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found in the monastery of St. Stephen at recent excavation, within its limits, of a Caen. The fifth contains a list of seve- Roman bath. The firii chapter of the ral eminent Normans who had resided in following work will be found to be as England in the reign of Edward the Con- much the first chapter of the annals of fessor. The sixth and seventh articles England and of Ireland, as it is of Scole contain lists of the military officers who land. The Pictish Period naturally sucaccompanied the Conqueror. The eighch ceeds the former book, as it estends, from and ninth give the names of the Norman the abdication of the Romans in A.D. landholders in England. The tenth and 446, to the overthrow of the Piets a last piece in this collection is an account A. D. 843. It will be found to compreof the pedigrees of the kings, dukęs, earls, hend interesting events: the affairs of the and other noble persons, mentioned in Picts; the fate of the Romanized Bricons; the large volume of Duchesne's Scriptores the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons on the Normanniæ. The Baron's own Notes, Tweed; the adventures of the Scandinawhich are in English, throw considerable vians in the Orkney and Western Isles; light upon the text of the different tracts. the colonization of Argyle, by the Scots, In one of thein, at p. 165, it seems to be from Ireland. It is the business of the doubted whether our kings anterior to Pictish period, to trace the singular bis the conquest had an oath administered tory of all those people, various as they to them at their coronations. We be- were in their lineages, throughout the dillieve the exact form prescribed for it, ferent events of their obscure wariare, even at an earlier period, will be found in and the successive turns of their frequest Mr. Turner's History of the Anglo- changes: add to those topics of peculiar Saxons.

interest the introduction of christianity, Another work, and the last that we which, in every age, and in every counshall mention in this class, is Mr. Chal- try, has produced such memorable effects. MERS's “ Caledonia ; or, an Account histo- The Scottish period, forming the thurd rical and topographic of North Britain; book, and extending from A, D. 843, to from the most ancient to the present Times; 1097, will be found to comprehend biswith a Dictionary of Places, chorogra- toric topics of equal importance: the phical and philological,of which the union of the Picts and Scots into one first volume only is before us. It con- kingdom; the amalgamation of the ansists of four books; comprising all that cieot Britons of Strathclyde with both; relates to Scottish history: “ Ì have di- the colonization of Galloway by the Irish; vided my work, (says Mr. Chalmers) the annexation of Lothian to the Scott without regarding fantastical conceits kingdoin; the bistory, both civil and ecof fabulous epochs, into such periods, as clesiastical, of all those people of various were analogous to the genuine history of races, with notices of theirantiquities, their each successive people. The Roman pe languages, their learning, their laws; ail riod, extending from Agricola's arrival, these form historical matters of singular inin North Britain, A.D. 80 to the abdi- terest to rational curiosity, if they be invescation of Roman authority, in A.D. 446, tigated from facts, incontemptoffabulosity

