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ME. WILLIAM CLARKE, AND MR. JOSEPH
The machinery here described will not admit of a written account that can be inteliigible without the aid of figures. It is calculated to fave the heavy expence of currents of water, erecting fpacious buildings, water-works, fteam-engines, &c. and to fpin hemp, flax, tow and wool, at fuch an eafy expence, as to bring it within reach of fmall manufacturers, and conftructed upon fuch fafe and eafy principles, that no length of experience will be neceffary to enable children to work the fame; and the ufe of water, fteam, &c. thereby rendered unneceffary, and to occupy fo little space, that the machines may be placed in finall rooms, or out-buildings. To effect the above purpofe, it was neceffary to get rid of the flyer upon the fpindle ufed in the old machinery, for fpinning hemp and flax, which requires a power in proportion of five to one, and to furmount the difficulty that arifes from the want of clafticity in thefe fubftances. This want of clafticity in the fubftance to be operated upon, is compenfated and provided for in this machinery; and upon this compenfation and providion, effected by the various means mentioned in thefe improvements, the return of the carriage without any alfiftance from the work-perfon, and the traverfe for diftributing the yarn upon bobbins or quills, rett the excellence of this invention. The moft fimple mode of compenfating the want of elasticity, and which the patentees recommend in preference to the other, is that of having a holder of large wire for every fpindle fixed in an arbor or thaft, that extends from one end of the carriage to the other. This arboror fhaft, with the holders, may be confidered as an enlarged and improved fubftitute, for what is called a faller in the moll-jennies for fpinning cotton. One mode of compenfating and providing for the want of elasticity in hemp and flax, and prevent breakages and other accidents from any tightnefs in the yarn, occationed by any obftruction, is, by driving the common male fpindle with n flack band, having the yarn to pafs over the holders, or over a certain round bar, with all the other apparatos for laying the yarn upon the pinalles. This method it is faid cannot be fed to advantage in any cafe, but may be fublütuted for the other methods deferibed and illuftrated with drawings, for Spinning yarn for fail-cloths, facking, tar
pawlins, or other coarfe or heavy goods. The machinery defcribed in this fpecifi cation, may be ufed to great advantage in fpinning long wool for worfted; and although in molt cafes it is peculiarly adapted to manual power, yet it may be wrought by water fleam, or any other power, and for coarfe and heavy goods with advantage.
MR. EDWARD HEARD'S (LONDON,) for a Difcovery of certain Means of obtaining Inflammable Gas from Pit-coal, in fuch a State, that it may be burned without any offenfive Smell.
This invention may be thus defcribed; lime is laid in ftrata with coals, in a retort ftove or other close vessel, in which they are placed for operation, or the gas when produced is fuffered to pass over lime previously laid in an iron or other tube, or any other thaped veffel adapted to the purpofe, and expofed to heat. After the gas has been conducted into a refrigeratory, and all condenfible matter is depo fited, it is then fuffered to enter the conveying tubes, and burned in the ufual manner. The reafon for employing lime in preference to other fubftances is, that, from a feries of analytical experiments, Mr. H. has detested the prefence of fulphur in a great variety of the coals which are confuined in this country, and he confiders the fuffocating fmell fo perceptible during the combuflion of the gas obtained in the ordinary way, to arife from the products of that combuftion, principally the fulphureous acid gas, which is then generated. I prefent,' fays Mr. Heard, lime in fubftance to the fulphur, as it is difengaged by heat from the coals, and through their mutual affinity arreft it in its progrefs, and form a fulphuret of lune, or hydro-fulpharet depending on the circumftances of the operation. I have reafon to conclude that any of the fixed alkalies, or alkaline earths, or carbonate of lime, when expofed to a degree of temperature futficient to drive off the carbonic acid gas, might be fubftituted for lime; but from economical motives, as well as from conftant fuccefs, I prefer the agency of lime." Mr. Heard withes it to be diftinctly underftood, that lime, the alkaline earths, certain metals or their oxides, wher mixed with the coals laid on their furface, or put into feparate veffels through which the gas is made to pafs, are calcutlated in a greater or lefs degree, to diveit the gas of the caufe of the offensive imell, but lime he reckons the belt, as well as the moft economical. VARIETIES
