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mentator Didymus. If the question was served, and has fiwce been so miraculoung, involved in fo much obscurity, as to in- handed to pulterity, in its present state. duce the Emperor Adrian to apply to the That such a Puem could have been ever gods themselves for an explanation, it retained in the memory of man, and was not to be expected that all the efforts thus, by oral tradition alone, be tranfmitof the critics should be able to elucidato ted from one generation to another, it is it. To direće us in this inquiry, we have impollible to aliert. It is equally difficult no certaja guide in the Poems them- to contend, that the Works of Homer felves. The city of Sinyrna, and the were collected together at different times, Tiland of Chios, appear to present the and in detached portions, and that they leatt objectionable claims to the honour were not finally coinpleted till at a very for which they contended. Of the numa late period, and with very considerable rous candidates, these are the only two, difficulty. There is a connection throughwhose pretensions can be seriously ex- out the Tliad at least, a clear deduction, amined. Each had its authors to re- of events, a lucidus ordo in the arrangecord its title. The inbabitants of Chios ment and distribution of all its parts, that relied on the testimony of Simonides, and effectually deltroy fuch a fuppolition, and Theocritus. They had their Homeridæ, make it ao presumption to fay, that the wrom they considered as the descendants Poem is nearly such as it came froin the of Homer, and a temple erected to his pen, or dictation of its author. If we memory in the environs of Belillus, adopt the corninon notion, that Homer They could boat the indirect authority was accustomed to fing or recite liis of Thucydides, who ascribes to hit the poems in the assemblies of the Greeks, Hyma to Apollo, in which he represents and that the frequency c: such recitals, kimself as the islind map inhabiting Chios. imprinted them on the memory of his Lxo Allatins, who wrote expressly on this auditors; we are not at liberty to reject fubject, after weighing the pretenfions of other paffages of his fuppofed Life, all the candidaces, decides for Chios. equully itnprobable and uncertain. That But the claim of Sunysna was itill better such a cultom was familiar in the earlier faanded. All the profeffedlives of Homer ages of Orpheus, Linus, aud Musæus, is by. Herodotas, Plutarch, and Proclus, pollible, and is confirmed by the fact, ancur in representing hirn as a native of that, of thiefe poets, the works of the two that city. This is confirmed by the go- Jaft are entirely loit, and of the firft wel nerad belief afterwards entertained, and lave only fome trifling fragments. But exprefied in the different writings of in placing Homer at a later period, a Cicero, Straboç and A. Gellius. Indeedi period of greater civilization, and when So violent were the Smyrnæans in inains the art of writing was known and culti
. taining tuis high honour, that it was nevated, it is no longer necessary to resorts cellary for all, who wilbed to escape the to such tales, to account for the prefer fate of Zoilus, to gise it implicit
. vation of his poems. And if it be urged, But the claim of Smyrna admits, we that of the twenty-four letters of the think, . fill clearer proof from the Ionic alphabet, only twenty were known Poetus themselves, which abound in mee in Horner's time, it may be contendedi taphorical defcriptions, congenial to a that the four letters afterwards added: tative of Ala 'The earth refounding by Simonides, were not effential to pro sitte die maarch of the anny, like the nunciation; two of them being the vowels unders of Jove on the mountain which Hand S, to distinguish these long founds! Covered the giano Typbæns ; the de- from the fune vowels E-and o; the other fcription of a wind, blacker tia night, two were Z and the sounds of which hooting along the air with tempetts in could just as well have been exprefled by its train --of infatiate Discord befriding and ne, as the S.is even till in Eum the earth, and lifting its head into thig glish, French, and Italian, often proluce:befe,and many other such iinages, nounced like 2, though all thefe langua-. which are to be found in the Iliad, attett ges have the character Z to denote its their Alatic origin, and do not accordi particular found. The want therefore with what we may presume to have been of these four letters was no impedineat, the chuifter ftyle and leverer maniers oft to Homer's knowing the Greek alpbaa' the Greeks of that age.
