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MANAGERS-(Continued)

GRAFF, FREDERICK, 1852-1854, 1858- HUTCHINSON, JOSEPH, 1860-1863 1865, 1880-1881

JAYNE, HARRY W., 1891-1910 GREBLE, EDWIN, 1841-1863

JENNINGS, W. N., 1896 GREENE, STEPHEN, 1898-1908

JOHNSON, LAWRENCE, 1855-1859 GRIES, JOHN M., 1858-1862

Jones, THOMAS P., 1826 GRIFFITH, R. EGGLESFIELD, 1870-1871 JONES, WASHINGTON, 1859-1895, 1897GRIFFITH, ROBERT E., 1827

1900 GROVES, DANIEL, 1824-1827

Katez, I., 1824 HALL, CLARENCE A., 1922

KEATING, WILLIAM H., 1824-1826, HAND, JAMES C., 1845-1846

1830-1840 HANSELL, WILLIAM S., 1827

KELLER, HARRY F., 1914HARDING, GEORGE, 1864-1865

KELLY, Henry H., 1851 HARKER, Joshua G., 1831-1836 KING, ROBERT P., 1851 HARPER, JAMES, 1824-1826

Kirk, CHARLES H., 1830 HARRIS, WILLIAM, 1860-1863

KIRKPATRICK, GEORGE E., 1911-1914 Harrison, ALFRED C., 1895

KNEASS, WILLIAM, 1825 HARRISON, C. LELAND, 1899-1902 KNIGHT, DANIEL R., 1845 HARRISON, JOHN, 1824-1829

KRUMBHAAR, ALEXANDER, 1898-1911 HARRISON, JOSEPH, JR., 1854, 1856– Kuhn, C. HARTMAN, 1896-1905 1859

LAMBERT, WM. H., 1906 Hart, SAMUEL, 1865-1870

LESLEY, ROBERT W., 1913– HAVILAND, JOHN, 1824-1826

LE VAN, W. BARNET, 1864-1876 Hays, ISAAC, 1840-1841

Levy, Louis E., 1903–1915
HAYWARD, NATHAN, 1917–

LEWIS, ENOCH, 1868-1894
HELLER, CHARLES S., 1879-1880 LEWIS, Harvey, 1824-1827
HELME, William, 1869-1888 LEWIS, MORDECAI D., 1828–1836
HENDERSON, GEORGE R., 1915-1921 LINDSAY, JOHN, 1843
HERSE, GEORGE P., 1851

LINDSAY, ROBERT, 1834-1836
HEXAMER, CHARLES A., 1904– LINNARD, JAMES M., 1836-1838
HEYL, HENRY R., 1879–1895, 1898 LINVILLE, J. HAYES, 1868
1909

LONGSTRETH, CHARLES, 1903-1907 HOADLEY, GEORGE A., 1911

LONGSTRETH, EDWARD, 1868-1870, HORN, HENRY, 1824

1895-1897
HORSTMANN, WILLIAM J., 1865-1868 LOUD, THOMAS, 1829-1831
Houston, EDWIN J., 1874–1897 LOVE, WILLIAM H., 1859
HOWARD, GEORGE C., 1855-1858 LUCAS, JOHN, 1888–1894
Howe, HERBERT M., 1898-1900 LUKENS, ISAIAH, 1828
Howson, CHARLES HENRY, 1903-1907 LUKENS, JAWOOD, 1902-1908
Howson, HENRY, 1898-1903

LYMAN, BENJAMIN S., 1901-1902 HUFTY, SAMUEL, 1834-1850

MCALPINE, JAMES, 1825-1828 HUMPHREYS, SAMUEL, 1826

McCAFFREY, E. V., 1910HUNTER, JAMES, 1864

McCAMBRIDGE, RICHARD, 1876 HUTCHINSON, CHARLES H., 1888–1890 MCCLURE, JOHN, 1853-1856 HUTCHINSON, JAMES, 1841-1842 McCLURG, ALEXANDER, 1833-1839