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL,
ORD VALENTIA, the eldeft fon
LO of the Earl of Mount Norris, re
paired a few years fince to India, with a view to contribute to the extenfion of fcience, and to gratify his own curiofity. After his arrival in Calcutta, he repaired over-land to Lucknow; and having accepted an invitation from Mr. Paull, an eminent merchant there, he refided at his houfe during feveral months. When the rainy feafon commenced, he was accompanied by that gentleman down the ftream of the Ganges; and they had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with whatever related to a river fo famous in the annals and religious rites of the eastern world. In the courfe of feveral years' refidence abroad, Lord Valentia has vifited and examined a large portion of Afia, and has feen parts of Africa. Being of a curious and inquifitive turn, he has made a very valuable collection of whatever is rare or worthy of notice; and we are informed that the public will be speedily gratified with an account of his extenlive travels, printed at the expence of his lordship. The exact fize and extent of the work are not precifely afcertained, but it is fuppofed that it will confift of two or three volumes in quarto, with a folio volume of engravings. Thefe travels, and thofe of Dr. Buchanan (announced in our last), will bring us better acquainted with our vaft poffeffions in Afia."
Sir JOHN CARR will fpeedily gratify the public with an account of his recent excurfion into Holland, and up the Rhine as far as Mentz. Thefe countries bave long been objects of confiderable curiofity, on account of the great political changes which they have undergone, and the events of which they have been "the feene, fince they were lalt vifited by Dr. Cogan and Mrs. Radcliffe. This volume, like the other popular travels of Sir John Carr, will be decorated with numerous views of the places which he visited.
Mr. NORTHMORE has been for a confiderable time engaged in writing an epic pocin, to be completed in ten books, en
titled Washington, or Liberty Reftored. The basis of the work, exclufive of the imagery, will reft folely upon hiftorię truth.
Dr. GILLIES announces a Hiftory of the World, from the Reign of Alexander to that of Auguftus, comprehending the latter ages of Greece, and the hiftory of the Greek kingdoms in Afia and Africa, from their foundation to their deftruction; with a preliminary furvey of Alexander's' caftern conquefts, and a conjecture relative to his plans for their confolidation and improvement.
The Rev. WILLIAM TURNER, of Newcaftle upon Tyne, has ready for publi cation an Abstract of the History of the Bible, for the ufe of children and young perfons; with questions for exainination, and a sketch of Scripture Geography, il luftrated by maps.
Mr. MITFORD is preparing to publish a new edition of the Hiftory of Greece, from the carliest accounts to the death of Philip, King of Macedonia, revifed and confiderably augmented, and a fourth volume entirely new.
Dr. TOULMIN, of Birmingham, is preparing for the prefs a new edition of a fearce and valuable tract, entitled The Student and Paftor, by the Rev. JOHN MASON, M. A. the author of the cele brated Treatife on Self-knowledge. To this edition it is intended to add, the author's Letter to a Young Minifier; with fome notes and enlargements, particularly an Effay ou Cateching, by the editor.
Dr. BARDSLEY, physician to the Manchefter Infirmary, has been fome time preparing for the prefs, and will speedily publish, a Selection of Medical Reports of Cafes, Obfervations, and Experiments, chiefly derived from hofpital practice; including, among others, clinical hiftories of Diabetes, Chronic Rheumatism, and Hydrophobia.
