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fairs. But Arthur soon found himself lonian island; his long and broad lance under the necessity of raising the siege, was called Iron, Atter, this, he again because he was informed that Cheldric* turned his arms against the Picts and was cuining with a mighty fleet to the re- Scots, defeated them, and would, perlief of the besieged. In this dificulty he haps, have extirpated them, if he bad sent for assistance to Floel, the Duke of not suffered himself to be persuaded by Britany, who accordingly came with their priests to conclude a treaty, for the 15,000 men. Strengthened by this rein- sake of their common crced. He then forcement, he attacked the Saxons, who vanquished Guillamur, an Irish king, a ho were besieging Lincoln, slew 6000, and had come with a considerable army to pursued the rest to the Caledonian forest, their assistance; it is even related that where he enclosed thein, and barricaded he went over to Ireland, took Guillacur them up by felling trees, so that they had and some other petty kings prisoners, no retreat. A compromise was then made, and made war there with great success. in which it was stipulated, that they In all these contests he is said to have (probably only those who had come with been engaged from his accession, in 518, Co!grin and Baldulph) should return into till 525. But, notwithstanding his caer. Germany unmolested, but yield up their tions, it was not in bis power to do any booty, and give hostages, for their obser- more than only for some time to protrace vance of the treaty. Yet it did not last the miserable fate of the Britons. ' I even Jong, before the Saxons broke the treaty, think that his and his father's plan to returned, and made a descent at Totness*, remove the war into the North, accowhence they ravaged the country as far lerated the ruin of their country. For as the Severn, and laid siege to the city these conquests, though glorious and splenof Baden, now Bath, in Somerset. As did, cost a great number of people, were soon as Arthur was informed of this, he of little use, and of short duration: begave up his expedition againt the Picts sides such enterprises exasperated the and Scots, and bastened to the relief of Anglo-Saxons still more, and made them his subjects, having previously ordered exert their utmost strength to accomall the hostages to be hanged. The Sax- plish the conquest of the island. So I ons were encamped on the Badonian find that a great multitude, with wives mountain, whence Arthur dislodged them, and children, arrived nearly at this time and gained a great victory. The remains from Anglia in that part of Britain which of their army fled to the isle of Thanet. was afterwards called East-Anglia, where Arthur was in this battle armed in the one Wilhelm was their first chief. following manner: he had on a coat of Thence they spread themselves into Miermail; his helmet was gilt and adorned cia (A. D. 525), but were in both counwith a dragon; in his shield which was tries for a long time governed only by named Priwen, was a representation of chiefs, which occasioned numberless inithe virgin Maryt, for the Britons had long testine feuds. Probably there was done been Christians. His sword was called among thein descended from Odin or Caliburne, and was made on the Ava- the Asers*, or who was of so illustrious

a family, that he could venture to as • So Galfredus calls him, and it is my sume the royal naine and power. The last opinion that by this name is meant the West Angles who arrived were, in my opinion, Saxon prince, Cenric.

from Anglia Proper, of which sleswie was + A small town on the river Dert, in De- the capital, and from the island of Als, vonshire.

u bich I think was the native place of Shield-marks or devices are very ancient Wilhelm. Nor did Cerdic leave the Briin the North, but as theywere not constant in the tons long in peace. He fought a battle families, they cannot be considered the same with them at Cerdicsleah, now Chardsas the armorial ensigns of the present pobility; ley, in Buckinghamshire (A. D. 523). though thes, gave rise to them. In the printed The consequence of this victory seems Niala (an Icelandish saga), c. 19, p. 143, it is related that Helgi had a red shield, cu

to have been, that the kingdom of Essex which was represented a hart, and Kari had a

was established in the same year by L. gilt one, in which was a lion. This was kenwin, who came, I think, from westin the latter end of the 10th century. Re- land, that is the Eiderstädt country, and specting the shield devices of the Norwegians, Dolmer has collected some accounts in Hirdskraa, p. 252, where none is mentioned, howe were called, who came and settled with disa

• So the friends and companions of Oda ever, of an older date tban that of Oluf Trys. in the North. Transl.

