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with the anterior crest already described. As in all the early Eocene-Tertiary Mammalia, the pumolars of both the lower and upper series are much simpler than the true molars. The structure of the lower molars of Coryphodon is interesting, as it represents a stage in the modification of a more primitive type, which had the enamel arranged in the form of two symmetrical V's or crescents. Now in Coryphodon the anterior limb of each crescent is nearly reduced; this applies especially to the posterior V. The portion of the tooth bearing the anterior V is raised high above the posterior or heel part.
The variation in size of the teeth of the different species of Coryphodon is very great, and in not a single instance have I been able to find two individuals, of the same species, whose teeth are of the same size. This variation is shown in the form of the canines and incisor teeth; in the former the difference in size is largely due to age and sex.
The last upper molar undergoes a great amount of variation, it varying from the nearly quadrate form to that of an elongated oval, the latter form occurring in the more modified species. The modification of the elements of the crown of the second superior molar is interesting, as we can trace in this transformation a true phyletic series, from the less specialized to the more modified species. The typical forms of Coryphodon have the external crescent of this tooth well developed. The first step towards reduction of the crescent occurs where the intermediate portion of the posterior limb (see upper Fig. p) disappears, leaving an external isolated cusp (C. testis). This condition is found permanent on the last superior molar of Ectacodon, the latter genus not having advanced so far in its dental evolution as Coryphodon. The species C. elephantopus represents an intermediate stage in its dental evolution between that of Coryphodon testis and Ectacodon.
Professor Cope established the genus Metalophodon upon the character of the crescent of the second superior molar, and in this genus the posterior limb of the crescent is nearly reduced. As all stages exist in which this crescent is well developed down to that where it is wanting, I can not accept Metalophodon as a good genus, and believe it should be considered a synonym of Coryphodon. The most modified condition of this crescent is where it is reduced to merely the anterior limb. The latter stage is permanent in the last upper molar of all the known species of Coryphodon; but it is interesting to note that in a genus described by Cope, called Manteodon, the last upper molar has a perfectly formed external crescent.
The. genus Manteodon differs from all other genera of the Coryphodontide from the fact that the last upper molar has two well-developed interual cones. Now in all other forms of this family the postero-internal cone (hypocone) is wanting, although traces of it occur in C. elephantopus.
It is not without considerable difficulty that the homologies of some of the elements of the upper molars of Coryphodon are determined. The form of molar from which the Coryphodon type of tooth has probably arisen, occurs in the genus Pantolambda, which is from the Puerco or lowest Eocene beds of New Mexico. In Pantolambda both the external crescents of the superior molars are well developed, and the internal cone has two crests running out from it. Now what are the homologies of the anterior portion of the Coryphodon molar as compared with that of Pantolambda. The postero-external crescent is equally well developed in both forms, but what has become of the anterior crescent in Coryphodon, which is so strongly
developed in Pantolambda ? The prominent cusp (see Fig. e.m.) on the external face of all the superior molars of Coryphodon probably represents the reduced anterior crescent of Pantolambda. This is the homology advanced by Professor Cope. The anterior crest of Coryphodon has arisen by the development of the crest running outwards from the internal cone of Pantolambda. Thus it is by studying the earlier or more primitive types of many of the Mammalian phyla that we are enabled to interpret those marvellous changes which different parts of the dental and skeletal structures have undergone.
The structure of the last lower molar displays considerable variation; this affects particularly the elements of the heel (see lower Fig. h.). In the more primitive species the two cusps forming the heel are in a straight line, whereas in other varieties a small cusp may arise in the posterior valley of the heel, internal to the postero-internal cusps (e, n, a). The growth of this rudimentary cusp causes the pushing outwards of the
A superior and inferior molar of a typical species of Coryphodon (C. radians). a. e. c., antero-external cone; a. c., anterior crest; i. c., internal cone; e. m., external median cusp; e. c., postero-external crescent; a., anterior limb of crescent; p., posterior limb; h., heel of lower molar; hy.d., external cone of heel; en.d., internal cone.
internal of the two primitive cusps forming the heel; further growth causes the primitive internal cusp to occupy a median position, and it now fulfils the function of a fifth lobe of some of the other Ungulates. This postero-median cusp is merely an analogical structure, and its development proves that it is not homologous with the fifth lobe of the Lophiodonts.