bet, as well as we do. And when it is It has been mich agitated by modera crie recollested, that he was supposed to be a ties, vecther the art of writing was known native of Ionin, a province on the core in Homer' time, and if not, by what
means fines of Perlia; and other eastern nations, * frem afsuch length was originally pre where the arts and sciences were earlier
cultivated than in Greece, it is reasonable supposition, that the cd, by which regular to fuppose, as far as any hypothesis can Preterites are førined, is a contraction of now be eliablifhed, that the Iliad and the did; thus “I worked,” or “workdid," Odyssey, the only works which can with and, in confirmation of this, it is stated, Any certainty be attributed to him, immes that we say, she did work,” or “he diately, or very suon, received that form worked,” but not “ he did worked," which in which we now see ther; and were would involve an unnecellary tautology preferved by the admiration of cötemt- equivalent to “he did work did.” This poraries and of fucceeding ages, by mul- is an ingenious remark, and the only obo tiplied copies and transcriptions. It is jection which, it tirikes -me, mlitates to this anxiety to preserve unimpaired against it, is the derivation of did it felfthe writings of Homer, fays the learned from do and cd; thus doed, did.It may Wolfius, that we are indebted for their be ftill farther objected, that the verb present perfectiont; while the works of fo does itself is a compound of the noun do many and more recent authors have dc- (for there is such a noun) and is ; thus do fcended to us imperfect, or are irrecover- is, does. That the verb of existence enters. ably loft.
into it, and into every other verb, I aly
not going to deny; neither is the purport To the Editor of the Dsonthly Mugazine. of this letter to invalidate Mr. Pick
bourn's hypothefis, with the whole scope SIR,
of which I am not acquainted, nor to pro N No. 150, of your valuable. Ma- pose any one of my owar, but merely to bourn, on Mr. Pytches' assertion, “ that real import of Mr. Pytches afiertion. the first terms of language were nouns, I grant, that the principal objection to which were turned into verbs by being Mr. Pickbourn's hypotheks, as far as I put in action." This assertion may, know its nature, is furtnoanted by the perhaps, be expressed somewhat loosely; ufe of the participle, or, as he appears to but I think the meaning is sufficiently ob- name it, the noun of actions as a Jotina vious. Before nouns can be turned into ploughing is," or " John ploughs;" but active travlitive verbs, they must be put this seems to me to be cutting the knot,' into action, some way or other; they must and not untying its fince it is us arduous be endowed with motion. To explaiu a- taik to invent ploughing to denore the more fully what I mean, I dhall take two: name of the action of the inttruinent, nouns, lugar, and plough, and by Mr. plough, as to construct the verb itfelfPickbourn's process, add is to each of 'To conclude, it appears to me that the them; thus, jugar is, plough is; do then verb is enters into all verbs, do included; these expreflions imply any thing equis and that do enters into ali verbs, ús exo valent to the active verbs, ploughs and cepted, whether transitive ar intransitive, sugars. They inply no action, and.con- and that it is the verb which jutuses into iain nothing but the simple affertion of all of them their energy; swhich; otherthe existence of two names Is there wise, they would not poffefsi Mr. Picknot something necesary to give these bourn's & Differtation," "have uotteen, riames action as verbs? And the obvi- but I have always heard it spoken of, as ating of this want is, wbat I conceive a work of great merit and ingenuity : Mr. Pytches means, by,“ putting the Crouch End, Highgate; Your's, & Co nouns in action. Indeed, in regard to December 16, 1800. 1 J. GRANTU. neuter verbs, Mr. Pickbourn's doctrine is rather plausible; for rein is, and rains, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. are not very different. But in respect
SIR, to, at any rate, active trangtive
HAVE good , and it to that the nouns are put into action, by the to his death, the abolition of the Slava! verb do, which I imagine to be nearly. Trade was most particularly near to the co eyal with. be. Hence, taking the noun i heart of Mr. Fox. plough, and prefixing to it, do, forming It was not Henry Kerbe but Heory "I do plough,". I denote the action of Kirke White, who died at St. John's, ploughing In time, do might have been Cambridge, on the 19th of October lall.. omitted, leaving "I plough;" aud, trom: He was born on the 2 Lit of March, 1785 this ciccumstance, I apprebend, it arises, He is juftly characterized by one of the tļiat we have fo many actions exprelied firft Poct's of this age, as a truly original by the fame word, as the noun, or varne Postic penins. His application ta feiengeu of the thung. Indeed, it is a common and literature were almoli unesampled :
and his proficiency during his short carcer he was known only by correspondence. of life, was as molt fully answerable. A I cannot even say, Vidi tan!um. Imagiferer intercepted, as to this world, the nation, energy, and tenderness of feelfairett and highest promises, and took off ing, and appropriate diction, he posfelt in this admirable youth in a very few days. a high degree, with much dignity of nonHu Poerns have been printed in a sinallbers and beauty of cadence. From his octavo. His Manuscripts are in his profile, with which I am favoured by his brother's hands, and whatever may be brother, his countenance appears to have found in a state for publication, will, I been of a very noble and amiably exfeel convinced, be laid before the public preflive character. Your's, &c. in a manner worthy of the person who has Trofon,
CAPEL LOFFT, charged limfeff with this office of atřec- December, 1806. tionate respect to bis memory. To me
MEMOIRS OF EMINENT PERSONS.