. forms the first Book, from its priority in The fourth bouk contains the Scoto-Sur time, as well as precedence in import- period, which extends from A.D. 1097 ance. In discussing this interesting sub- to 1906, and which details many notices ject, I was not content with previous au- of varied importance. At the krst, and thorities. I engaged intelligent persons at the second of those epochs, muncoto survey Roman roads, to inspect Ro- tous revolutions took place, though they man stations, and to ascertain doubtful have passed unnoticed by the Scottish points of Roman transactions. I have historians; and were unknown to the thus been enabled to correct the mistakes historiographer royal. With this period of former writers on those curious topics. began a new dynasty of kings, who 35Much perhaps cannot be added to what troduced new people, pew manuers, ne* has been now ascertained, with respect usages, and new establishments. la this to the engaging subject of the first book. period, the Saxon colonization of proper Yet, since Caledonia was sent to the Scotland was begun. In this period, ne press, a discorery of some importance the Scotican church reformed. In it was has been made: a very slight doubt re- jotroduced the municipal law of Narita mained, whether the Burghead of Moray Britain, in the place of Celtic custums. had been a Roman station, as no Roman In this period, originated her agnculture, semains bad there been found: but this her cominerce and shipping, and fishery, doubt has been completely solved, by the her manufactures, and her counts. The beginning of this period formed the pivot, hope and trust that the provisions of the on which turned the Celtic government statute will be enforced: and we heartily of ancient ages, and the Anglo-Norman congratulate the man, whose labours for a polity of subsequent times : Yet, it is of series of years have been at last crowned a period so crowded with changes, and by the abolition of a trade, as iinpolitic so varied with novelties, that the late as it was wicked. historiographer royal says, “The events Another subject of Legislation, which wbich then happened, may be slightly has been of late canvassed with extraortouched, but merit no particular inquiry.' dinary zeal, has been the moral and poBut, I have dwelt on those revolutions, litical condition of the poor. The introand bave marked every change. By a duction into Parliament of Mr. Whitvast detail froin the Chortuluries, in re- bread's Bill has been followed by the spect to the civil history, from 1097 to publication of different statements, obe 1306, to the ecclesiastical annals, to servations and enquiries; of which it inay, laws, to manners, and to domestic eco- perhaps, be sufficient to do little more nomy, I have tried to ascertain every in- than enumerate the titles of the most im-. teresting circumstance, and to render portant. The leading features of Mr. the national anuals of that interest- Whitbread's plan are, first, the establishing period quite familiar to every ment of parochial schools; secondly, the reader: and, to give completeness to the establishment of a poor assurance office; whole, are adued supplemental views of thirdly, the amendment of the laws of subsequent tiines, which have their de- settlement; fourtbly the relief of the burtails to instruct, and their curiosity to then of such parishes as are already too amuse." Such is the plan which Mr. severely oppressed by their poor; and Chalmers has both laid and endeavoured fifthly, the encouragement of labouring to execute, for reforming and ascertaining men to bring up their faniilies without the ancient bistory of North Britain, charge to their respective parishes. These which has been so long distorted by cons are followed by some regulations for the troversy, obscured by fable, and disre- better government of workhouses. There garded by fastidiousness. The work is are some parts of Mr. Whitbread's plan, illustrated with a Map of North Britain however, to which we cannot give our in the British and Roman times; a Plan approbation. It is occasionly more inand Sections of the British Fort on tricate than the nature of circunstances Barra Hill in Aberdeenshire; a Plan of seems to require. Though at the same the Roman Camp, called Norman-dikes; time we are ready to confess that the at a Plan of the site of the Roman Tuessis ; tainment of two of its objects, is likely to a Plan of the site of Forres, the Varis of give a new character to the indigent the Romans; and a Plan and Section of classes of the community; these are, the the Roman Fort, vcar Clattering Brig, proper instruction of youth, and the apin Kincardineshire.

plication of stimulants to industry at maPOLITICS, POLITICAL ECONOMY, &c. turer periods of life.

Under this class it is with pleasure that The State of the Population, the Poor we mention several tracts of great in- and Poor-Rates of etery Parish within terest, as well in regard to the foreign as the Bills of Mortality in the Cities of the domestic policy of Britain.

London and Westminster, the Borough of Previous to the abolition of the slave- Southwark, and the County of Middlesex: trade, Mr. Wilberforce, in the shape from Papers ordered to be laid before the of an Address to his constituents, exhibi- House of Lords, April 5, 1805," affords ted a full and faithful view of the whole some idea of the rapid and alarming inarguments which bore upon the question. crease of the poor in the county of MidTaking it up in Africa; describing the dleser. The sum raised for the relief of evils which this nefarious traffic entailed paupers in 1776, appears to have been upon the continent; and proving even 189,9751 ; in the inedium years 1783-4, from the evidence of the traders them- and 5, it was 210,9101.; and in 1803, selves, that its extinction was not only amounted to 490,1446. The qumber of required by humanity and justice, but for persons relieved from the poor-rates in the safety of our colonies, and the pros 1801, were no less than 8 in the 100 of perity of our marine. The Bill fur ef- the resident population. fecting this great object has since passed, “ A short Inquiry into the Policy, and may be said to have wiped away one llumanity, anıt pust Effects of the Poorn of the foulest stains that ever sallied the Laws," by one of his Majesy's justices of character of a generous people. We the peace for three island counties, may