Dr. KINGLAKE is preparing fome Strictures on Mr. Parkinfon's Obfervations on the Nature and Cure of Gout, recently publifhed in oppofition to the theory that propofes the cooling treat
ment of that difeafe. The fame gentleman is about to publish additional Cafes of Gout, in farther proof of the falutary efficacy of the cooling treatment of that afflicting difeafe; with illnftrative annotations, written authorities in its fupport, controverfial difcuffions, and a view of the prefent ftate and future profpects of the practice. And also a painphlet, called the Reviewers Reviewed, containing general obfervations on legitimate and licentious criticism,
Mr. JANSON, an English gentleman, who has refided fourteen years in America, and has brought with him many interefting materials relative to the state of fociety and manners in that republic, is arranging them for the prefs; and they will fpeedily appear in a quarco volume, accompanied by a number of elegant engravings,
Mr, NATHANIEL HOWARD, of Plymouth, has completed a tranflation, in blank verfe, of the Inferno of Dante, with notes hiftorical, claffical, and explanatory,
Dr. A P. WILSON, of Worcester, has nearly ready for publication an Effay on the Nature of Fever,
Some Letters and Pofthumous Works of Mrs. CHAPONE are preparing for publication, by one of her relations.
Mr. THELWALL has recently extended the plan of his inftitution in Bedfordplace for the cure of impediments of fpeech, by an arrangement which admits the introduction of the clafs of junior pupils under the fuperintendence of Mrs. Thelwall, by whom they are initiated in all the customary elements of an accomplished education, including thie rudiments of the English, French, Latin, and Italian languages, geography, aftro nomy, &c. This clafs of pupils is kept tutinet from thofe of adult years, who continue to be attended to by Mr. Thelwall, in all the higher branches of eloquence and English literature. The public lectures are to be delivered on Mondays and Wednesdays only, till the feafon of Lent; when they will be refumed on Friday evenings alfo.
The Rev. J. MILNER has commenced the publication of an entirely new edition of Fox's original Book of Christian, Martyrs. The embellishments will conit of upwards of fifty engravings.
Dr. REID's Courfe of Lectures on the *Theory and Practice of Medicine, will commence on Friday the 6th of Fe
bruary, at feven o'clock in the evening, at his houfe, Grenville-street, Brunswickfquare.
Mr. MILBURNE's Lectures on the Principles and Operations of Surgery, will commence on Monday the 9th init. Mr. DAVY, in the concluding Lecture of the first part of his Courte on Vegetable Chemistry, gave a new theory to account, for the Fairy Rings, to common in fomne meadow lands. They have of late years, been generally fuppofed to be occafioned by the electric fluid; but, according to Mr. Davy, every fungus exhauts the ground on which it grows, fo that no other can exift on the faine fpot: it fheds its feed around, and on the fecond year, instead of a single fungus as a centre, a number arife in an exterior ring, around the fpot where the individual flood: thefe exhaust the ground on which they have come to perfection; and, on the fucceeding year, the ring becomes ftill larger, from the fame principle of divergency. Mr. Davy acknowledged himfelf indebted to Dr. Wollafton for this ingenious theory.
Mr. Davy, in the concluding part of a Paper lately read before the Royal Society, confidered the influence of electricity in the mineral kingdom; its action on the carburet of iron, and various other mineral bodies; and alfo its im portance, as tending to elucidate many phenomena in the fcience of geology. In the courfe of this Paper, were de tailed an account of feveral original ex periments on the effects of electricity ou certain chemical menftrua; in all of which the negative pole difengaged oxygen, and the pofitive hydrogen.
The Copleyan Medal has been adjudged to T. A. KNIGHT, Efq. for his numerous difcoveries in vegetable phyfi ology. Sir Jofeph Banks, upon prefenting Mr. Knight with the reward of his labours and high nerit, pronounced a moft able difcourfe on the purfuits of this gentleman. He noticed his refearches and obfervations on the alburnous juices of plants, in its ufcent elaborating the buds and leaves, and in its defcent forming wood; and of his difcovery of the m tural decay of apple-trees, and of the grafts, which decline and become unproductive at the fame time with the parent flock. The learned Prefident referred next to the experiments, which went to prove that all vegetables radiate by gravitation only, and not by any in
ftinctive energy; that new and fuperior fpecies of apples may he produced from feed; and that impregnating the pollen was found to be an advantageous fubiti tute for grafting. He then alluded te the new and very valuable fpecies of pears produced by Mr. Knight, and to a new fpecies of vines, which bear grapes not only fuperor in flavour to others hitherto known, but which are capable of arriving at perfection, even in the moft adverfe feafons, in our climate. For thefe, and other difcoveries ably enumerated by the learned Prefident, the Copleyan Medal was adjudged to Mr. Knight, whofe fuccefsful labours in this branch of natural history, have probably furpafled thofe of any other philofopher, in developing the economy of vegetation, and the laws of vegetable life.