THE LATE DUKE OF RICHMOND, great characters, with a very few excen
* En la Rose je FLEURIE.” tions,* have unfortunately forgotten their A hADS Taller recent chances which bave taken place in Europe
interests of the many to their fate, have have equally to lament the fall of flou- but too often taken care of those only filhing liates and of illustrious men. appertaining to the individual. How far
of those who fought the battles of li- the subject of the present Memoir'inay be berty, in either house of Parliainent, free from, or deserving of, this reproach, during the American war, scarcely one will be entily gathered from an attentive remains. The Earl of Chathain died at survey of his parliamentary conduct. his post, and was buried at the public
The late Charles Lenos poflefled no expence, ainidst the lamentations even less than three ducal coronets. He was of his enemies. The Earl of Camden Duke of Richmond, Earl of March, and with his dying breath gave his allent to Barou of Settrington, in England ; Duke that Bill which enables Juries to decide of Lenox, Earl of Darnley, Baron Toron both law and faćts, in cases of libel, bolton and Methuen, in Scotland, and notwithftanding the captious objections Duke of Aubigné in France, as confirmof most of those who, like himself, had ed and registered by the Parliament of been educated to the profession of the law. Paris in 1777. f 3 The Marquis of Lansdowne, allo, is no more. He, too, advocated the rights Minister, perhaps, of our day, who perform
* The Marquis of Rockingham is the only of America , and, even while a Minister, el, in place, all he had promised while out. alfented to the proposition of a reform of Parliament: thus affording a folitary ex, may be briefly traced as follows: The Dua
+ His descent, which on one side was royal, ception to nearly all those who have tafted chess of Orleans, after of Charles II. having the sweets of power, and attained the come to England in the year 1660, brought objects of their ambition.-Burke, for- in her train a Mademoiselle Louile Renée de midable on account of his talents, and Pennecourt, of Keroualle, in France. His the father, if not the superior, of all our Majesty, proverbially amorous, was immedinodera orators, has also paid the great ately captivated with the charms of this lady, debt of nature; but his latter days were whom he foon after created Duchess of Purtrnot auspicious, and the glory of the fet mouth, Countess of Farnhain, and Baroniels ding fun, that burot to fiercely in the men of Petersfield, all in the county of Hantes, co tidian, was intercepted by a thick cloud enjoy the fame during her natural life, by He accordingly deleended to the grave, güft 19, 1673.
letters patent, dated at Westminster, on Adthorn of hali his honours; and his mo- Charles
Lenox, fo called after
Charles II. tive, however plausible, appeared ne- and the only son of the Duchess of Portsmouth, ceffarily equivocal, because they appeared was born on July 29, 1672; and in the third to be interefted Fox, too, has disap- year of his age, was created by his royal fapeared I Great.only when out of place, ther, Baron of Settring con in the county of he has achieved but little as a practical York, Earl
of Marchi, from the Marches in futelman; ud, with the exceptiog of Wales, and Duke of Richmond in Yorkshire. one Single Aa, history will have noching His Majesty also bestowed the eftate and duke and all linun as a Miðifter.
