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mill at Tien-Tsin, China, in February, 1900. Presented by Mr. R. A. Difender fer of Elkins Park, Pennsylvania.

A specimen each of American white pine and American white oak being portions of the original timber used in the cons.ruction of the Trenton Bridge of the Delaware River, placed there in 1803 and removed in 1875 after seventy-two years of constant service. Presented by Mr. Henry W. Wilson, member of the Institute.

Seventeen samples of copals and gums used in the manufacture of varnish. Presented by Mr. Joseph R. Stulb, C. Schrack and Company, Philadelphia.

A 6-A economy gas cabinet stove made about 1885 by the American Meter Company of New York and Philadelphia. Presented by the Borden Stove Company of Philadelphia.

Five wooden clock movements, early 19th century. Presented by Mr. B. F. Schmauk, Philadelphia.

Twenty-two sheets of manuscript with original drawings of road-making and agricultural machinery, sailing vessels and apparatus for coast defense formerly the property of Dr. Thomas Ruston, a friend of General Washington. Presented by John F. Lewis, Esquire, Philadelphia.

Photograph of painting of Henry Morton by A. D. Turner. Original in the possession of the Stevens Institute of Technology. Presented by Dr. Alex. C. Humphreys. (Dr. Morton was the first Resident Secretary of The Franklin Institute, having served from 1865 to 1870.)

Mrs. George R. Henderson presented to the Institute the following apparatus formerly belonging to her husband, a member of the Institute's Board of Managers from 1915 to 1921 :

One four inch telescope,
One spectroscope made by John Brashear,
One case of direct reading hydrometers and thermometers,
Two boxes of graduated scales,
One Beck microscope with attachments,
One set of drawing instruments,
One micrometer (Brown and Sharpe),
One draftsman's steel protractor,
One hand level (Keuffel and Esser Company),
One astronomical globe made by Mr. Henderson.

Respectfully submitted,

Chairman. PHILADELPHIA, January 10, 1923


FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1922. To the President and Members of The Franklin Institute :

Eight stated meetings were held during the year ending September 30, 1922. These were held on the third Wednesday of each month, from October to May inclusive, at the hour of eight o'clock, with the exception of that of May 17 which was held at three-thirty o'clock in the afternoon. The following is a list of dates and speakers with titles and synopses of their communications:

October 19, 1921: Ralph Modjeski, D. Eng., Chief Engineer, Delaware River Bridge Joint Commission, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, member of the Institute presented a paper on “The Delaware River Bridge between Philadelphia and Camden." The speaker gave an account of the comparative study and considerations which led to the adoption of the suspension type of bridge and described the salient features and characteristics of the design. The subject was illustrated by lantern slides from the engineers' drawings and views of the bridge as it will appear when completed. The paper was printed in full in the January, 1922 issue of the JOURNAL.

It this ting the Elliott Cresson Medal was presented to Dr. Byron E Eldred of New York City for his invention of “Low Expansion Leading-in Wire for Incandescent Electric Lamps."

The Howard N. Potis Medal was presented to Mr. Alfred O. Tate, of Cranston, Rhode Island, for his process of water-proofing fabrics.

November 16, 1921: Heber D. Curtis, Ph.D., Director of the Allegheny Observatory, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, presented a paper on "The Spiral Nebulae and their Interpretation.” The speaker pointed out that of all known classes of celestial objects, the spirals are perhaps the most difficult to hit into any coherent scheme of stellar evolution, either as a point of origin

4 an evolutionary product. In form, in distribution, and in space vclocity, they stand apart from all other objects observed in the Milky Way. Wuch modern observational evidence supports the belief that these beautiful absents are separate galaxies of stars, or "island universes,” comparable with our own galaxy in size and in number of component suns. Evidence for 4111 against the island universe theory of the spirals was presented. The hert was illustrated by lantern slides.