The skeletal variations are many in this group, they affect principally the length and heaviness of the limb bones, and also the size of their articular extremities may vary a great deal.
The variations of the astragalus are particularly interesting, as upon them in some cases new genera have been established. A very primitive structure occurs in the tarsus of Coryphodon, as in all the other genera of the Amblypoda; that is, on the inner side of the astragalus, a separate bone, or rather a facet for this bone to articulate with, is present. The bone articulating with this facet is generally called the tibiale or internal navicular. Baur' has shown that the 1 American Naturalist, January, 1885, p. 87.
tibiale occurs in the tarsus of the recent genera Cercolabes and Erethizon as it does in that of Coryphodon; therefore the presence of this bone must be considered as one of the primitive characters of the skeleton of this extinct group of Ungulates.
The relations of the tibiale facet to the other facets of the astragalus may vary a good deal, and in many cases the tibiale facet appears to be absent, whereas it is really not separated from the navicular facet of the astragalus.
In conclusion, I wish to add that I was led to write this abstract in order to show the numerous variations of the species of Coryphodon, and that in this group it is exceedingly difficult to say where one species ends and another begins. In most cases the characters run into each other so insensibly that it is almost impossible to separate the species. However, I believe there are about eight good species of Coryphodon whose characters show a progression from the primitive to the more specialized types; this progression and specialization affecting the teeth more particularly, as already described.
American Museum of Natural History, New York.
BY EDWARD F. WILSON.
IN an essay on "The Origin of Languages," published several years ago by Mr. Hale, the idea is suggested that, as, for example, among our native Indians a family may, while hunting or in time of warfare, have chanced to become separated entirely from the rest of the tribe, father, mother, and elder members of the family may all have perished, and two or three little children have been left alone. Such children, Mr. Hale thinks, would gradually invent a new language of their own, retaining, perhaps, a few words or parts of words of their mother tongue. In this manner, he thinks, may be accounted for the remarkable diversity of tongues among the Indians of the Pacific coast, where among the mountains and forests a family might thus easily become isolated, and the comparative oneness of speech on the great central plains of this continent and in such an open country as Australia.
If there is any good foundation for such a theory as the above, we should expect that the old words retained by these young founders of new varieties of speech would be words of the simplest character and those most often in use in the domestic circle. And, indeed, I think we do find that fire, water, I, you, one, two, three, four, five are the words that generally approach the nearest to one another in a comparison of the different vocabularies.
The North American Indians, as a general rule, count by the decimal system, as do most civilized peoples; but it is noticeable that, after giving a distinct name to each figure from one to five, they, in many of the dialects, seem to commence anew with the figure six, the first part of that numeral sometimes being a contraction, or other form, of the numeral one, and the latter part of the word seeming to point on towards ten. Thus, in the Ojebway we have (1) pejig, (2) nij, (3) niswi, (4) niwin, (5) nanăn, (6) ningodwaswi, (7) nijwaswi, (8) nish waswi, (9) shangaswi, (10) midaswi. It will be noticed here that from six to ten inclusive the termination is aswi. Ningo, with which six begins, is another form of pejig (1) never used alone, but only in composition, thus: ningo-gijik, one day; ningo-tibaiigan, one measure. In the Cree language (another Algonkin dialect the first ten numerals are as follows: (1) peyǎk, (2)
niso, (3) nisto, (4) néo, (5) niya'năn, (6) nikotwasik, (7) tepakup, (8) ayena'new, (9) keka mita'tat, (10) mita'tat. Here it will be noticed that these Cree numerals resemble those of the Ojebways from one to six, but with seven they branch out into distinct words; then with ten they come together again, mita'tat not being dissimilar to midas'wi, and still more like midatching, the Ojebway equivalent for "ten times." Neither is the Cree numeral for nine so unlike that of the Ojebways as might at first sight appear. Keka mita'tat means "nearly ten," and this suggests that the Ojebway word shangaswi may mean the same, chegaiy or chig' being the Ojebway for near.