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the adjacent islands, which had been the they had long before this time, in first and priocipal seats of the Saxons. the third and fourth century; for he After this Cerdic conquered the Isle of speaks of Lochlin, that is Scandinavia. Wight (A. D. 530), where he killed a Rikulf was slain in the battle, and Arthur great number of Britons in Withiyaraby- invested Lot with the royal power. The rig, now Carisbrook-castle, on the said truth of this account is confirmed by the cirisland, which he and his son Cenric cumstance that about seventy years after (A. D.5.4) gave up to his nephews Stuf there was a king of North and Southmôer and Vithgar, as a settlement for them whose name was Arthor, who, no doubt, and their Jutes. This was the last ac- was a descendant of Arthur's family. At tion of Cerdic, for he died in the same length this excellent king was bereft of year." Vithgar died ten years after, and his life and kingdom by Mordred, his own was buried in Withgarabyrig, so named nephew, who entered into a confederacy after him.

with the West Saxon king Cenric and While the Angles and Saxons were with the Picts and Scots against his inasthus contirming and extending their pow- ter and uncle. In the battle (A. D. 542) er in Britain, Arthur was engaged in Mordred fell with many petty kings of the splendid and distant conquests, the occa- Picts and Scots, and Irish. But on sion of which was this. Sicheling, king Arthur's side were slain Valvein, the son of Northmôer and Southmôers, lett his of Lot, Lot himself, Olbrickt, a Norvekingdom to Lot, his nephew, who was gian king, Eskil, king of Funen, and Cadmarried to Arthur's sister. Schøning, dor, Arthur's father-in-law. Arthur himin his llistory of Norway, has a conjecture, self was mortally wounded, and carried to that Sichelin is the same as Sikling, the the island of Avalania, now Glastonbury, general royal appellation in the ancient where lie died on the 2d of May. Such Northt, which shews, that this account was the end of the famous Arthur, whose of the British historians is founded on exploits are not only rendered obscure some northern bard. In this expedi- and dubious by the numerous romances tion Arthur conquered the Orkneys, and and marvellous fables that have been reduced Gunfas, their king, to sub- written of him, but the reality of which jection. In the mean time the Nor- has even been denied; nay, the moderns, wegians, unwilling to obey a foreigner, who are sometimes too rigid critics, have had placed one Ribulf on the throne, thereby been induced not only to reject and fortified their towns and towers, the most of his military achievements, but latter of which, it is seen from Ossian, even to question his very existence.

(Vol. J. p. 338-344). * Rapin, in his Hist. d'Angl. liv. %, After his death, the misfortunes of the tays, “ Les Rois successeurs de Cerdick fu. Britons continually increased, in proporrent surnommez Gewichiens, du nom de tion to the progress of the Anglo-Saxons, Gewish l'un de lers ancêtres, qui selon les which was not a little facilitated and proapparences étoit recommandable parmi sa na- muted by the intestine divisions of the from our author, v. i. p. 84, was Givis, a de: Britons, and by the great decay of morals scendant of Odin, by Baidar, who, about the that existed among them. Gildas, a Briyear 220, was tributary king of Anglia,'un. tish historian of that time, gives a hider Denmark, but afterwards, during the devus description of five, 'then living, weak reign of Uffo, made himself indepen. British kings. A few years after the dent; and on Agerwit, king of the Saxons death of Arthur, Ida came (perhaps from in Scormorn and Ditmaish, crossing the Eibe Saxony to the south of the Elbe, though with a numerous tribe of his people, appears he was himself of Anglian descent) with to have obtained also the sovereignty of those a flect of forty ships to Flensburg, and countries which he had lefi. 'At least established, in the year after his arrival, (says Mr. Suhm) it is certain that Cerdic, the the Northumbrian kingdom of Bernicia. ürst West-Saxon king in England, descended He founded Babambuilt which he first from him, and that the whole West Saxon fortified with palisades, afterwards with nation was called the Gevisian, after him." Transl.

a wall. He had six legitimate sons by + A part of Norway, with the adjoining his queen, and six others by concubines. islands, which has still retained the same He was not only a great warrior, but also names. It lies between the sixty-second and a wise ruler, and inaintained good order sixty-third degrees of northern lacitude. Traxıl.