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furnish some useful assistance to the po- William, from official documents which litical economist: but it should not have I shall insert in this work, how largely been called a short Inquiry.

the sugar-colonists contribute to the As a Supplement to this work, Mr. wealth and power of Great Britain; but WEYLAND, jun. its author, has published they can only so far contribute, as for

Observations on Mr. Whitbread's themselves they are rich and safe : they Bill;" in the conclusion of which he ex- are tenants within the paramount manor presses a wish that it may be the first of the state, and their rents will be constone in the foundation of a strong and siderable and punctual in the payment, uniform edifice for the comfort of future according to their means; and those generations.

means will and must depend on the conConnected in some degree with the duct of the authority to which they are same object is Mr. CoLQUHOU N's in vassalage; on collections without exTreatise on Indigence, exhibiting a action, on forbearance from officious ingenerul View of the National Resources terference with their labourers, and profor productive Labour ; with Proposi- cess of culture; on the insurance and setions for ameliorating the Condition of curity of their homesteads, on the keepthe Poor, and improving the Moral ing open and protecting their roads to Habits, and increasing the Comforts of market; on the liberal grant of repairs the labouring People, particularly the in occasional disaster and distress; and rising Generation.”—In contemplating on all other kindnesses and regulations the affairs of the poor, Mr. Colquhoun which the stewards of their Lord and deems it necessary, in the first instance, Sovereign may devise for the benefit of to have a clear conception of the dis- his estate, and for the conforts of his tinction between indigence and poverty. people. Sir William Young has been a Suggestions are next offered for legisla- member of parliament for three and live intervention, and "a board of Pau- twenty years. At his entrance he was per and general Police," "a Police Ga- careful to observe the course and succese zette,&c. proposed. Other labours of sion of parliamentary husiness, with the tbe same tendency have long entitled view, he says, of chalking on some line the author of this treatise to the ap- of industry rather than of talent, in which probation of the public.

he might quality limself to be humbly The Substunce of the Speech of the useful to his country. He accordingly Right Honourable Lord Henry PETTY, selected the poor-laws, the British fishon a Motwn to bring in a Bill to provide eries, and the commerce of the kingdom, for the more effectual Eramination of the as the leading subjects on which his al. Public Accounts, and for the better Disco- tention was to be fixed, and his atten very of Frauds," forms a pamphlet well dance given on every committee. From deserving of attention. It explains a that time (June, 1784,) be kept a Comgreat deal that ought to be corrected in mon-place Book, in which he entered, the examining, passing, and auditing the under distinct heads, whatever occurred public accounts.

on these matters in debate, or could be The Substance of another Speech," de collected from the statute-book or other livered by the same noble Lord in the reading; at the same time carefully arcommittee of finance, presents a very ranging and preserving every document flattering account of our revenues, con- returned to parliament; and even coprcluding with this remark, that “it is con- ing some in the Journal office which were soling to reflect that, if we cannot subdue not printed by order of the house. In our present difficulties, we may at least 1796, he was appointed chairman of a survive them."

committee for enquiring into the best The Author of the “ Letter to Mr. means “of accommodating the Thames Whitbreud, on the Duty of Rescinding and Port of London to the increased and the Resolutions which preceded the Ini- increasing trade of the kingdum;" as peachment of Lord Melville," seeins such, holding an immediate corresponperfectly master of his subject. He is derice with ihe custom-bouse in every an acute reasoner, and writes with coni- quarter, and thus engnging a confirlence siderable energy.