The reason for the decimal system being so prevalent all over the world, both among civilized and barbarous people, is doubtless the fact that human beings are possessors of ten fingers, five on each hand. The common manner of counting among the Indians is to turn down the little finger of the left hand for one, the next finger in order for two, the next for three, the next for four, and the thumb for five; then the thumb of the right hand for six, and so on until the little finger of the right hand is turned down for ten. In indicating numbers to others, the left hand held up with all the fingers turned down except the little finger would mean one; that and the next finger to it held up would mean two and so on. In counting by tens they will close the fingers of each hand to indicate each ten, or they will hold both hands up with the palms outward and fingers extended for each ten.
Some Indian tribes in counting resort to their toes as well as their fingers, and thus follow the vigesimal system. The Indians of Guiana, it is said, call five a hand, ten two hands, and twenty a man.
The Dakotas have a peculiar system of their own. When they have gone over the fingers and thumbs of both hands, one finger is temporarily turned down for one ten. At the end of the next ten another finger is turned, and so on to a hundred. Opawinge, one hundred, is derived from pawinga, to go around in circles, to make gyrations.
Indians are not generally good arithmeticians. In their native state they have no idea of making even the simplest mental calculation. To add or subtract they will use sticks, pebbles, or other such objects.
To illustrate the manner in which various tribes (some of them of different stocks) count from ten upwards, examples are herewith given from the Ojebway, Blackfoot, Micmac, and Dakota languages: With the Ojebways 10 is midaswi; 11, 12 are midaswi ashi pejig, midaswi ashi nij; 20, 30 are nij tana, nisimidana; 21, nij-tana ashi pejig; 100, ningodwak; 101, ningodwak ashi pejig. With the Blackfeet 10 is kepo; 11, 12, kepo nitsiko'poto; 20, 30, natsippo, niippo; 100, kepippo. With the Micmacs 10 is mtuln; 11, 12, mtŭln tcel na-ukt, mtŭln tcel tabu: 20, 30 are tabu inskääk, nasinskääk; 21, tabu inskääk teel na-ukt; 100, kŭskimtúlnakŭn; 101, kuskimtŭlnakŭn tcel na-ukt. With the Dakotas (or Sioux) 10 is wiktcemna; 11, 12, wiktcemna sanpa wanjidan (10 more one), wiktcemna sanpa nonpa: 20, 30 are wiktcemina nonpa (ten two), wiktcemna yamni; 21, wiktcemua nonpa sanpa wanjidan (ten two more one); 100 is opawinge, meaning a circle.
In some of the Indian languages there is more than one set of the cardinal numbers. Animate objects may be counted with one set, inanimate with another. They may have a particular set for counting fish or for counting skins; perhaps a set for counting standing objects, and another set for counting sitting objects, etc.
To give a few instances in the Ojebway tongue: nanan, 5; nanominag, 5 globubar, animate objects, as turnips, seeds, etc.; nanonag, 5 boats or canoes; nanoshk, 5 breadths of cloth; and nanoshkin, 5 bags full (nushkin meaning full); nanosag, 5 things of wood; nanwabik, 5 things of metal. In the Zimshian language (Brit. Columbia) guel means one if the object is neuter, gaul, if masculine or feminine, gouuz-gun, when the thing is long like a tree or pencil, ga'at, if a fish or animal is spoken of, gummet, if applied to a canoe; the other numerals change in the same way.
It is interesting to note that in the Ainu, the aboriginal language of Japan, a distinction is made in the numeral according as the object spoken of is animate or inanimate, thus: shinen, one person; shinep, one thing; tun, two persons; tup, two things.
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, June 22.
