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broad mufcular band has its origin, from the coats of the firft ftomach, and paffes down in the form of a solid parallel to the great ridge, till it enters the orifice of the fecond stomach. This band on one fide, and the great ridge on the other, form a canal, which leads from the afophagus down to the cellular structure in the lower part of the first ftoinach. The orifice of the fecond ftomach, when this muscle is not in action, is nearly thut, and at right angles to the fide of the firft. Its cavity is a pendulous bag with rows of cells, above which, between them and the mufcle which paffes along the upper part of the ftomach, is a finooth furface extending from the orifice of this ftomach to the termination in the third. Hence it is evident that the fecond ftomach neither receives the folid food in the firft inftance as the bullock, nor does it afterwards pafs into its cavity or cellular ftructure. The food firft paffes into the general cavity of the first ftomach, and that portion of it which lies in the recefs immediately below the entrance of the cefophagus under which the cells are fituated, is kept moift, and is readily returned into the mouth, fo that the cellular portion of the first ftomach in the camel performs the fame office as the fecond in the ruminants with horns. While the camel is drinking, the action of the mufcular band opens the orifice of the fecond ftomach, at the fame time that it directs the water into it; and when the cells of that cavity are full, the reft runs off into the cellular structure of the first ftomach immediately below, and after wards into the general cavity: it feems that camels, when accutiomed to go long journeys, in which they are kept without water, acquire the power of dilating the cells, fo as to make them contain a more than ordinary quantity as a fapply for their journey. When the cud has been chewed, it has to pafs along the upper part of the fecond ftomach before it can reach the third; which is thus managed at the time that the cud is to pats from the mouth, the mufcular band contracts with fo much force, that it not only opens the orifice of the fecond tomach, but acting on the mouth of the third, brings it forwards into the fecond, by which means the mufcular ridges that feparate the rows of cells are brought clofe together, fo as to exclude thefe ca vities from the canal, through which the cud paffes. "It is this beautiful and very curious mechanifm, (fays Mr.llome,) which forms the peculiar character of the
ftomach of the camel, dromedary, and lama, fitting them to live in the fandy deferts where the fupplies of water are fo precarious."
From the comparitive view which Mr. Home has taken of the ftomachs of the bullock and camel, it appears that in the bullock there are three ftomachs formed for the preparation of food, and one for digeftion. In the camel there is one ftomach fitted to answer the purposes of two of the bullock; a fecond is employed as a refervoir for water, having nothing to do with the preparation of the food; a third is fo finall and fimple in its structure that it is not eafy to afcertain its particular office.
The following gradations of ruminat-* ing ftomachs is now eftablished: the ru minants with horns, as the ox, sheep, &c. have two preparatory ftomachs for food previously to rumination, and one for the food after rumination before it is digefted. The ruminants without horns, as the camel, dromedary, &c. have one preparatory ftomach before rumination, and none in which the cud can be afterwards retained before it goes into the digefting ftomach. Thofe animals who eat the fame kind of food with the ruminants and yet do not ruminate, as the horse and afs, have only one ftomach, but a part of it is lined with a cuticle, in which the food is firft depofited, and by remaining there fome time is rendered more easily digeftible, when received into the digetting portion.
In comparing the teeth of thofe animals' that ruminate with thofe of the horse and afs, which live on nearly the fame kind of food, the following peculiarities are met with. The ruminants with horns have molares in both jaws, and incifores only in the lower jaw. The ruminants without horns, have, in addition to thefe, what may be called fighting-teeth, or a fubftitute for horns. Thefe are tulks in both jaws, intermediate teeth between the molares and tulks, and in the upper jaw two finall teeth anterior to the tufks; none of which can be of any ufe in eating. The camelo-pardalis forms an in termediate link in thefe refpects, It has fhort horns, and no tusks.
We have next an account of the analyfs of the urine of the camel, and of the feveral experiments upon that, and upon the urine of a cow. The prefence of uric acid in the former, and that of phofphat of lime in both, are new facts, which reflect additional light on the compotition of the urine of graminivorous ani
The lofs is fuppofed to have occurred from the animal matter, probably albumen and gelatine. The principal and only effential difference between the urine of the camel and that of the cow, is, that the former contains uric acid: They are both deftitute of foda. Mr. Hatchet obferves that it is remarkable that uric acid fhould be found in the camel's urine, and lie thinks it is the firft inftance on record, as far as relates to the urine of graminivorous animals.