MANAGERS-(Continued)

McEUEN, THOMAS, 1829

Paul, LAWRENCE T., 1895McKEAN, WILLIAM V., 1879-1883 PeM BERTON, HENRY, JR., 1891-1896 Marks, WILLIAM D., 1881-1884 PERRY, ROBERT S., 1912–1916 MARSHALL, SAMUEL R., 1887-1893 Petrit, HORACE, 1894-1910 Mason, David H., 1824

PURVES, ALEXANDER, 1875-1876 MASON, JAMES S., 1861

RALSTON, ASHBEL G., 1825-1830 MEGARGEE, CHARLES, 1858

RAMAGE, ADAM, 1824-1832 Meirs, RICHARD Waln, 1908–1917 RAND, THEODORE D., 1874-1897 MERRICK, J. VAUGHAN, 1864-1866, REED, WILLIAM B., 1832-1836 1870-1884

REEVES, BENJAMIN, 1829-1837 MERRICK, SAMUEL V., 1824-1827, REEVES, SAMUEL J., 1864 1830-1841, 1855-1863

REEVES, STACY, 1889-1902 MIFFLIN, LLOYD, 1825-1826

RICE, JOHN, 1866-1867 MILES, FREDERICK B., 1874

RICHARDS, MARK, 1831 MILLER, ABRAHAM, 1824-1846, 1855 RICHARDSON, JOHN, 1825 1858

RIEHLE, HENRY J., 1826-1827 MITCHELL, J. E., 1874

ROBBINS, SAMUEL J., 1827-1833 MITCHELL, WILLIAM A., 1864-1865 ROBERTS, ALGERNON S., 1828 MORRIS, ISAAC P., 1836-1843 ROBERTS, PERCIVAL, 1864-1868 MOORE, BLOOMFIELD H., 1864-1868 ROBERTS, SOLOMON W., 1842-1847 MOORE, JOSEPH W., 1860-1861 ROBINSON, ALEXANDER P., 1911-1916 MORGAN, MARSHALL S., 1914 ROGERS, EVANS, 1854–1863 MORRIS, ELWOOD. 1844-1847

ROGERS, HENRY D., 1838-1843 MORRIS, HENRY G., 1864-1869 ROGERS, JAMES S., 1909– MORRIS, WILLIAM E., 1847-1851 ROGERS, ROBERT E., 1867 MUCKLE, M. RICHARDS, JR., 1894-1896 RONALDSON, CHARLES E., 1885-1893, NAYLOR, JACOB, 1863, 1865-1872

1908–1912 NEAFIE, JACOB G., 1868

ROSENGARTEN, GEORGE D., 1912-
NEWHALL, PAUL W., 1843-1844 RowLAND, JAMES, JR., 1829–1830
NORRIS, ISAAC, 1870-1878, 1883–1918. RowLAND, WILLIAM, 1828
NYSTROM, John W., 1873-1875 RUSH, WILLIAM, 1825
OGDEN, JOHN M., 1833

Rust, JAMES I., 1824
OGLE, WILLIAMS, 1845-1850

SADTLER, SAMUEL P., 1888-1897 O'Neill, John, 1827-1832

SANBORN, E. H., 1907– ORR, HECTOR, 1871-1887

SARTAIN, JOHN, 1877–1879 OUTERBRIDGE, Alex. E., JR., 1881-1886 SARTAIN, SAMUEL, 1865-1882 PALMER, B. FRANKLIN, 1862

SAVERY, PELEG B., 1851-1852 PARRISH, WILLIAM D., 1838, 1852- SAXTON, JOSEPH, 1842-1844 1854

SAY, BENJAMIN, 1832-1833 PARRY, CHARLES T., 1864

SCATTERGOOD, THOMAS, 1829–1834 PATTERSON, ROBERT, 1824

SCHAUM, OTTO W., 1907 PATTERSON, ROBERT M., 1825-1827 SCHREINER, JOSEPH H., 1827-1832

MANAGERS-(Continued)