BULLETIN No. 40 of the New York State Experiment Station at Geneva (Peter Collier, director) contains a valuable summary of our present knowledge concerning this pest, from which the following is abstracted:
The "Black Knot" is a disease of plums and cherries, which causes the formation of a hard, rough, black, wart-like surface on an enlarged or distorted outgrowth of the bark. The following statements, furnished by Mr. P. Groom Brandow of Athens, Green County, N. Y., indicate the former extent and value of the plum industry in that region and its total devastation by the Black Knot.
He states that, beginning at Cedar Hill, about four miles below Albany, the plum district included a belt about three miles on each side of the river and extended southward about thirty-six miles to Germantown. He began setting plums for a commercial orchard in 1861, and at one time had six thousand trees. Two of his neighbors each had about two thousand trees, and most of the farmers went into the business to a greater or less extent. It was no uncommon thing for a steamer to carry from one hundred to five hundred barrels of plums to New York at one trip. For four days' picking in one week he received $1,980. In 1884 he netted $8,000 from his plums, and the next year he rooted out over five thousand trees on account of the Black Knot. From twenty-five hundred young trees two to three years old, left at that time, he thinks he has not yet realized over $250.
It was formerly believed that Black Knot was produced by some gall insect, and it is not strange that this opinion prevailed on account of the gall-like character of the knots and the fact that they are frequently in'ested by insects. Some believed it to be the work of the curculio, others thought that it was not the curculio, but some other insect or cause that produced the knots. But several years
ago Dr. W. G. Farlow published, in the first annual report of the Bussey Institute, the results of his investigations, which proved conclusively that the Black Knot is caused solely by a parasitic fungus which grows within the bark, and which is now known to science by the name of Plowrightia morbosa. It is recognized as growing on cultivated cherries, and also on the wild red or yellow plum, the Chicasaw plum, the choke-cherry, the wild red cherry, and the wild black cherry. It is commonly most destructive to the plum, but also seriously attacks the cherry.
The external appearance of the mature form of the Black Knot is generally well known. It appears at this stage as a
rough, wart-like excrescence, or distorted outgrowth, from the bark of twigs and branches, and in severe cases may extend along the trunk for several feet. The first outward sign of the formation of a new knot is seen in a swelling of the tissue within the bark either in the fall or during the growing season of the tree. The swelling increases till the bark is ruptured, and over the surface thus exposed the fungus sends out numerous threads (hypæ), which produce a velvety appearance and are of an olive-green color. Microscopic examination of the velvety surface reveals multitudes of newly formed and forming spores borne on these upright threads. These spores (conidia) are called summer spores. When full grown they drop off from the supporting threads, and when carried by winds, insects, or other agencies, to another host-plant, under favorable conditions they may start growth and form a new centre of disease, from which in time other trees may also be infested, and thus spread the disease from tree to tree and neighborhood to neighborhood.
The best way to deal with thoroughly infested trees is to cut them down and burn them at once, thus insuring the destruction of the spores before they spread the disease any further. Trees not badly infested may be treated by cutting This off affected branches some distance below the knot. operation is best performed in the fall immediately after the foliage drops, because the winter spores are not formed at that time and consequently there is less danger of their being disseminated in the operation, and also because the work can be done more thoroughly when there are no leaves to hide the knot. The summer spores must also be taken care of in their season. As soon as there is any indications of the formation of a new knot, in the spring or during the summer, the branch on which it occurs should be cut and burned. The first outbreak will probably be noticed about the middle of May.
It is important to note that if a branch containing the knot be cut from the tree and thrown on the ground, the spores will ripen in due time just the same. Therefore the practice of collecting carefully and burning every knot cannot be too strongly urged.
The bulletins of the Massachusetts Experiment Station contain some experiments in the application of various substances for the purpose of destroying the knot. Kerosene, turpentine, linseed oil, sulphate of copper, and a mixture of red oxide of iron and linseed oil are mentioned among the substances tried. These seem to be effective in destroying warts to which they are applied to saturation, but care must be used with the turpentine and kerosene or the entire branch will be killed.