* Now Flamborough, in Yorkshire. 1 Especially osed by the Skalds, in their poetical compositions. Transl.

+ Now Bamborow, in Northumberland. MONTHLY Mag, No, 158,


in his dominions, without employing un- son of Yffe or Uffe, a gallant warrior and necessary severity. It is said that the chief. He much enlarged his kingdom, people chose him their king of their own and united to it Lindsey, by marrying accord. During the whole of his reign Bubba, the daughter of Cead bed*. From he was active and in arms. Some years that time Lindsey followed the fute ot after the arrival of Ida, Cenric fought a the Northumbrian kingdom, until it was great battle with the Britons, near Salis- conquered by Penda, king of Mercia, bury, and put them to flight.

about the year 630. As Svemil is said to At the close of Rolf's reign(A.D. 552) have settled in Northumberland, I supthe Britons still possessed Wales and pose that his descendants had remained Cornwall (according to their present there, and that (Ella was born in names), and the greater part of Mercia England. The same is my opinion reand Deira. All the rest of the country specting Creoda, who established the was in the hands of the Saxons, the An- kingdom of Mercia, and Uffa, who was gles, and the Jutes. The Angles, espe- the first king of East-Anglia. (Vol. I. cially, had emigrated to Britain in such p. 441-442. numbers, that it is testified by Beda and the British Nennius (the former of whom For the Monthly Magasine. died in the year 735), that the native country and islands of these people were

CONTRIBUTIONS to ENGLISII SYNONYMY. still without inhabitants in their time. High. Tail. Grand. Lofty. Broad. These words, however, must not be taken Wide. Thick. Large. Gross. Bulky. in too literal a sense, otherwise remains Stout. Huge. Saxon language, and similarity with the A the average: the first four are inostly present English, in the country of Angeln, applied to magnitude perpendiculariy in the duchy of Sleswic; but so much is extended; the second four to magnitude certain, that the population of the country laterally extended; and the third four to was greatly thinned, and that this circumstance rendered the conquest of it easy to

inassy extent.

High, was originally the same word Rolf. By degrees it was repeopled by

as hill; a high man was a hill of a mau; Jutes, whence it received the name of Soutli Jutland, as Jutiand proper from the Lilliputians called Gulliver the man

a high church, a hill of a church. Wbea that time was called North Jutland. mountain; they employed the same (V. I. p. 344-346). In the year 560 Ella established the the adjective high. Great part of the

metaphor as our forefathers in coining kingdom of Deira, which was afterwards sensible idea has been gradually omitted; united to that of Bernicia in the person the term is become very abstract, and of Æthalrick (A. D. 590), and both

now retains only the narrow image of together called Northumberland; for length stretching upwards. Tallness is though they were after this separated se

a beight which results from accretion; veral times, yet they were at length united for ever by Oswin (A. D. 651). Ella descended from Soemil*, and was the ed his life in peace and voluptuous infolence,

and even permitted the sons of Sverting to * This Soemil was the son of Sverting, obtain the greatest infiuence and honours a: king of the Saxons, in the present Holstein, his court. Put roused at length from hele who died in the year 450. Sverting, with thargy, by Stærkodder, a famous Damā another Saxon prince, to the south of the champion, he for some time totally changes Elbe, had been defeated by Frode IV. of his behaviour, and pursued these his here Denmark, who compelled them both to pay a ditary enemics, with such vigour and cruelty, yearly tribute, and took the daughter of that twelve of them lost their lives. Sien Sverting for his concubine. He, exasperated miil the author relates) v. i. p. 262, escaped at this insult, watched an opportunity for re

from tbe general slaughter of his brochen, venge, and treacherously murdered Frode, and taking refuge in Britain, settled in Na. but lost his life in the perpetration of this thumberland, where Ella, the first king of act. He left a great number of sons, besides Deira, descended in the fifth degree from another daughter, who was married to Ingel,

him." Transi. the son and successor of Frode, This

Ceadbed w33 also engaged in some true prince, deviating from the principles of his actions with the famous Amleth (Hamleth, age, and impiously neglecting what was then a Jutich prince, the same whose name ha regarded as the first of all the duties of a been immortalized by the tragedy or Sials son, to revenge the death of his father, pass speare. Transl.