W this meeting Mr. L. S. Storrs presented to the Institute a beautifully Faructed working model, done to scale, of the original Van Depoele motor.

The Ludward Longstreth Medal was presented to His Excellency, James hlariness, Governor of Vermont, the inventor of the Hartness Screw Thread Imparator,

The dward Longstreth Medal was also presented to Mr. Thomas Wallmg llicks for his "Once-over" Tiller.

December al, 1921: P. H. Bates, A.B., B.S., Chief, Structural and Altarellaneous Materials Division, Bureau of Standards, Washington, District ni lolumbia, presented a paper on "The Application of the Fundamental haowledge of Portland ('ement to Its Manufacture and L'se."

The results of various attempts to determine the mineral constituents of Pwland cement, culminating in the successful attempt of Rankin, were harun The work of the Bureau of Standards in determining the physical properties of the illerent constituents was described. The relative amounts I thene Orange in cement of normal manufacture, and the possibility and

The paper

economy of producing, in the process of manufacture, the determined amount of any constituent were discussed. The quality of cements of relatively the same composition but different constitution, the desirability of more refined methods of testing to determine the qualities not revealed by present tests and the need of cements of different qualities for different uses were also considered. The subject was illustrated by lantern slides. was printed in full in the March, 1922 issue of the JOURNAL.

January 18, 1922: Honorable William D. B. Ainey, LL.D., L.H.D., Chairman of The Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania, presented a paper on “The Highway System of the State of Pennsylvania.” Consideration was given to the subject of transportation as a factor in national development and the importance of highways as transportation means. An outline was given of the historical development of highway construction programs as well as the beginnings and accomplishments of the State Highway System. Brief reference was also made to the past, present and future bearing upon the economic conditions of the State. At the close of his remarks, the speaker called upon Mr. Harold E. Hilts, Assistant Engineer of the Construction Division, State Highway Department, who exhibited a series of lantern photographs of machinery and apparatus used in the construction of roads, as well as a number of views of completed roads in various parts of the state. He described materials used in road building and the methods of their application.

February 15, 1922: L. J. Briggs, M.S., Ph.D., Chief, Engineering Physics Division, Bureau of Standards, Washington, District of Columbia, presented a paper on “The Resistance of the Air.” Wind-tunnels for obtaining airstreams of known velocity were described as well as aerodynamical balances for measuring air forces on a model; reference was made to the air-resistance equation and dynamical similarity in air-resistance measurements. Consideration was given to the air-resistance of bodies of various forms and to air-foils. Reference was also made to the problem of the measurement of the resistance of projectiles. The subject was illustrated by lantern slides.

March 15, 1922: M. de Kay Thompson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Electrochemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts presented a paper on “Recent Progress in Applied Electrochemistry.” An account was given of the recent progress in the different branches of electroplating, batteries, and the manufacture of numerous substances by electrolysis and electrothermic means. The subject was illustrated by lantern slides. This paper was printed in full in the June, 1922 issue of the JOURNAL.

April 19, 1922: William D. Harkins, Ph.D., Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, presented a paper on “The Structure and Building of Atom Nuclei.” The speaker stated that the atom seems to consist of a cenéral positive nucleus which plays the part of the sun in the solar system surrounded by a system of negative planetary electrons. The number of these planetary electrons is equal to the charge on the nucleus.

If an atom loses one or more of its planetary electrons, it easily picks up other negative electrons and becomes restored to its initial condition. PRESIDENT'S REPORT AND REPORTS OF THE COM



To the Members of The Franklin Institute:

Your Board of Managers has instructed me to report to you on the affairs of the Institute for the Institute year ending September 30, 1922, as follows:

The Managers hope that reading this report and the reports of the several committees of the Board and of the Institute, as they will appear in the 1923 YEAR Book, will lead you to the conclusion that the work of the Institute was carried on through the year—as they believe-with results favorably comparable with those of previous years.

Following our established order, the Managers make such brief comment on these reports as seems suitable.