on the part of his readers, in the fourAt the close of our last Retrospect of dationof that carvest piea to the works on political cconomy, we did little public consideration and regard, which, more than barely notice The Test on the part of the British colunies," is Indian Commun-place Book," by Sir Wil- here preferred. The work itself onsists DIAM Young. "It will appear, says Sir of sixteen chapters, of which the follow

ing are the subjects. 1. The African Slave the Author) which seem to make it neTride. 2. On the Cultivation, Produce, cessary to form a distinct establishment Progression, Improvement, and Decline for the education of these persons, inof the several British Sugar-Colonies. stead of engrafting a provision for that 3. The general Produce and Exports purpose upon some of the colleges at one from the British Sugar-Colonies. 4. The of our Universities, do not entirely rest British Shipping employed in the West upon the necessity of a peculiar course India Trade. 5. The Imports of Colo- of study and discipline, to qualify them nial Produce to Great Britain and Ire- for the service which they would be reland. 6. Export Trade of Great Britain quired to perform, but are in part to its Sugar-Colonies. ?. On the Export founded on the danger of their becoming Trade, as exclusive and secured by law. disinclined to enter upon that duty, if 8. On the Intercourse and trade of the they shall have grown up in habits of British West Indies with America, and intiinacy with the young men destined in particular with the British Provinces for the several walks of life in this of Canada, Nova Scotia, and Newfound- country; and of their either withdrawland. 9. On the Intercourse and Trade ing entirely from the ministry, for which of the United States of America with the they were educated, or setting out upon British West Indies. 10. On the Na- it with the feelings of men going into vigation Laws, and on the Shipping exile, rather than with the zeal and deInterest of Great Britain, as affected by votion of persons selected for the executhe Trade of America to the West Indies. tion of most important and arduous func11. The British West Indies considered tions; whereas, if a number intended for as a Depôt of Foreign Trade. 12. On the same line of life were to go through a the Navigation to and from Great Britain course of education together, witla few and the West Indies. 13. On the Mi- opportunities of forming connections out litary Defence of the West Indies. of their own circle; they would cheer14. On the Mortality of European Troops fully excharge their college for the West serving in the West Indies, and the Indies, having before them the prospect means of Prevention or Remedy to be of rejoining there the friends and comsuggested. 15. Observations on limited panions of their youth." Military Service, as applicable to Troops Dr. Mant's Lectures, on the Occur. serving in the West Indies. 16. In rences of the Passion Week,though not times of War, the Transport Service an expressly written for the press, form a essential resource to the Shipping In- very useful publication. In the preface terest of Great Britain. These are fol- we are told, they were prepared by the lowed by an Appendix, exhibiting the author with a more imivediate regard to comparative Returus of Ships built in bis parishioners: they are plain, pious, the Ports of Great Britain at different and unaffected. Periods. Such are the contents of a But there is another work which we work peculiarly interesting to commerce. feel it our duty to recoinmend more The facts which it contains are not less strongly. It is by Mr. Savilf, of Ediaimportant than various and authentic: burgh, entitled “ Dissertations on the and its inferences are alike those of can- Existence, Attributes, Providence, and dour and experience.

Moral Government of God; und on the THEOLOGY, MORALS, AND ECCLESIAS Duty, Character, Security, and Final

Happiness of his Righteous Subjects."One of the most important publica- Mr. Savile presents it to the world with tions to be noticed under this head, oc- diffidence, though it is the result of some curs in the Observations on the Neces- of his maturest thoughts, and has resity of introducing a sufficient Number of peatedly received a careful revisal. The respectable Clergymen into our Colonies, subjects discussed are among the most in the West Indies; and the Expediency important and interesting that can ene of establishing for that Purpose, by Sub gage the attention of the human mind. scription, a College in this country, in « The Discursory Considerations," by a which Persons may be filly educated for COUNTRY CLERGYMAN," on the supposed the Performunce of the Clerical Functions, Evidence of the early Fathers, that St. in thal Part of the British Empire." -The Matthea's Gospel wos first written," would plan, it is very possible, inay never be fain give the Gospel of St. Luke priority; carried into execution; but the argu- because St. Matthew has omitted the imments by which it is supported, are plain portant fact of the ascension. and convincing.. “ The reasons (says Connected also with this class, is the second volume of Mr. Burder's Orio blaze up among the bushes, and we sax ental Customs, containing an Illustration the villagers collected about them in of the sacred Scriptures, by an erplana- savage groups, or passing to and fro with tory Application of the Customs and Man- lighted brands for torches. The flames, ners of the Eastern Nations, and especi- with the stars and the pale mocn, afforded ully of the Jeus, therein alluded to. us a dim prospect of ruin and desolation. Collected from the most celebrated Tra- A shrill owl, called Cucuvaja from its vellers, and the most eminent Critics." The note, with a night-hawk fitted near us; first volume of this useful work made its and a jackall cried mournfully, as if forappearance in 1802, and the second is saken by bis companions on the moun. not entitled to a smaller share of praise. tain." As specimens we have selected three or No. 1155. Zephan. ii. 14.-“ Flocka four of the most interesting articles. shall lie down in the midst of her, all the

