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ceive us, the person in distress might im- acquaint us with the mode of recovering mediately inhe his leap on throwing out persons apparenuy dead, have been disa his own, and in sine measure break the tributed in diffcient parts, and many etects o his fall by holding his breath at thousands more are still wanted for the the same instant.

saine purpose: and I have often thought But perlaps a few hints, calculated to that considerable benefit iniglit be deprevent the necessity of such risks, may rived from painted muscriptions or inbe still more acceptable:-Ainong those structions of this kind bemy placed wear fires which are fital to our lives, none turnpike gates, bathing-places, and near are insie to be dreaded than those which the bridges of Lundon, Blackfriars, and bappen or originate in our chambers. Westioinster. I believe that, to the noHere it is that in a few ininutes we are Dvur of hunanity, it may be said, that enveloped in Hamnes, every thing about few persons who attempt to rescue their us is combustible, and tends to histen fellow-creatures from perilouis situations, the horrid catastrophe. But whether feel any other impulse at the moment the accident originates from the careless- than that of commiseration, or genuine ness of a servant, a child, or a parent, a

benevolence: and yet no one will deny little forethought, or the following sime that the rewards held out and distributed ple precaution, might have prevented it: by the Humane Society have been very for it is only by securing the candle in a salutary and proper? Why, then, should lanthorn that I can at any time trust my not the same honours and rewards be in elder girl to put the younger children to reserve for those who rescue others from bed, without the dread of having the bed- a death which we all contemplate with so clothes or curtains set on fire, a circum- inuch horror? Surely the firy element stance so very frequent and fatal, but is not less cruel in his dominion over us, which could not happen, did we but ac- than that of water. The melancholy tea custom ourselves to take a light into a ,lations which we every day hear, or read bed-room only when inclosed in a lamp or of, ought to have roused us to the consilanthorn. And if the light were to remain deration of this subject. in the chimney corner all night, our se- The conflagration at Westminster, curity and advantage would still be in- which was so tatal to the house and increased, and the air of the chainber inates of my friend Mr. J. Storr, as well as would not be injured, which might be one, of much later occurrence, in Upper the case if the lamp had been suspended Norton-street, have the most serious part in the middle of the room.

of their calamity to attribute to the ditfiThere are some people who say they culty of procuring fire-ladders; and, to cannot sleep in a dark room, and others prevent in futuru ibe loss of lives by this find themselves restless because there is kind of negleci, I would recommend the a light: but both may become agreeable expediency of creasing the number of by habit. Those who are accustomed to lad's, and perticularly the number of the latter would certainly have the ad- liuys which secure thein in the places Vantage in case of an accident. If a where they are kept. And as fires gene. fire broke out in any part of the house, rally happen in the night, when the most their clothes, their children, and their assistance is wanted, and least is to be valuables, are immediately in view, and had, to help those who have not the opcousequently their embarrassment would portunity of self-preservation, every Le cousi lerably lessened.

ineans should be devised, and every Among other important aids to huina- watchman and turnpikeinan should be nity, we may reckon Dr. Cogan's late in possession of a key to the nighest improved drag, for the speedily raising fire ladder. The parish watch house, to human bodies from under water; and which people generally run for aid, is Mr. Daniel's life-preserver, which pre- very often situated too far from the spot vents the ship-wrecked mariner from which is the scene of distress, and it too sinking. The llumane Society have like- often happens that, in the confusion eiwise done much to preserve us from ther the watchhouse, the key, or the laddeath; and when the nation shall be led der, is not to be found in time. sufficienuy to appreciate its character, Light-made fire-ladders, which can be and the inportance of this excellent in- speedily procured, must, in many cases, stitution, we may expect a proportionate be the easiest mude oi escape; as thuse share of benefit by the extension and apertures for our windows, which builders improvement of such plans.