The Committee on Museum, Mr. Outerbridge, Chairman, reports the addition to the Museum of certain models and apparatus of interest, notable among them a working model of the original Van Depoele electric tram car, donated by Mr. L. S. Storrs, and a valuable set of scientific instruments once owned by the late George R. Henderson and donated by his widow. Our facilities for exhibiting our models, of which we have many of great scientific and historic interest, have not improved, and will not improve until we are able to store and properly display them in another building erected in whole or in part for the purpose. The provision of such a building is a part of our plans for the future, as more particularly discussed in our report for the Institute year ending September 30, 1921.

The Committee on Publication, Dr. Rosengarten, Chairman, reports the completion of the one-hundred and ninety-fourth volume of the JOURNAL. The Committee refers briefly to the contents of the JOURNAL for the current year and to the Year Book. The Committee reports that the demand for the work on the “Physics of the Air" by Dr. W. J. Humphreys, continues. Twelve hundred and fifty-four volumes have been sold since the work was issued less than two years ago. The evidence continues that the book is of great value to meteorologists and aviators and that The Franklin Institute has been more than justified in undertaking its publication.

The Committee on Exhibitions, Mr. Benjamin Franklin, Chairman, reports again on the contemporary status of the Sesqui-Centennial Exhibition in so far as it affects The Franklin Institute.

The report of the Committee on Sectional Arrangements, Dr. Keller, Chairman, records with some detail the lectures-nineteen in number

delivered before the various sections of the Institute during the year. Your Board records the thought that never before in the history of the Institute has it had a more important and successful lecture year, including in this statement the lectures delivered at the Institute meetings.

The Committee on Meetings, Dr. Alleman, Chairman, reports on the lectures—eight in number-delivered before the Institute at its stated meetings. This report and that of the Committee on Sectional Arrangements are interesting reading They deal with one of the most important functions of the Institute.

It is appropriate to make mention here of the course of lectures delivered in this room by Dr. F. W. Aston, F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, England, on “Atomic Weights and Isotopes.” These lectures were delivered on the afternoons of March 6th to roth inclusive. The attendance, which included physicists from all over the eastern half of the United States, must have been very gratifying to Dr. Aston, as it was to the management of the Institute. Dr. Aston, after finishing the course at the Institute, lectured before eight American universities, before the General Electric Company at Schenectady, and before the Engineers' Club of New York City. It is also worthy of note that Dr. Aston recently has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Managers think that the Institute is to be congratulated upon the great success of the Aston course and upon the worthy and notable publicity that it has given to the work of The Franklin Institute.

Your Board in its report for the year ending September 30, 1921 told you of the formation of a committee to carry into effect the intent and purpose of the Henry W. Bartol bequest, and advised you of the hopes and ambitions of the Board in connection with the execution of this bequest. The Committee, Mr. Charles Day, Chairman, reports that up to the time of receiving bids for the proposed laboratory building wherein to house the activities of the Bartol Foundation, the work of the Committee was carried on as forecast in our last annual report. At that time, that is, at the time of receiving bids, a serious disappointment was met. A year ago it was estimated that the laboratory building as designed could be erected for $250,000.00. The lowest bid received was $650,000.00, and the various bids ranged from that to $750,000.00. The bids were made at the very peak of cost of building construction and when apparently there was so much construction on hand that there was little desire on the part of constructors to take on added work. At the moment the Committee does not feel justified in recommending the expenditure of such a large proportion of the funds available for the work of the Bartol Foundation and the other laboratory purposes of the Institute, in the erection of a laboratory building. It is giving further consideration to the subject, realizing that it may have to provide for otherwise housing the work of the Foundation. This all makes a regrettable delay. However, the Committee has - not to report any lack of confidence that the work will be carried on, and as far as concerns its merit, in full accord with the forecast made in the Managers' report of last year. During this delay in the execution of our plans the Bartol fund is increasing through the accumulation of

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