Dr. SMITHSON has prefented to the fociety an account of a difcovery of native minium, which is diffeminated in finall quantities in the fubitance of compact carbonat of lime. Its colour is that of factitious minium, a vivid red with a caft of yellow. Heated with a
blow-pipe, it affumes a darker colour; at a stronger heat it melts to litharge. On charcoal it is reduced to lead. Ia dilate white acid of nitre, it becomes of a brown coffee colour. On the addition of a little fugar, this brown calx diffolves and produces a colourlefs folution. By putting into muriatic acid with a little leaf gold, the gold is foon entirely diffolved. When it is inclofed in a final bottle with muriatic acid, and a little bit of paper tinged by turnfol is fixed to the cork, the paper lofes its blue colour, and becomes white. A trip of common blue paper, whose colouring matter is indigo, placed in the fame fituation undergoes the fame change. Mr. S. imagines that this native minium is produced by the decay of a galena, which he fufpects to be itself a fecondary production from the metallization of white carbonate of lead by hepatic gas. This is particularly evident from a fpecimen, in one part of which there is a cluf ter of large crystals. Having brokeu one of thefe, Mr. S. found that it was converted into minium to a confiderable thicknefs, while its centre is still galena.
Two very excellent mathematical papers were communicated to the Royal Society, and read on the 5th of June last; the one, from the Rev. ABRAHAM ROBERTSON, Savilian profeffor of geometry in the university of Oxford, was a new demonftration of the Binomial Theorem, when the exponent is a fraction. The other was a new method of computing loga rithms by THOMAS MANNING, efq, Thefe, however, not adinitting of an analyfis we must content ourfelves with barely noticing.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS IN JANUARY,
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THE NEW PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
MR. ROBERT NEWMAN'S (DARTMOUTH,) for an Improvement in the Form and "Construction of Ships and other Veifels of Wur, &c.
IIIS improvement confifts in, and extends to, the following matters: firft, an apparatus or helm contaming two rudders, formed and worked in the direction of the fides, in lieu of one placed in the centre line of the veffel, by which bodies of the greateft capacity may be governed, guided, or fteered, wore and ftayed with greater certainty, cafe, and fafety: fecondly, in a concave or hollow form of fide and bottom that will make veffels of a light draught of water keep a better wind, carry more fail, and roll lefs: thirdly, in an inverted reduction of capacity toward the lern, commonly called the run, by which the relittance is beffened, without the ftability or power of carrying fail being diminished by external construction.
The Patentee has exhibited in drawings, attached to the specification before us, the ordinary rudder in its usual fituation, where it requires a magnitude that renders it both incommodious and dangerous, and even inadequate to its purpose; and alfo one which, if differently placed, might be reduced to one half, or even one fourth part of its pretent dimenfions, with increafed effect, its power being not only greater by projecting into more active water, and meeting the current in its undiverted courfe, but alfo increafed by its relative diftance from the centre line of the vellel's progrefs.
The manner of working a helm of this defcription mult depend on the nature, tize, and fervice of the veffel. It may act outwards or either way, he without or inclofed within the iteṛn and side, above or
below the deck, and moved by one wheel, winch or other engine, placed amid hips or elsewhere, and connected by chains or ropes, in the ordinary way, with a thort iron lever projecting from each rudder, the length of which need not exceed the fixth part of the tiller required for the common rudder. "In this manner,” fays Mr. N. "I found by an experiment tried on a temporary form, of not lefs than one hundred and fifty tons burthen, conftructed by me for the purpose about four years fince, that a fingle man or boy could not only fleer with the greatest eafe, but manage at the fame time the largest fail of the veffel, in an open and rough fea." In one of the figures attached to this fpecification, we have a reprefentation of the tranfverse section of a vetfel, whose fides and bottom are an inverfion of the ordinary form, curving outwards, and extending down to a level with the under part of her keel, oppofing by their extent and fhape the greatest refiftance, to a lee courfe with lefs tendency to roll or upfet, and presenting at the same time a ftronger furface to the preffure of the cargo or weight within the flip. Refiftance to leeway may alfo, we are told, be increafed, by ribbing, or indenting the coat of the fide, with projecting or binding planks, that obftruct in a fide direction, only while they ftrengthen the veffel and protect the caulking. For farther inforination on this fubject, we must refer the reader to the fpecification itself, the forms which are there given are confined to fuch parts of the vellel as are below the lead water line, being limited to the active or immerged fubflance, and capable of being executed by ordinary modes of workmanship.