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Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is in all cases required as proof of good faith. The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of the journal. On request in advance, one hundred copies of the number containing his communication will be furnished free to any correspondent.
A Plea for the Study of Psychology.
THE perusal of a report, written by a member of the visiting committee of one of our universities, induced me to write these lines. In the course of the report, the remark is made that the study of psychology is difficult, and therefore few students take the study. The importance and advantage derived from studying a subject are to be considered more than its difficulty. Its usefulness is determined by its educational value; and surely there is no subject of study more useful and beneficial than psychology; for all persons who deal with people require a knowledge of this subject.
Since psychology has been taken out of the field of metaphysics, and has entered the domain of the natural sciences, it has developed marvellously. The accuracy and stability it has attained are proportionate to its development. Biology has brought about this change. The former position psychology occupied was not so much to determine the relation and connection between mind and organism as to determine the science of pure thought. But now psychologists have studied the brain, anatomists have dissected the cerebral lobes, chemists have analyzed the different substances of the nerves and brain, and its size, weight, shape, and specific gravity have been taken into account for the sole purpose of determining psychical phenomena; also the laws of development have been applied to the phenomena of the human mind. The study of animal instinct, the growth of children, the customs, habits, and beliefs of early tribes and races, the study of defectives, the study of the brain and the senses and the logical connections of ideas, have all received their share of attention. There is no psychical phenomenon and no act of human conduct which does not come within the province of psychology. The sciences of ethics, of theology, of law, of jurisprudence, of history, of medicine, of pedagogy, and of politics presume a knowledge of the workings of the human mind. For who, unless competent to analyze correctly and justly the feelings, desires, and motives that prompt action, would desire to determine the motives that underlie human conduct or pass upon the laws of right and wrong. How much more humane would a person be in his judgment upon the acts and conduct of another if he knew the causes of them. mistakes would be avoided in the training and education of the young, if parents and teachers were more conversant with the principles of psychology. How much more accurate could judges be in dispensing justice, if they were less dependent upon their personal experience, and knew more about the principles of psycology. What material aid could lawyers give in establishing the truth, if they were well versed in the study of psychology. How many grave blunders could be avoided, if statesmen and legislators understood more thoroughly the spirit of the times and the popular mind.
That the larger portion of professional men know little, if anything, about psychology cannot be denied, and if they do know something about the study, their knowledge is either founded on their personal experience and on common maxims, or it is derived from some book written from some particular standpoint. Most of such knowledge is incorrect and wrong, and it is one of the objects of psychology to correct these false notions.
In conclusion, I will quote John Stuart Mill, who has given an excellent statement of the reasons why psychology should be studied. He says: "Psychology, in truth, is simply the knowledge of the laws of human nature. If there is anything that deserves to be studied by man, it is his own nature and that of his fellow-men; and if it is worth studying at all, it is worth studying scientifically so as to reach the fundamental laws which underlie and govern all the rest. There are certain observed laws of our thoughts and our feelings, which rest upon experimental evidence, and, once seized, are a clue to the interpretation of much that we are conscious of in ourselves, and observe in one another. Such, for example, are the laws of association. Psychology, so far as it consists of such laws, is as positive and certain a science as chemistry, and fit to be taught as such.”
FRANKLIN A. BECHER.
DURING a severe thunderstorm yesterday the phenomenon of ball-lightning was seen in this village. An inspection of the locality shows that the ball was located between a telephone wire and a conductor-pipe about three feet distant, and was doubtless of the nature of an electrical brush preceding the disruptive discharge. It was of a reddish color, and exploded with a report like a musket; but did no damage, nor was it attended by any smell perceptible to those who saw it, although they were distant not more than five feet. M. A. VEEDER.
Lyons, N. Y., June 28.
Animal Coloration. By FRANK E. BEDDARD. 8°. New York, Macmillan & Co.
