuss whetstones or hones for sharpening tools. Linnæus used the word novacula in his time, and it was seemingly anglicized by Richard Kirwan into novaculite in 1784. Mr. Griswold believes, although all mineralogists do not agree with him,' that it is practicable to revive the word as a scientific term, in its original sense, to denote a fine-grained, gritty, homogeneous, and highly siliceous rock, translucent on thin edges, and having a conchoidal or sub-conchoidal fracture. If this definition is strictly adhered to, no confusion will arise from the use of the word in commerce" (p. 18).
The knowledge of whetstones in America dates from 1818, when they were mentioned by Bringier as occurring in Arkansas. 1 Professor J. L. Lesley is now engaged on this work, and Vol. I. of his final report has appeared.
2 For example, G. P. Merrill in Annual Report U. S. Nat. Mus. for 1890, 1892.
Since then they have been found in many parts of the country, less than 106 localities being now known whence they have been obtained. All of these localities are naturally not equally good, and many of them are not now worked at all.
Some useful hints are given by Mr. Griswold in Chapter iv. on the purchase and care of whetstones, and especially that littleunderstood matter, the use of lubricants; and in Chapter v. the subject of manufacture of stones is discussed. This dates back to the beginning of the Christian era at least, for definitely-shaped hones are found at Pompeii. At present, in America, the stones mostly come from Indiana, Arkansas, New Hampshire, and Vermont; although there are other States producing them. The total out-put is small, and $75,000 would represent the value of the manufactured product in 1880.
Of the Arkansas stone proper, considered a typical novaculite, only about 60,000 pounds are quarried annually. The most of this goes to New York to be manufactured, whence it is largely shipped back to Arkansas. The blocks are laid in plaster of Paris in the bed of the gang-saw, and the saws are so arranged as to waste as little as possible. The sawing is slow, saws going at the rate of 80 swings per minute will only penetrate the stone in the gang-bed at the rate of 14 inches in 10 hours. Marble is sometimes sawed at a rate of nearly 8 inches per hour, though for dense marble 2 inches per hour is a closer estimate." After the first cutting the slabs are sorted, and the useless pieces thrown away, this being done again and again as the pieces are reduced in size until only 25 per cent of the original amount remains as a marketable product. Of the Ouachita stone, a coarser variety of whetstone, a much larger amount is produced, this being in 1889 1,040,000 pounds. The method of cutting is about the same as for the Arkansas stone, while the waste is about 50 per cent.
Mr. Griswold deals extensively with the petrography of the novaculites, giving descriptions of numerous microscopic sections from various localities. The conclusions may be summed up as follows: Novaculite rocks were deposited in deep water as sediments, the carbonate of lime crystallizing as rhombohedrons. Consolidation of the siliceous portions produced a hard, brittle rock, which, being subsequently folded and elevated above the sea-level, was subjected to erosion. During this process the calcite crystals were removed, and subsequently a secondary deposit of silica took place.
In regard to the sedimentary origin of the rocks, Mr. Griswold says:
"It may be somewhat difficult to conceive of a constant supply of very fine fragmental silica, almost totally without other materials, in sufficient quantity to form beds several feet in thickness with very thin layers of slate between, and making a formation from 500 to 600 feet in thickness, yet this seems to have been the manner in which these rocks were formed. After all, the conception is not so difficult when one considers that the fragmental silica of many of the slates and shales is as fine as that of novaculite, and as the percentage of silica in the sediments forming these rocks is increased, the resulting rock approaches more and more closely the novaculite. Thus with the novaculites are associated very argillaceous shales, grading into siliceous shales and then into transparent novaculites. The almost absolute purity of the novaculites still causes doubt as to the possibility of this mode of origin; but many coarse sandstones are nearly as pure, and if the novaculites can be considered as extensions of the sandstones toward the deep sea, where the finer fragments would settle, then we have at least a close approximation to the sediments forming the novaculites. That the same action which produces the angular fragments of quartz in sandstones must also afford a very large amount of exceedingly fine quartz is evident" (p. 192).
Many pages of the report are devoted to details of the geology of the novaculite area, but it is obviously impossible to enter into any of these here. A brief epitome only can be given of the geological history of the area, which in Mr. Griswold's words is as follows:
"The sequence of events in this history seems to have been as follows: A deposition of very fine fragmental material on the deep-sea floor to form the Silurian strata, included in the upper part of which are two groups where graptolites abound. At the
end of the Lower Silurian deposition, through the periods known as Upper Silurian and Devonian, there was an almost total cessation of the deposition of sediments. There seem to be two possible explanations for this fact: First, there may have been a depression of the sea-bottom which left this area so far from shore that no thick sediments were accumulated over it, and this was followed by an elevation in Lower Carboniferous times renewing sedimentation in perfectly conformable beds; the second explanation is that while upper Silurian and Devonian beds were being deposited elsewhere, the same period was occupied by a deposition in the Arkansas area characterized by Lower Silurian organisms. This continued until a decided change of conditions in Lower Carboniferous times renders necessary a change in the nomenclature of the beds in consequence of the change in the character of the fossils.
"True Coal-Measure strata covered the novaculite area also, for they are found in Texas in a latitude considerably south of 34° 30', while the trend of the formation is nearly east and west through this part of Arkansas and through the Indian Territory. The south members of the coal strata of northern Arkansas have been worn completely away, and are now buried beneath the Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits which cover southern Arkansas.
"Following the formation of the Coal Measures, and probably synchronous with the Appalachian uplift, came the elevation of Arkansas above sea-level. The time following this post-Carboniferous elevation of Arkansas has been one of erosion, though we have evidence of some periods of accumulation as well as denudation. The three periods of accumulation were the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Pleistocene, during which there were partial and perhaps complete submergences of the area" (pp. 206-207).
The final chapter of the volume deals with the fossils of the area. These, it is true, are few in number, but seem to be sufficient to justify the assertion of the Lower Silurian age of the deposit. Dr. R. R. Gurley contributes some remarks upon the graptolites found in shales both underlying and overlying the novaculites. His conclusion is that two horizons are represented, one of Calciferous, the other of Trenton age. Comparisons are drawn between the Arkansas beds and those of Point Levis in Canada, Calciferous in age, and those of Norman's Kill in New York, of Trenton age. A number of new species or varieties are described by Dr. Gurley. JOSEPH F. JAMES.
Washington, Aug. 11.
Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry. By LOTHAR MEYER. New York, Longmans, Green, & Co.
THE author of this volume is well known by the successive editions of his "Modern Theories of Chemistry" and by the share that he took in developing the periodic law of the elements. The larger work was translated some years ago by Professors Bedson and Williams; and the same translators have put this volume into good, readable English.
The author says (in view of the various works already published on theoretical chemistry): "I have not considered the requirements of students alone, but have been desirous of offering something to those friends of scientific investigation who have neither the intention nor the time to concern themselves with the details of chemical investigation, but wish to become acquainted with the general conclusions arrived at, With this object in view, I have abstained from too large a use of the numerical results of observations and measurements, and have avoided giving detailed descriptions of experimental methods. . . . The general- I may say the philosophical-review of the subject has been my chief aim, to which the details should be subordinated."
The author's purpose, as thus expressed, has been in good measure carried out. Chemists will prefer his "Modern Theories of Chemistry," if they would become really proficient in this aspect of the science; and to such this work may seem superfluous. But many, who are chiefly interested for practical reasons in chemical analysis or manufactures, may be glad to find so good an "Outline," compressed into 216 clearly-printed pages. The work is not made up of distinct chapters, but the sections seem to succeed each other in natural order, giving some prominence to the following topics: Atomic theory, the several methods of determining