seem, for the sake of uniforinity, to place Man thousands of those papers which exactly over each other in the different

stures, stories, are extremely unfavourable to parts of a woman to indicate their corarpersons on the higher thoors; for, if the dice." tire broke out under them, that which Herodotus proceeds to say that Sesos prevented their descent by the stair- tris passed from Syria into Europe, sube case, would, in all probability, prevent duing Scythians and Thracians (Eutespe, their escape by a rope from their win- 103); and that he left a colony on the rio dow, as, in either case, they must pass ver Phasis, as he returned. “The Egype through the flames. Many persons who tians maintain (adds Herodotus, 104) that have been found burnt to death, have the Colchians descend from these troops shown themselves, at different in- of Sesostris; and this I can believe, s tervals, at their window; but not tinding they have black complexions and woolly assistance at hand, and not being able to bair, and practice circumcision, a rite pe bear the heat and smoke which ascended culiar to the Colchians, Ægyptians, and from the windows under them, have been the Ethiopians. The Phænicians and compelled to retire, and fall victims to Syrians of Palæstine confess to have rethe devouring flames.

ceived this practice from the Egyptians." May 25, 1807. J. M. FLINDALL. The Colchians (he says further, 105) mna

nufacture such linen as the Egyptians. For the Monthly Magazine. “ Of the pillars which in the conquered ENQUIRER.-No. XXII. districts Sesostris, the king of Egypt, WHO WAS SESOSTRIS?

erected, not many appear to remajo. In THE VHE earliest and most conspicuous the Syrian Palestine I myself (atfirms

Greek account of Sesostris is that Herodotus, II. 106) have seen some eswhich occurs in the second book of Hen tant, inscribed both with letters and with rodotus, an historian who flourished about the private parts of a woman." He adds four hundred and fifty years before Christ. that in Ionia, near Ephesus, was thought A second account occurs in the first book to exist a statue of Sesostris, but that of Divdorus Siculus, who flourished about others called it a statue of Meninon, four hundred years later than Ilerodotus, “ This Ægyptian Sesostris being se under the emperor Augustus. Except turned (continues our historian, II. 107) in these two accounts, no details of the and bringing with bim many men of the life and deeds of Sesostris have been given subverted nations, he was invited, the by the classical historians; although in- priests say, at the Pelusian Daphne, by a cidental mention of him, as the first great brother whom he had put over Egypt conqueror, is frequent.' So that an exa- he and his family to a feast. The house mination of these two accounts will suf- was surrounded with combustibles, and fice to bring forwards what is supposed set on fire: which when Sesostris discoto be known concerning him.

vered, bé deliberated with his wife on I. Herodotus states (Euterpe, 101) that, the means of escape; and with her corafter Mæris, who built a new porch to sent used two of their children as stepthe temple of Vulcan, and who also built ping-stones athwart the burning pyre. vast pyramids in Ægypt, flourished Sesos. These two children being sacrificed, the tris.

rest were saved with their father." “ This Sesostris (continues Herodotus, “ Sesostris being returned into Egypt II. 102), as the priests tell us, was the (Euterpe, 108) took vengeance on his bro first, who, in long boats, sallied from the ther. Ofthe many captives brought home Arabic Guifto overturn the settlers on the he made this use: they had to drag stones Red Sen. Proceeding further, he came of immense length for the temple of Valto a frith unnavigable from its shallows. can, and were compelled to dig at those Thence returning to Egypt, according ditches with which Ægypt is interseck to the records of the priests, and raising ed.". a numerous army, he overspread the con- “ Thus wns Ægypt regularly divided tinent and overturned all the impeding (Euterpe, 109), and a square plot of ground nations. As many of them as lie found was assigned by this king to cach sytu brave, and desirous of liberty, among tian, and a quit-rent was insposed to be those he set up pillars, indicating by let- paid yearly: and if any sufferat by the ters his name and country, and how he falling short of the inundation of the Nile, bad subverted them by power. But, he might certify it to the king, and the wbere he took their towns combatless and king sent commissioners to measure the welcomely, on the pillars he inscribed the dry land, and to abate the tas upon it; same things as where he had found the bence arose geometry." people manly, but added the private “Only this king of Egypt (Butery,


110) could master Ethiopia. Ile left a which he killed himself. He was suce monument before the temple of Vulcan, ceeded by a son, who assumed the same two stone statues of thirty cubits, repre- name, and lost his sight like his father. senting himself and wife, and tour stone This account of Diogorus is partly statues of twenty cubits representing his transcribed from Herodotus, and partly children.

derived, it should seein, from Ctesias, who “ Sesostris was succeeded (Euterpe, is quoted (1. So), and to whom the mar111) by a son, l'heron, who lost his vellous particulars apparently belong. sight."