IN the opinion of the writer the most concise and useful treatise upon the important subject of animal coloration has very recently appeared from the presses of Macmillan & Co. Its author, Mr. Frank E. Beddard, F.R.S., is especially favorably known in this country, among morphologists, through his numerous and admirable publications which have appeared in connection with his duties as prosector to the Zoological Society of London. That position, coupled with the fact that Mr. Beddard has made extensive collections of materials to illustrate his "Davis Lectures " the subject of which his present volume treats, is ample evidence that he was peculiarly well fitted to deal with the subject. The work, a small octavo of some 300 pages, is gotten up with all that exquisite taste and style which has long ago made the house of the Macmillans so justly famous. Many excellent wood-cuts and several beautiful, colored lithographic plates illustrate its pages, they being especially devoted to giving striking examples of "protective coloration " among animals, as well as " protective mimicry,' "sexual coloration," "warning coloration," "coloration as affected by environment," and numerous kindred topics. Completing the volume, we find a well-digested "General Index," and an "Index of Authors' Names." Among the latter we note those of many laborers in this country, and it is gratifying to see that America's work along such lines is upon the constant increase, and from year to year meets with enhanced favor. Our author, in his "Introductory," clearly defines the distinction between Color" and "Coloration," the former being the actual tints which are found in animals, the latter simply referring to their arrangement or pattern. Of course, the terms become synonymous in uni-tinted animals. 'The colours of animals are due either solely to the presence of definite pigments in the skin, or, in the case of transparent animals, to pigment in the tissues lying beneath the skin; or, they are partly caused by optical effects due to the scattering, diffraction, or unequal refraction of the light rays." Other matters more or less remotely bearing upon this part of the subject are briefly, though ably, dealt with, nothing of importance having been overlooked. Mr. Beddard has not remained satisfied with drawing upon any special class or group of animals for illustration, but has carried his investigations into all nature, touching in the most brilliant manner upon the significance of the colors and coloration of "deep sea forms," "cave animals," and indeed plant and animal growths from all parts of the globe. Nor has he omitted to discuss the theories of various other authorities than those advanced by himself; in short, the entire subject covered by this highly inviting field of research seems to be brought fully up to date. and in many instances the book even extends our knowledge. Biologists everywhere will thank Mr. Beddard for this contribution, and its modest price ($3.50) will constitute no real barrier to its soon appearing upon the shelves of every working naturalist in the United States. Takoma, D.C.
AMONG THE PUBLISHERS.
R. W. SHUfeldt.
A NEW work on astronomy, entitled in "Starry Realms," has recently come from the press of J. B. Lippincott Company. The object of the work is to give the general reader some sketches of specially interesting matters relating to the heavenly bodies. The opening chapters are devoted to the more important relations of the sun to the earth, in which the author illustrates the different functions which the sun performs. The moon's history, and the phenomena attendant upon the lunar world, the planets, the meteors, the stars, are also ably considered. The work is embellished with ten full-page illustrations, and others in the text.
Beginning with the July number, the magazine hitherto known as Babyhood will bear the name of The Mother's Nursery Guide, which expresses its purpose more fully and clearly than did the old appellation. There is no other change discernable in the essential features of the magazine, which looks back upon a
The new edition of "Chambers's Encyclopædia" is rapidly nearing completion, and with the advent of one more volume this standard reference book will be at the command of all who are desirous of procuring a most accurate, convenient, and useful encyclopædia. The ninth volume has just been issued. Among the more important American articles are found San Francisco, St. Louis, St. Paul, Scandinavian Mythology, Sir Walter Scott, Sewage, Sewing Machine, Shakers, Shakespeare, Shelley, Phil. Sheridan, Sherman, Ship-Building, Silk, Silver, Slang, Soda, South Carolina, Spain, Sugar, Spiritualism, etc. These are all copyrighted, as are also the articles by American authors in all the volumes issued. The maps of this number include Russia, Scotland, South Australia, Spain, and South Carolina, prepared according to the latest geographical surveys. Chambers's Encyclopædia" is never disappointing, its articles are well up to date, and a large number of entirely new subjects are introduced. The illustrations are incomparably the best ever issued in a work of this character. The volumes contain on an average nearly a thousand pages each. Volume X. will be issued in the fall. J. B. Lippincott Company are the American publishers.