SCHUMANN, FRANCIS, 1899-1902 Vaux, GEORGE, JR., 1898–1899
SEIPER, THOMAS, 1824

WALTER, JOSEPH S., JR., 1834-1837 SellERS, COLEMAN, 1862-1866, 1875 WALTER, THOMAS U., 1829-1831, 1905

1840-1851 SELLERS, COLEMAN, JR., 1906-1911 WARDER, WILLIAM S., 1825-1827 SELLERS, WILLIAM, 1857-1861, 1867 WARNER, JOHN S., 1837-1843 1892

Weaver, JACOB, 1856–1857 SHAIN, CHARLES J., 1884–1887 WEAVER, JOHN J., 1880-1891 SHINN, EARLE, 1836-1837

WEIGHTMAN, WILLIAM, 1862-1863 SLOAN, SAMUEL, 1864

WETHERILL, CHARLES, 1835 SMITH, CHARLES E., 1852–1855 WETHERILL, J. P., 1902 Smith, HASELTINE, 1922–

WETHERILL, JOHN P., 1824-1825 SOUDER, JACOB, 1828

WETHERILL, WILLIAM, 1832 SPANGLER, HENRY W., 1891-1893 WETHERILL, WILLIAM C., 1916STEVENSON, WILLIAM, JR., 1828 WEYGANDT, THOMAS J., 1851-1863 STEWART, Thomas S., 1842-1850, WHARTON, WILLIAM, JR., 1871 1852-1863

WHITAKER, GEORGE P., 1851-1852 STRICKLAND, WILLIAM, 1828

WHITE, CHARLES H., 1828–1835 STRUTHERS, John, 1827-1849 WHITE, SAMUEL S., 1864-1867 TABER, GEORGE, '1839-1842

WHITNEY, Asa, 1846-1850 TATHAM, WILLIAM P., 1870-1878, WHITNEY, GEORGE, 1858–1860 1886-1887

WHITNEY, JAMES S., 1862-1863, THOMPSON, AMBROSE W., 1839-1843

1865-1869 THOMSON, ELIHU, 1878-1881 WHITNEY, JOHN R., 1861 THORNE, WILLIAM H., 1881-1897 WICKHAM, M. T., 1824 THORNLEY, JOHN, 1851

WIEGAND, JOHN, 1831-1853 TilgHMAN, BENJ. C., 1871-1875 WIEGAND, S. LLOYD, 1864, 1890–1893 TOPPAN, CHARLES, 1831-1832

WILLIAMS, EDWARD H., 1871-1872 TOWNE, JOHN H., 1840–1857, 1869 WILLIAMS, ISAAC S., 1846-1850, TOWNSEND, EDWARD Y., 1866–1867

1852-1863 Tracy, ELIASHIB, 1851

WILSON, JOSEPH M., 1869-1886 TRAUTWINE, JOHN C., 1834, 1844, Wilson, O. HOWARD, 1864-1869 1852-1857

WOLBORN, CORNELIUS A., 1844-1850 TRAUTWINE, JOHN C., JR., 1891-1895 WOLF, OTTO C., 1897-1913 TREGO, CHARLES B., 1837-1846 Wood, ALAN, 1845-1863 TREVOR, JOHN B., 1832

WOOD, SAMUEL R., 1824-1825 TROTH, Henry, 1837-1841

Wood, WALTER, 1903-1912 TRYSON, GEORGE W., 1831-1833 WooTTEN, JOHN E., 1860-1862 TUTWILER, C. C., 1920

YARDLEY, WILLIAM, JR., 1829 TYLER, RUFUS, 1826-1837

YEAGER, JOSEPH, 1832 VAUCLAIN, SAMUEL M., 1898, 1906 Young, ANDREW, 1828–1830

PAST CHAIRMEN OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND THE ARTS

1834-1922

BACHE, ALEXANDER D., 1834-1836, KOENIG, G. A., 1888–1889 1839-1844

Levy, Louis E., 1901-1902 BARNES, JAMES, 1922

LEWIS, WILFRED, 1912-1913 BEARDSLEY, ARTHUR, 1892-1895 MARBURG, EDGAR, 1899-1900 BILGRAM, Hugo, 1906–1907

Marks, W. D., 1881-1882, 1887-1888 BONINE, CHARLES E., 1916-1917 MASLAND, CHARLES W. 1921-1922 CHRISTIE, JAMES, 1897–1898