tall tree.

grandeur, which results froin condition; describes extent each way. A broad lottiness, which results from position. brim, a wide hat. Of a long room we

Tall, is only used of that which grows, define the breadth; of a square room, the and is no doubt the past participle of a width: so of a field. A broad ditch; verb signifying 10 grou, A tall Lillipu- wide pond. Broad lips; a wide mouth. tian, not a high Lilliputian. A tall horse, There is a tendency to employ wide of never a tall mountain. Tall grass, not a all hollow extent, of inside measure. A tall mole-hill. A high obelisk, but a wide cup. Dr. Trusler approves a wide

A hiylı may-pule: tall sol- ditch. A broad horse-shoe is one, whose diers.

rim is broad; a wide horse-shoe is one, High differs from grand, in not exclue whose aperture is considerable. Those ding the idea of meanness; whereas pales are wide asunder. grand is only applied to what has show Thick differs from large, in that it reand stateliness. A bigla tumbrel, not a spects only the third dimension, not ingrand tumbrel. A grand edifice. Gran- cluding the idea of length, or breadth; deur of sentiment. Ideas of external whereas large includes the idea of breadth. parade, are mostly connected with the A small cheese may be thick, a narrow word grand, probably because it was plank may be thick; but they cannot be horought bither from Spain, at a time large. when the pomp and ceremonial of the Broad is the reverse of narrow; wide of Spanish court were objects of English close; thick of thin; and large of small. imitation: when a grandee excited the In Otfried breit is a noun of number; image of greatness. Iligh people, grand flocks a hundred broad: it is probably people, are both common phrases: the connected etymologically with to breed, fust describes real rank, the second pom- meant at first, numerous by breeding, pous pretension.

and, in consequence of the expatiatory Lofty, being derived from loof, or loft, tendency of cattle, came to signify “cothe air, or sky, is confined to elevation vering superficial extent.” A broad fastretching upwards from the observer, mily would thus be as sound an expresto elevation measurable by the atmo- sion, as a large family. sphere. Standing at the foot of a moun- Wide is referred by Adelung to the tain, we call it lofty; standing at its French vuide; it would in this case not summit, we call it high. Standing on be common to all the Gothic dialects. the floor of a cavern, we call it lofty; Junius guesses it may have meant swellpeeping down from the cicling, we call it ing. Perhaps from the substantive way, deep. High water; a high tide; never a a road, is derived weyen to travel, whence lofty tide. A lofty room. Lofty thoughts. the German bewegen to remove. The

High is the reverse of low; tall, of participle of the verb to travel, may well stinued ; grand, of mean; and lofty, of lave become a word of measurement. deep.

By Wachter thick is considered as a Broad and wide describe superficial participle of the verb to take : it means extent; thick and large include one therefore palpuble, which can be takcą dimension more of solidity: all four ex- hold of. clude the consideration of length. A Large can be traced through the broad river, a broad road, a broad French to the Latin, and is commonly cioth; a wide lake, a wide prospect, a considered as connected with the Greek wide circle. A thick cheese, a thick acugos. This explains nothing. Perhaps board, a thick rope; a large man, a large the Latin largiri, togive, meant originally elephant, a large room. Broad, wide to feed, which is the most usual form of and thick are definable; large is always giving.' In this case lar a kettle, or indefinite. A ribband half an inch platter, is the radical idea. The venerabroad. A yard-wide handkerchief. A tion for the Lares was originally a feticheplank two inches thick. We say of a worthip, like that of the negroes for their tree, that it is six feet in girth; but never pots and pans. Large then is platter. thnt it is six feet large; we should be at a shaped. loss to know whether six feet large was Gross excites the idea of coarse corintended to mean six feet through, or pulency: it came to us from France with six feet round. In French large admits that association : it is originally the same of definition, fosse large de si.r pieds. word with the low-dutch groot and the

Broad differs from wide in describing english great, which are past participles that extent which is perpendicular to the of to grow; but as the Germans are a length, cross diinension; whereas wide corpulent, and the Gauls a sleuder race,