There was a Ctesias of Cnidus captived Here is all, concerning Sesostris, that by the Persians, who became physiHerodotus bas related. This historian, cian Artaxerxes Memnon: and, it credulous, is always a faithful reporter. about the time of Alexander's expedition His opportunities of information were into Asia, a work was circulated under comprehensive, having travelled into the vanie of this Ctesias, which treated Ægypt and Syria, and consulted on the of Persian and Indian geography and hisspot the archives of several temples. tory. The work ascribed to Ctesias has The great revolution of a Babylonian not descended to us entire; but from eonquest of Palestine having intervened the copious extracts preserved by Phobetween the times of Sesostris, and He- tius, it may be pronounced an European rodotus, much definite evidence must forgery: so widely does it differ from have been abolished, and reduced to what a resident at the Babylonian court vague tradition. His testimony however must have had to communicate. Diodomay be accepted as in the main satisfac- rus bimself lived too late to be an autory: only it remains improbable that the thority: his want of criticism saps the son of a judge, or petty king, of Ægypt, trust-worthiness even of the testimony should have extended bis conquests so far which he only repeats. northwards, as to make war with the After condensing and combining these Thracians, and to leave a colony at Col- two statements, and dismissing what chis on the Euxine.

is marvellous, inconsistent or otherwise II. Diodorus Siculus states (I. 54) that improbable, it may be presumed that SeScsostris was also called Sesosis: that he sostris, or Sesosis, originated near Meinwas educated with those of his own age phis, probably on the eastern bank of the to military exercises, and was sent by Nile, which was called the land of Gohis father with an army into Arabia; that shen, as his brother resided there: that he was distinguished for an hereditary he passed the Red Sea, explored its fur. piety to Vulcan; and that he divided ther coast, returned among his own peohis country into nomes, or tribes, or ple, and at the head of an army of rebel provinces, and appointed prefects over slaves (yao Xoject Tigo Taç shev begins) concach. He next made an expedition quered Palestine, and divided his jurisdicinto Libya; and then into Ethiopia, tion into nomes, or tribes: that he set where le imposed a tribute of ivory up pillars in memory of his success, which and gold. At length, influenced by his remained when Herodotus wrote: that' daughter Athyrte, he undertook the con- he was distinguished for piety to Vulcan, quest of Asia and of the world. Diodo- and for a long reign. rus makes thesc conquests extend to the It is remarkable that all these particuGanges and the Tanais: from Babylon lars should be true of the Jewish chieftain his Sesostris bring's captives who found Joshua. In concert with Caleb (Nume the Babylon of the Egyptians, who build bers, xiv. 6) be went to explore those temples without number, who dig canals countries beyond the Red Sea, to the conand reservoirs, and who fortify Ægypt by quest of which he guided his followers; a great wall against the Syriansand Arabs. when, as the poct expresses it (Exodus, Sesostris also constructs an ark, or float- xiv. 12) “ the children of Israel went into ing temple, two hundred and eighty cu- the midst of the sea upon the dry land; bits long, gilt without and silvered within, and the waters were a bulwark to them Hlc erécts two obelisks inscribed with ou the right and on the left.” He divided the list of his provinces and his taxes. his conquests with geographical superHe employs noble captives to carry his stition (Joshua, xviii. 10) into nomes, palauquin. Being at bis brother's house, or tribes. Pillars, those probably which an attempt was inade to destroy it by Herodotus saw, were erected (Joshua, vi. Gire; Sesostris commcinorated his escape 20) by Joshua in Gilgal. The symbols by erecting statues before the temple of described by Herodotus are the more Vulcan at Memphis. In the thirty-third likely to bave been traced on the columos year of his reign he became blind: after of Joshua; as a marked attention was