McCONNELL, JACOB Y., 1909–1910 CLAMER, G. H., 1915-1916

ORR, HECTOR, 1880-1881 CONARD, THOMAS P., 1902-1903 PATTERSON, R. M., 1836–1839 CREIGHTON, H. JERMAIN, 1918-1919 PENROSE, CHARLES, 1920–1921 CRESSON, J. C., 1844-1874

ROGERS, JAMES S., 1908-1909 CRISFIELD, J. A. P., 1913-1914

RONALDSON, CHARLES E., 1903-1904 ELDRIDGE, G. MORGAN, 1896-1897 RONDINELLA, L. F., 1898–1899 · FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, 1919-1920 SARTAIN, SAMUEL, 1895-1896 GOLDSMITH, EDWARD 1905–1906 SELLERS, COLEMAN, 1875-1880 GRIGGS, WILLIAM O., 1907–1908 SPANGLER, H. W., 1890–1891 HAUPT, LEWIS M., 1904-1905

SPENCER, THOMAS, 1910-1911 HENDERSON, GEORGE R., 1914-1915

WETHERILL, WM. CHATTIN, 1917–1918 HEYL, HENRY R., 1882-1887, 1893– WIEGAND S. LLOYD, 1889-1890, 18911894, 1900-1901

1892 HOADLEY, GEORGE A., 1911-1912

THE INSTITUTE'S ACTIVITIES

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE was organized in the year 1824 to meet a demand in America for an Institution similar to that founded by Count Rumford in London in 1799. The founders intended it not only as an appropriate memorial to the name of Franklin, but as a means of continuing for all time a work which throughout his long life he perhaps regarded as his best, namely, the discovery of physical and natural laws and their application to increase the well-being and comfort of mankind.

The Hall of the Institute is located on the east side of Seventh Street, between Market and Chestnut Streets, and was built from plans furnished by John Haviland, architect. The corner-stone was laid with appropriate Masonic and other ceremonies, on the eighth day of June, 1825, at noon. The funds for the purchase of the lot and the erection of the building were provided by the issue of a building loan, which was freely taken by members and friends of the enterprise, and has long since been repaid. The building was completed, and the Institute took possession of all except the second floor (which was occupied by the United States Courts until 1830) in 1826. Upon the first floor are located the lecture-room (capable of accommodating about 300), and laboratories and offices. The second floor is occupied by the library, to which special attention is paid elsewhere. The third floor is given up entirely to the use of the School of Mechanic Arts.

THE LIBRARY

The plan of the founders contemplated “the formation of a library of books relating to science and the useful arts, and the opening of a readingroom;” and, accordingly, in 1827, the first Committee on Library was appointed.

The books forming the nucleus of the library were stored in the residence of a member of the committee until early in the year 1829, when the first reading room was opened. During the next year a special committee of twenty issued an appeal for books and contributions of money in aid of the library.

The founding of the Journal, in 1826, by opening the way to the establishment of exchange relations with other societies and with the leading magazines and periodicals devoted to science and the useful arts, proved an invaluable help in promoting its growth, and thus, early, gave to the library the distinctive character which it has since maintained. From the nucleus formed by this useful agency has grown a reference library of scientific literature, in some branches unique, and, in extent and completeness, second to none in the United States, embracing the publications of the principal scientific and technical societies of the world, and the leading periodicals devoted to science and the arts.

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