3 22


their word for grown means fat, whereas straction, the word bull had acquired the the French grand (also a participle of meaning horn before it was employed as grandir) means tall.

an epithet; the adjective, into which such Bulky is from the substantive bulk, a prefix would gradually be shaped, which is used for the torso, or trunk, of á miglit mean strong, overbearing, proud; man, as well as for size in general. Au- or it might mean lough, enduring, robust: thorities derive it from balg belly; but it the Germans have employer it in the is more likely to be the same word as former, the English in the latter sense. bullock, or bull-ox, a castrated bull, a And thus by pre-supposing the etymon steer gelding. These animals being re- staut bull, all the significations of the markable for growing fat and larye, would allied words in the different Gothic dinaturally supply the descriptive ad- alects may be accounted for naturally. jective: a man-bullock for a corpulent Huge is derived by Johnson from ibe inan, a bullock-pack of wool for a large, Hollandish hoogh high; but this does not or bulky, bale. 'Yet the sea-phrase “ to explain the use of the word. break bulk” favours the derivation from

Part, huge of bulk, belly.

Wallowing unwieldy, enormous in their gait, Stout is said by Johnson to mean Tempest the ocean. striking: it describes an appearance Where is there any symptom that characteristic of strength and vigor: it is height makes a part of the idea of the metaphorically become a word of dimen- word? A high tree is one whose stem is sion. A stout cloth, for a thick strong tall; a huge cree one whose trunk is texture. A stout timber, for a tree in large. High forests consist of tall trees, its prime, which promises to grow large. huge forests of spreading woods. The A stout plank, for a thick strong board. word is not applied to graceful, but only A stout vessel, for a tight strong ship. to aukward bulk and unseemly appetites. The ideas of thick and strong seem to have coalesced in the word. Adelang is huge serpent. And Shakespeare: a huge

A huge whale. A huge mountain. A not for referring this word, like Johnson, feeder. Hooch is Welsh for a hoy; and to the Gothic etymon stautan, to strike; this is no doubt the true beginning of the but rather, with the Swedish stolt, and the adjective. A huge man is a hog of a man; German stolz, to some root signifying to a huge mountain, a hog of a mountain; upsell. Opitz has a passage: Die stolze a huge feeder, a hog of a feeder. fluth verschwemmet ganz und gar : the

Bulky, stout, and huge, aro all epithets stout river swims quite away: where the borrowed from cattle: the ox tends to

fundamental idea turgid, not the funda- corpulency, the bull to strength, and the mental idea striking, can be accommo, bog to aukwardness, and these accessory dated to the epithet. On the other hand ideas are accordingly mingled with the the Flemings say of an ox that tosses : Die os is stootsch: where striking, and general idea of large-sized, which they al

convey. not turgid, is applicable. Perhaps sone

For the Monthly Magazine. such idea as horny lies at the bottom of

LONDINÍANA. this adjective. The Latins used cornea

No. IX. corpora for stout bodies: and the llebrews use the derivatives of horn, for proud, which is the meaning of the German stolz. Stosstange is a pitch-fork, which trate the history of St. Andrew's would be naturally named if the words Church, one or two particulars may be signify horn-pole. Stot is old English mentioned which seeni to have been unfor a bull. These indications being con- noticed by former writers, verged, it seems that some Gothic word, Above the bar of the Old Temple, in which Ulphilas would have spelled staut, the neighbourhood of Turnstile, stood an signified (1) a bull, (2) a horned beast, (3) ancient house called the Leaden-Porci, a horn; and that from this sense was de- probably from the entrance of the Maorived the verb staulan or stossen to sion having been among the earlier thrust, push or toss. Bull being the houses covered with that material. la largest animal among the Goths, is often the tenth year of Henry V. it appears to used by them for an augmentative; bull- have passed from Richard Moredun nad finch, bull-fly, bull-rush, bull-trout, bull- Margery his wife, to William Alberton. weed :-the adjective into which such a According to the register of burials in prefix would gradually be shapen must the parish, it was known by the sens signify large. But if, by a process of ab- appellation so late as 1621.


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