Societas Entomologica. International Entomological Society, Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.
Annual fee, ten francs.
The Journal of the Society appears twice a month, and consists entirely of original articles on entomology, with a department for advertisements. All members may use this department free of cost for advertisements relating to entomology.
The Society consists of about 450 members in all countries of the world.
The new volume began April 1, 1892. The numbers already issued will be sent to new members.
For information address Mr. FRITZ RUHL, President of the Societas Entomologica, Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.
Messrs. Joseph Baer & Co., booksellers, Frankfort, are selling the botanical library of the late Professor L. Just, director of the botanical garden connected with the Polytechnicum at Carls ruhe. The list includes many important works in various depart ments of botanical science.
-In 1874 the British Association published a volume of "Notes and Queries on Anthropology," the object being to promote accurate anthropological observation on the part of travellers, and to enable those who were not anthropologists themselves to supply infor mation wanted for the scientific study of anthropology at home. A second edition has long been wanted and a committee was appointed by the British Association to consider and report on the best means for bringing the volume up to the requirements of the present time. The committee recommended that the work should be transferred to the Anthropological Institute, and this proposal was accepted, the Association making grants amounting to £70 to aid in defraying the cost of publication. The new edi. tion has now been issued, according to Nature, the editors being Dr. J. G. Garson and Mr. C. H. Read; and everyone who may have occasion to use it will find it thorough and most suggestive. The first part-Anthropography - has been entirely recast; the second part — Ethnography — has been revised, and additional chapters have been written. Among the contributors to the volume are Mr. F. Galton, Mr. A. W. Franks, Dr. E. B. Tylor, General Pitt-Rivers, and many other well-known authorities.
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man, as correspondent, in a large manufacturFor exchange.-A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leathering optical business; one preferred who has a thor covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak-ough knowledge of microscopy and some knowledge ing lantern slides. Flute cost $27, and is nearly new. of photography. Address by letter, stating age and U. O. COX, Mankato, Minn. references. Optical, care of Science, 874 Broadway, New York.
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For exchange.-Three copies of "American State Annual address of the President of the Biological and unused, for "The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation," 1891, $2.50, new Society of Washington delivered Jan. 24, 1891. A 1840; "The Sabbath," by A. A. Phelps, 1842; History historical and critical review of modern scientific of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and thought relative to heredity, and especially to the Abuses," by W. L. Fisher, 1859; Humorous Phases of problem of the transmission of acquired characters, the Law," by Irving Browne; or other works amounting to value of books exchanged, on the question of governThe following are the several heads involved in the mental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty,lege junior, a position as principal of a public discussion Status of the Problem, Lamarckism. etc. If preferred, I will sell "American State Papers,' and buy other books on the subject. WILLIAM ADDISON BLAKELY, Chicago, Ill.
Darwinism, Acquired Characters, Theories of He
Price, postpaid, 25 cents.
N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y.
SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES.
We will allow the above discount to any subscriber to Science who will send us an order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting each at its full price.
N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y.
Wanted, in exchange for the following works any
bound in 2 vols., morocco; and a complete set of the
To exchange Wright's "Ice Age in North America" and Le Conte's "Elements of Geology" (Copyright 1882) for "Darwinism," by A. R. Wallace, "Origin of Species,' by Darwin, "Descent of Man," by Darwin, Man's Place in Nature," Huxley, "Mental Evolution in Animals," by Romanes, "Pre-Adamites," by Winchell. No books wanted except latest editions, and books in good condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.
WANTED.-By a young man, a Swarthmore Colhigh school in one of the Gulf States, or as instructor in botany, physiology, and geology in an academy or normal school. Address B., care of Librarian, Swarthmore College, Penn.