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shown to the harlot Rahab (Joshua vi. tion is acquired for the early books of 25) for her services to the conqueror of Scripture; an obscure period of human Canaan. By Vulcan, Herodotus often events becomes distinctly luininous; an means Jebuvah; he calls Sethos, or He- inconsistent portion of the Agyptian ab. zekiah, a priest of Vulcan. Vulcan was nals acquires certainty, simplicity and the god of fire; and Herodotus, in com- chronological precision; the student has mon with other beathens, supposed that fewer facts to remember; the sceptic the shekinah, or holy fire, which, in the fewer about which to doubt. temples of Jehovah, was kept burning at The testimony of Herodotus relative to the altar, and into which incense was the personal resemblance between the thrown, was the proper and real ohject Colchians and the Ægyptians implies that of adoration in a sect which tolerated no the troops of Sesostris had black coteimages: he mistook a rite of worship, an plexions and woolly hair: it must there emblem perhaps for the Being worshipped. fore be inferred that the followers of

At one hundred and ten years of age Moses, the conquerors of Canaan, the Joshua (xxiv. 29) is stated to have died; depositaries of the decalogue, the progeprevious to which it is not unlikely that hc nitors of the Jewish kings and prophets, may have incurred the calamity of blind- were negroes. ness; but this circumstance, although There is a chasm in the narrative of stated by Diodorus, is not vouched either the book of Joshua, preceding the conby the Jewish Scriptures, or by Herodotus. mencement of the twenty-third chapter:

These coincidences of adventure are too which affords an ample pretext for sup peculiar, and of too extraordinary a kind, posing himn, during that interval, to have vi to have befallen several individuals; it is sited and displaced his brother, and to bare most rational therefore to suppose that made expeditions into Libya and Erliothe history of Joshua is the basis of all pia: and to have aineliorated the agrathat has been related concerning Sesostris. rian legislation of Egypt, as is narrated The reputation of his victories might ea- by Herodotus. It justifies the predilecsily travel to Greece in such a form, as tion of Moses, and exalts the character to give rise to the extant exaggerated mis- of Joshua, to observe that the natural as representations.

cendancy of his courage and his intellect By admitting the identity of Joshua was recognized along the Nile, as along and Sesostris a copious stock of illustra- the Jordan.


DR. JOHN DOUGLAS, claims on the score of birth, when a man LATE LORD BISHOP OF SALISBURY, D. D. has been ennobled both by nature and F. R. S. A. S. &c. &c.

education.* 6 Omsibus qui patriam conservaverint, ad. The subject of this biographical sketch

juverint, auxerint, certus est in ccelo & was born in 1731. We are unacquaintdefinitus locus, ubi beati æro sempiterno ed with the precise spot in which he first fruantur."

Cic. Som. Scip.

drew-his breath; but it was undoubtedly D OCTOR John Douglas,distinguished to the north of the Tweed. His parents

, more than half a century, for learn- who moved in a humble sphere, migrated ing and science, was a vative of Scotland. It would be easy, from his country, and • It may not be unnecessary, however, t. still more from his name, to arrogate all observe in this place, that, since writing the the lustre of high buth, and develope all above, we have learned that the bishops the pride of genealogy. A recurrence to grandfather was a younger brother of Doce the days of chivalry, a display of valorous glas of Talliquilly, in the South of Scot ancestors" clad in complete steel," and an land, and the immediate predecesser of Bialliance with the Scottish kings, would be shop. Burnet, in the living of Salçon, in Exit admirably calculated to fascinate the Lothian. But whoever is acquainted wità wayward reader, or conceal the penury of customary than claims of this sort i anderen

Scotland, must know that nothing is more biography under an affectation of una

the incidental circumstance of being of the vailing pomp and useless grandeur. But same nume u 1 min of rank, formerly canel these false and adventitious aids are not along with it a certain euobling quality, wanting on the present occasion : it is tended not a little w flatter the furity of the unnecessary to put in any pretended fortunate possessor.