dom of Lenox, sec. on him; and, after the will be thus leen, that mol of our dhe dukedom and territory of Aubigné in the
demise of his mother, he became entitled to The felona relalutive of the two Hou les province of Brittany, by special grant from
Share Trade the French King,
He was born on the 22d of February, ment of genius, his Grace bestowed two 1735-6. He was the third ton, and lo- niedals annually on such as had exhibited venth child; but his two elder brothers the two best models. dying while infants, be, of course, be- At the coronation of liis present Macame beir both to the titles and fortune. jesty, (Sept. 22, 1761), the Duke carried Contiderable attention was paid to his the sceptre and the dove, while his lifter, education; but, when he was only lix- Lady Saralı Lenox, (afterwards Lady Sateen years of age, he set out on his tra- rah Bumbury, and Lady Sarab Napier, in vels for foreign parts, and remained forne fuccellion), was one of the ten unmarried time abroad.
daugliters of Dukes and Earls, who supIt being determined that, like his fa- ported the train of Queen Charlotte at ther, who had attained a high rank in the her nuptials, September 8, 1761. army, and was predent at the battle of A little anterior to this, he had been Dettingen, he should follow the military nominated a Lord of the Bedchamber* to profession, he accordingly obtained a George III.; and in 1763, was appointed cornmillion, and, in June 1756, was ap- Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum pointed Lieutenant Colouel of the 3sd of the county of Suflex, in the room of Hegiinent utiloot. Two years after, he Lord Abergavenny: the latter was rereceived the command of the 72d; and tained until his death, but he soon after on March 9, 1761, he attained the rank refigned the former of these offices. of a Major General. Pofterior to this, The Duke of Richmond took luis feat he rose, by seniority, to be firit a Licus in the House of Peers in 1756, immeditenant Gencral, and then a Field-Mar- ately on his coming of age, and, as we flial.
have been given to underiiand, attached Nor were the services of this noble- bimtelf to the Duke of Newcatile, a nomau confined to the parade at the Horfe bleman white family had always been Gaurds, or a campaign in St. James's supposed friendly to Whing principles, Street; for be carried arms in Germany, while he himfolf appears to have been under Prince Ferdinand of Brunfuick, extremely desirous of power. But, aland was present at the battle of Miuden, though he neither did any good to himself On this occation he was posted near the nor his country, yet he possessed futficient Commander in Chief; and when Lord magnanimity, when he had retired with Gcorge Sackville roccived orders to ad- a broken constitution and a ruined forvance, and charge the French with the tune, to reject a pension, and to exclaim, British cavalry, he held his watch in his with a noble spirit of indignation," that hand, and noted the time exactly between if he could no longer serve the state, he the delivery of the mediage and the exe- was, at leatt, deteriņined not to be a cution, or rather non-executin, of the burthen to it." command. He was afterwards fupinon- At the commencement of the new ed as a witness to the Court-Martial reign, the Duke of course took part with which fat on this officer, but did not hap- the favourite who had placed him about pen to be examined.
the person of the young Monarch; and At the early age of fifteen, his Grace he is laid foon after, with what degree of fucceeded his father * ; and on the 1st truth we know not, to have given perof April, 1757, married Mary, daughtersonal offence to liis Sovereign, by the of Charles Bruce, Earl of Aylesbury, by manner in which he remøpti rateid, relaLady Caroline Campbell, daughter of tive to a point that nearly concerned lis the late Duke of Argyle,
own honour, and that of his family t. While on the Continent, the Duke of Richmond appears to have inhibed a The Duke of Richmond, in 1761, was tale for the fine arts; and there is but appointed to this office, through the intiulittle doubt that the encouragement firit ence of the Earl of Bute. He fuceceded afforded by him to the British artists, fi- she Duke of Manchester, and was one of nally led to the establiment of the pre- appointed at the accetiiun of his present Ma
“ the additional Lords of the Bedehamber," fent Royal Academy. In March 1738, jeity, for the exprels purpose, as was then he opened a large apartment at inis houfc supposed, of extending the influence of the in Whitehall, in which was difplased a Crown. Jarge collection of original platier-culs, + It has been laid, that a great persone taken from the belt ancient Itatues and age paid particular attention to Lady Sarah bults both of Rome and Florence. Every Lenox, then the moit beautiful woman of painter, fculptor, or iiudent, was freely the Court, and that her brother, with the adulted ; and, for the turther encourage- fpirit becoming a man of honour, remon
Arated on the occaliun, during an audience • Aug. 1, 1750.
in the closet.