Dr. ROBERTSON, Savilian Profeffor of Geometry at Oxford, has lately prefented to the Royal Society, a Paper on "The Preceffion of the Equinoxes;" in which he has fuggefted fome new methods of afcertaining, with greater accuracy than has hitherto been done, the calculations of compound rotatory motion. Mr. SMITH exhibited to the Society of Antiquarians, a filver ring about an inch in diameter, with twelve points, refembling the teeth of a wheel in clock-work, in one of which was a rowel, which projected a little more than the others. Mr. S. imagines that this ring was used as a chaplet in the days of the catholic religion in this country; and that each point was to indicate a prayer, as a help to the memory, or to those who could not read.
The Literary and Philofophical Society at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, continues to flourish many valuable Papers were communicated and read to it in the courfe of the last year. Much of the profperity of this Society must be referred to the labours and zeal of the Rev. William Turner.
Mr. CUMBERLAND has lately given to the public a defcription of a very fimple and useful fcale for dividing the vanishing lines in perfpećtive. It is thus formed: take a fheet of paper, and having made an horizontal line, fix on a point, as a centre, called the point of fight; this point is croffed with diagonal lines in various directions; and thus an inftrument is prepared, that will be a fure guide to an inexperienced eye, in taking the perfpective lines of all objects placed at right angles, fuch as ftrects, buildings,
churches, apartments, by merely placing it under the leaf to be drawn on. To render the inftrument more complete, a of plate glafs fhould be added, of the fame fize as the leaf of the drawing-book, on which the dark lines fhould be drawn. Mr. DONALDSON is preparing for the prefs, a Treatise on Commercial Law.
The fecret of the Invisible Girl has lately been fuppofed to have been difcovered, from which it fhould seem, that the whole deception confifts in a very trifling addition to the mechanifin of the Speaking buft; which confifts of a tube from the mouth of the buft, leading to a confederate in an adjoining room, and another tube to the fame place, ending in the ear of the figure. By the laft of thefe a found whispered to the ear of the buft, is immediately carried to the confederate, who inftantly returns an anfwer by the other tube ending in the mouth of the figure, who feems to utter it: and the invifible girl only differs in this circumftance, that an artificial echo is produced by means of certain trumpets; and thus the found does not proceed in its original direction, but is completely reverfed.
Mr. CUMBERLAND and Sir JAMES
Mr. SOUTHEY has in the prefs a Trauflation of the Chronicle of Cid, from the Spanish.
Dr. MALTBY has undertaken to fuperintend a new edition of Morell's Thefaurus Grace Pocos; a work long wanted by the claffical fcholar.
The London Medical Society propofe to confer the Fothergillian gold inedal upon the authors of the beft eflays on the following fubjects.
Questions for the year 1807.-The best account of the epidemic fevers which have prevailed at feveral times in North America, Spain, and Gibraltar, fince the year 1793, and whether they are the fame or different difeafes?
For the year 1808-What are the best methods of preventing and of curing epidemic dyfentery?
For the year 1809.-What are the criteria by which epidemic diforders that are not infectious may be diftinguished from those that are?
For the year 1810.-What are the qualities in the atmosphere most to be defired under the various circumstances of pulmonary con fumption?