from Pettenwien, in the county of Fife, was present in that capacity at the bata in quest of independence; and, if we tle of Fontenoy, in 1745. A colonel, mistake nut greatly, resided during many who was his namesake, and perhaps alsó years in Cockspur-street, where they a relativn, asked hin, on this occasion, kept the British coffee-house. On their it he, who was “ also à Douglas," did deinise, or removal, tliis establishment not mean to make a charge with the rewas carried on uuder the superintendance giment? But his ardour could not display of a daughter.

itself on this occasion, even if his clerical To a Scotchman, there is something ir- functions would have permitted; for he resistibly inviting in the name of an in- was entrusted with all the most valuable stitution, originally endowed in a foreign property of the officers with whom he was land by one of his own kings ; and ac- acquainted, accompanied with wjunccordingly it was to Baliol College, Ox- tions to dispose of it according to certain ford, that Mr. Douglas repaired, after directions, in the event of their not surthe usual pretatory studies, which are viving that day, said to have originated at the grainmar- Among those gallant men who perishschool of Dunbar. There are in this ed in this action, was a gentleman named College a certain number of exlibitions, Lort, a major in the Welsh Fusileers, to wisich the University of Glasgow may whose son carried a pair of colours in the appoint; and we at one period were led same regiinent, which suffered more than to suppose, from a variety of circum- any other at the beginning of the action. stances, that one of these had been thus The father, anxious for the honour of his granted. We have been assured, lowo child, who had never been enga ed beever, from undoubted authority, that the fore, narrowly watched his behaviour, pomination originated not in Scotland, and, observing him to bend his head & 'but at Oxford, in consequence of a lapse, little at the first discharge, which proved or neglect."

a very dreadful-one, exclaimed, "Young On a recurrence to a copy of the Re- man, if I survive this day, I will

bring you gister, we find that Mr. Douglas obtained to a court martial for that!” The youth the degree of M. A. October 14, 1745, behaved with distinguished gallantry when he was twenty-two years of age. throughout the remainder of the engagem It was not untii a distant period that he ment, but the father fell a few minutes aspired to higher honours, which shall be afterwards. It is hoped the introducnoticed in due time.

tion of this anecdote will be parrioned Having been intended for the church, even in the life of a bishop, in favour of the student in divinity now applied him- the memory of a brave man, self with indefatigable attention to ac- Soon after this memorable event, Mr, quire a sufficient knowledge of theology; Douglas returned from the Continent, how far he succeeded on this occasion, and, after spending some little time at Bathose acquainted with his life and conver- liol College, he was ordained a priest: sation can best tell. As no fairy pro- for he had bitherto only beeu in deacon's spects of preferuent opened to his fasci- orders. So little patronage did he enjoy nated eyes, and no visionary canonical at this period, that we find him for vistas seemed to be cut into crosiers, and many years drudging as a humble cuother emblems of episcopacy, after the rate, first at Tilchurst, near Reading in manner of that day, M. Douglas thought Berkshire, and afterwards at Dunstew, proper to search for a livelihood in ano- in the county of Oxford. ther country. Accordingly, soon after While perforining his duties with exhe had taken orders, he was appointed emplary patience and decorum in the one of the chaplains to the arıny,t and latter of these parishes, a new career

was opened to his ainbition, by means It appears, from a paper drawn up by of the Earl of Bath. This nobleman, the bishop's son, that Dr. Douglas, in 1736, better known as William Pulteney, and was first entered a commo, er of St Mary for a long period one of the first orators Hall, and remained there until 1738, when of the House of Commons, after the toils he removed to Baliol College, on being elected an exhibitioner, op Bishop Warner's foun. of a king opposition, had at length tasted dation.

of the sweets of power, and the lethean ✓ He occupied this situation in the third draught bad the same effect on him as on regiment of foot-guards. Anterior to this, many other pretenders to public virtue, he bad visited both France and Flanders, both

before and since: he had forgotten all chiefly with a view of acyuiring a facility in his promises in favour of liberty, and the the French language,

people! Hisonly child, Lord Pulteney,was

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