secoud

TICAL AFFAIRS.

No. 675, Exod. xii. 31.--" And the beasts of the nations ; both the cormorant people took their dough before it was

and the bittern shall lodge in the upper leavened, their kneading-troughs being lintels thereof." knobs or chapiters, bound up in their clothes upon their marg: Chardin, (tom. iii. p. 108.) deshoulders.” The vessels wbich the Arabs scribing the magnificent pillars that he make use of for kneading the unleavened found at Persepolis, tells us that the cakes which they prepare, are only small storks (birds respected by the Persians,) wooden bowls. (Shaw's Travels, p. 231.) make their nests on the top of these Io these they afterwards serve up their columns with great boldness, and are in provisions when cooked. It is not cer- no danger of being dispossessed." tain that these wooden bowls were the In the elucidation of scriptural pas kneading-troughs of the Israelites; but sages, Mr. Border has not only exait is incontestable that they must have mined the observations and researches of been comparatively small and light, to be modern travellers, but consulted the so easily carried away.

ablest commentators on the sacred wris No. 1153. Zephaú. ii. 6.-" And the tings, and obtained some illustrations sea-coast shall be dwellings and cottages even from the Greek and Roman clasfor shepherds, and folds for flocks." sics. It is perhaps enough to say that Archbishop Newcome has remarked, the mode of illustration in this work is that inany manuscripts and three editions one of the most rational to which we can have a single letter in one of these words possibly have recourse. more than appears in the coinmon edi- Mr. NISBETT'S “ Attempt to display tions; which, instead of cherith, gives us the original Evidences of Christianity iz & word which signifies caves; and be their genuine Simplicity," will be found thus renders the words: and the seu- both interesting and instructive. It is coast shall be sheep-cotes ; caves for shepe not inferior to any of his forner pubbherds, and folds for flocks. This trans- cations. He is of opinion that St. Paul's lation will appear perfectly correct, if it Man of Sin was intended to apply to the be considered that the mountains bor- Jews, and not to the church of Rome. dering on the Syrian coast, are remark- The Rise, Foll, and future Restoratwa able for the number of caves in thein. of the Jews, accompanied by Six Scre In the history of the Crusades, it is parti- mons, addressed to the Seed of Abrae cularly mentioned that a number of per- ham, by several Evangclical Ministers, sons retired with their wives and chil- and an elaborate Discourse by De. dren, their flocks and herds, into subter- HUNTER, on the fullness of the Gren raneous caves, to find shelter from the tiles," forms a repository of information enemy. (Gesta Dei per l'rancos, p. 781.) relating to the Jews, well worthy of the Harmer, vol. iii. p. 60.

reader's notice. The first compilation et No. 1154. Zephan. ii. 7.-" In the coutains, which occupies seventy-two m houses of Ashkelon shull they lie down in of two hundred and fifty-eiglut pages, u the evening." An extract from Dr. divided into six chapters: The first Chandler's Travels, (page 115,) fur- giving a general history of the people : nishes a very lively comment on these The second affording a particular nerwut words. “Our horses were disposed of their state at the birth of Jesus Chrest among the walls and rubbish of Ephesus, The third, an interesting narrative of with their saddles on, and a nat was their sufferings, and the revolutions they spread for us on the ground, Wc sat have met with in England: The foarth, diere in the open air while supper was detailing a variety of facts and are preparing, when suddenly fires began to dotes relative to their present condition

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