The Unitarian Society, which has diftinguifbed itfelf by the publication, in a cheap form, of very many valuable theological works, is now about to print a very large edition of the New Teftament, chiefly from the tranilation of the late venerable Archbishop NEWCOMBE.
It has been lately recommended that, excepting the lancet employed in vaccination, all the inftruments of fur gery ought to be dipped into oil at the moment when they are going to be ufed; by which method the pain of the fubject operated upon will always be diminished. It is recommended to make all inftruments of a blood-heat a little before the operation.
MR. HERMBSTADT, of Berlin, gives the following as a cheap Method of obtaining the Sugar of the Beet-root :Let the beet-roots be pounded in a mortar, and then fubjected to the prefs; the juice is next to be clarified with line, like that of the fugar-cane, and then by evaporation bring it to the confiftence of fyrup. From 100 lbs. of raw fugar thus obtained, 80 lbs. may be bad by the first refining, of well-cryftalized fugar, inferior neither in quality nor whitenefs to that of the Weit-Indies. Two days are fufficient to complete the operation.
A new branch of icience, entitled, Mnemonica, is now much ftudied in Germany. It was originally taught and practifed in Egypt and Greece, and was an invention attributed to Simonides. The modern reitorer of this art is M. ABETIN, who exacts from his pupils a promite not to write down his lectures. According to a book, faid to have been Written by a child of twelve years of age, and mentioned in the catalogue for the lait September fair at Leipfic, mnemonica a true fcience, and may be fo taught as to give a memory to individuals of every age.
M. LESCHEVIN, Chief Commiffary for Gunpowder and Saltpetre at Dijon, has fuggefted a method of averting fhowers of hail, and diffipating ftorms. The Memoir in which he has related the difcovery, as he conceives, is long, but we fhall be able to prefent the English reader with the refults in few words :-(1.) He
• A gentleman known to the writer of this article, can, by the power of affociation, repest backwards and forwards, or by any complex alternation, thirty abstract terms, on bewing them repeated but ence.
would excite in the air ftrong commotions capable of thaking the particles of water adhering to it, fo as to produce abundant rain: this is to be done by the found of great bells, the noife of guns or drums, by the detonation of the fulminating powder, and by the explosion, in the middle of the clouds, of rockets directed towards the place where the clouds are thickeft. (2.) He would eftablish energetic conductors between the clouds and the earth, either by fires lighted from distance to diftance, and kept burning by fupplies of dry fubítances, or by the dif engagement of humid vapours, or the combuftion of refinous matters. (S.) He would draw off the electric fluid, which is in fuperabundance in the clouds, by a multiplicity of thunder-rods: he would establish thefe conductors on thofe fides from which the winds chiefly come, and thefe are to be placed on elevated places, high trees, &c. We are informed, that the practice recommended in this Memoir, is made ufe of in many parts of France with the greatest fuccefs.
Dr. CARRADORI, in oppofition to the experiments and conclutions of Mellrs. Humbolt and Gay Lufac, affirms that ebullition is not fufficient to free water from all the oxygen that it contains; and that nothing but congelation, and the refpiration of fishes, can entirely clear water of its oxygen. Thefe, he fays, are the only means that complete the feparation from water of all the oxygen it contains interpofed between its globules. Fishes he conceives to be the eudiometers of water; and one of thefe, fhut up in a body of water, is capable of feparating, by means of its refpiration, in feveral hours, all the oxygen from the water, and to exhauft it entirely from this prin ciple. By feveral ingenious, but cruel, experiments on fifh, this philofopher proves that melted fnow, as well as water that has been congealed, is deprived of all its oxygen.
M. LEROI, who has made many fuccefsful experiments in agriculture, advifes perfons by no means to procure grain for fowing from a foil north of their own land, but from a country fouth of it; becaufe he fays it is a general rule, that the product of feed improves in going from fouth to north, and that it decreafes in virtue in going from north tó fouth. He recommends boiled carrots as an excellent and cheap food for the fattening of pigs; and he adds, that by steeping raw carrots in water to deprive them of their acrid principle, then by