In 1765, his Grace, through the re- could not, as nfual in feb cales, agree commendation of the Rockingham admi- in any thing beneficial to their country: niftration, was noxiinated sunballador to what is indeed wondertill, they could the Court of Vertinilles, as fucceffor to not ever unite in tharing the emolument's the Earl of Hertford; and is allowed to of otfice, and they accordingly retired. have conducted himself on that occation, The Duke of Ricloud, the ad of with equal spirit and propriety: The Auguft of the same year in which he had France of that day, happily for the inte accepted the feals, accordingly religned rests of this country, was very different them into the bands of the hing; and from the France of the prefent. By one they were immediately deposited with the of the articles of the Peace of Paris, it Earl of Shelburne, who, is bis zurn), dewas fpecially and expressly ftipulated, livered them up toon after. In thost, that the deinolition of the batin at Dun after a variety of changes, Lord North kirk thould take place within a certain at length afined rbe reins of roseriperiod. As it was wished that this hu- ment; and, by uniting the vilices of Chan iniliating ineafure should be carried fully cellor of the Exehiegiter and Fisti Lord of mto effect, bis Excellency inlisted on the the Treasury in buis own perton, became fulfilment of it. His conduct on that oc- Prime Minilier, This event proved the cafion was particularly gratifying to the commencement of one of those long act people at large, and not disagreeable to midifications that have invariably prored ilie Muntry who had fucceeded the Ca- detrimental to this country; and it was binet formed by the Earl of Bute; but during it that the Americais tar was enit is said to have given offence to those gendered, and the feeds of a variety of who, in the langu:ge of that day, were cakunities fown, of wbiets we have sissce tenned « the secret advilers of the reaped an ample barveti. Crown," and the amballidor was recall- But to retiim to the Duke of Ricky at, after taying about a twelveinonth at mond. From the period of his late setia Paris. Ile was succeeded by a more nation, this Nobleman continued unicompliant plenipotentiary, in the person formly in oppofition during a long feries of the late Earl of Rochford; and Mr. of years, extending mdeed from 1767 to Fraser was about the fanie timo fent to 1782. At the very commencement of Dankirk, not to fee the jetries and fluices the conflict, be keprecated a rupture with of that harbour densolthed, but to pre- oar Colonies; auct on the 18th of May, vent the French King froin constructing 1770, after an introductory fpeech, proliew oues.
poted eryhteen r folutions to the floufe On his return home, the Ex-Vinifter of Peers, which produced one of the inost was notninated to one of the highett and simateri debates that ever oceurred in toki honourable appointments in the Parliament. The witconduct of Minikingrlom, having on the 23d of May, ders during the sonur preceding years, was 1770, fucceeded the prefent Duke of laid open iu terius erually pointed and Grafton in the otfice of Secretary of State fevere; and the future reparation of the for the Southern Department. The fimo Trans-Atlantic provinces trom the mutions and duties of that important place ther-country, was predicted with a degree were discharyed by this nobleinan with of contidence and certainty that excites ani cquid promptitude and zenl; and it our wonder at the prefent moment. muft be conceded by all, that no public In January 1775, the Earl of Chathara oticer of the trate ever affordert a more moved for the reinoval of the British regular attendance, or gave a cloter ap- troops from Botion, as a prelude to a replication to public affairs, than the Duke conciliation : and after bentioning “chat of Richmond, during the time that be so true Wlug would bear the endaving of preached over any of the departincots America,” tie prophelied, even then, the comunitted to his care.
fpeedy intervention of France as inerie But the motley Adminiftration, con- table. On this occasion he was ably fupkifting partly of Whigs and partly of To- ported by the subject of the prefent Me ties, of which he was now a member, moir, who, after animadverting on the
late AAs for establishing Courts of Adina • In all probability, there was either a
ralty and altering the Charter of AlaliaSecret arucle is the treaty, or a folemn pro- the minority might be on the prefent oc
chuflet's Bay,obferved, that havever finall mile exacted, that this claure Thauld never be carried fully into effect. The French calion, he had seen one as finall hourly Coast, indeed, always remunstrated ; and when increase, until it became the majority. any of the Stones were removed, care was
Ile then recounted the follutring auer taken to mark and number thest, so that dote, which occurred when the Eurt of they might be replaced at pleasure.
Bute prelided at the head of the Admi