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from one medium into another of a diffe- By this experiment atmospheric air gave rent density, and that the degree of te- exactly that degree of refraction which fraction is in a direct ratio to the density ought to be produced, according to calof the body if incombustible, but in- culation, by a mixture of 0,21 oxygen, creasing in proportion to the combustibi- 0,787 azot, and 0,003 of carbonic acid. lity of the body through which it passes. Even when these gases were not in the Hence Neyton divined the combustibi- state of a simple misture, but brouglit lity of the diamond, and the existence of into the most intimate combination with a combustible principle in water. each other, the same principle was found
If two substances be mixed together, equally applicable, provided no rery the proportion of whose retracting pow- considerable condensation had been proers is known, and regard be paid to the duced. Ammoniacal gas produced the density of the mixture, we shall be there effect indicated by the quantities of azat by enabled to calculate the total retrac- and hydrogen, which enter into its cuine tion; and reciprocally, when the refrac- position; but when too much condensed, tion of a mixture is asce: tained, of which some alteration, though very trifling, was the elements are known, we may, in like observable; the same circumstance ocmanner, calculate the proportional re- curred in the experiment with water. fracting power o; each. M. Biot having An accurate examination of the more applied this principle to mixtures of atic acid gas, according to these principles, known proportions, and having tound it fully demonstrated that its radical could just, afterwards applied it to ascertain not be azot, and consequently that this the unknown proportions of other mis- gas cannot be considered, as bas been turrs.
lately supposed, an oxyde of hydrogen For this purpose it is sufficient to fill containing less oxygen ihan water. a glass prisin, inder a known pressuire, The refractive property of the diawith the substance we wish to examine, mond being much greater than that of or if it be a solid body, to forin it into a charcoal, the refractions of the carbonic prism itself, and observe through it a dis- acid, alcohol, ether, and other substances, iant object. The angle of retraction is of which carbon forms a part, M. Biot measured by the repeating circle, taking concludes that the diamond cannot be a into account the weight, the tempera- pue charcoal, and that a fourth part of ture, and the humidity of the external hydrogen, at least, is necessary, in order air; and this method being susceptible of to render it contorinable to the results of a degree of precision equal to that of the experiment. astronomical processes, pecessarily sur- The matters produced by organized passes in accuracy all the chemical means beings have not hitherto been examined emploved with the saine intention. But, with sufficient accuracy. For although it will readily be perceived that this mode we have a general knowledge of the ele is only applicable to transparent subje ments of winch they are composed, and stances, and the principles of which, is that these primitive elements are not far as regards their species, are known to very numerous, yet their combinations are
so various, and they are so casily changed M. C'uvier next proceeds to point out and converted in the course of the expethe great utility of this discovery, and in- riment, that it is necessary to study these forms the Institute that the author las combinations themselves as if they were already applied it to the analysis of case- simple suiistances. These matters conous bodies, and obtained by this means sidered under this point of view, are the most important results, of which the termed the immediate principles of organfollowing are among the most interest- ized bodies; and during the present year ing:
sereral of them, we learn from M. Cu At an equal degree of cicosity, oxygen vicr, have bcen discovered by different possesses the last, and liydiogen lie french cheinists. Among others he greatest refractive power among all the nentions M. Vauquelin and Robiquet, gaseous bodies. The refractive powers who have found in the sap of asparagus of the same gas is in an acurate pro- a crystaline matter, soluble in water, portion to its density, under any unitorm which is, Irowever, neither an acidi
, not a temperature. It is in the presence of neutral salt, and which is not netod upu bydrogen, in particular, that substances by the usuw re-tuents. These cele pissessing a high degree of retracting brated chemists propose to follow out the prwer appear to owe this property, siue investigar of this substance, and in it was found to be present in all of them. due time to lay the result oi thcir labours
before the Institute. In the same class only albumen changel, and become nearmay be ranked, proceeds the Reporter, ly insoluble without its fermentable quzthe discovery of a Saccharine principle in lity being destroyed; from which he conthe bile, by M. Thend, Professor in the cludes that altumen, whether animal or College of France. This principle, which vegetable, is the real fermentutive princiwas before only suspected to exist, bas ple. In the course of his iuvestigation, been clearly demonstrated by the learned M. Seguin also discovered that albumen Professor, uboo has shewn that it possess exists in three different degrees ut insolues the property of holding the oil of the bility, and possesses a greater or less aptibile in solution. The means of analysis tude to become fibrous; that its action, einployed by M. Thenard has been inen- is in proportion to its solubility; that tionei, by ile comunissioners empower
respective proportion of albumen and cd by the Institute to examine his la- sugar present in the diiicrent juices debours, as being singularly ingenious; and termines the vinous or acetic nature of it is, in fact, extreinely difficult entirely the product of the fermentation; that to tree this substance from those with the liquor thus obtained is more spiwhich it is interinixed.
rituous in proportion to the greater quanSume recent researches respecting the tity of sugar; and, in short, that most nature of coflee by M. Seguin is uent no- fermentable juices contain a bitter printiced by M. Cavier. From the result of ciple analogous to that of coffee, which, those experinents, it would appear that though it does not assist in the fernenthis brain is composed of albunien, vil, a tation, nevertheless contributes towards peculiar prineiple, which the author de- the taste and preservation of the ferponuinates the bitter principle, and a
mented liquor. green matter, which is a combination of Tunnin, formerly discovered by M. Scalbumen and the bitter principle; that guin, and the character of which is to the proportions of those principles vary form av insoluble compound with gelain different kinds of coffee; that torre- tin, has, we are intormed by M. C'uvier, faction, or rousting, as it is termed, aug- been lately re-examined by Bouillon la ments the proportion of the bitter princi- Grange, professor in the Lyceum. ple, br destroving the albumen; that He found it also to posscss an affinity ihne two last principles contain inuch for the alkalies, for earthis, and for ineazoi; and that the bitter principle is au- tallic oxydes, and that it migbt be contiseptic. The vil of coffee is inodorous, verted into gallic acid by absorbing oxycuagaated, and of a white colour, like gen. hog's lard.
The tannins extracted froin different 11. Seguin nest extended his rescarch- vegetables vary somewhat in their comes to other vegetables, and discovered position; and that which Mr. Hatchett that a great number which he has speci- discovered in greit abundance in the fiel contain abunen, and also a certain caoutchouc contained a greater proporportion of the bitter principle, mure or tion of oxyger than others. less similar to that of coffee.
Mr. Blatchett is of opinion that tannin Thuis remarkable quantity of albumen may be artificially formed, by treating being more particularly found in the charcoal with the nitric acid. juices of those vegetables which feriment The next discovery noticed by M. Cuwithout the aid of yeast, and vield a vi- vier is that by M. Norichini, an Italian 130sera liquor, as the juice of raisins, goose- chemist, who having found the fluoric berries, &c. M. Seguin endeavoured to acid in the enained of the fossile jawdiscover whether albumen might not bones of the elephant, was led by this contribute to produce this intestine nig- circumstance to analyse the cnamnet of Liun hitherto so little understood; and the human teeth, and is oi opinion that ne are informed that having separated it contains the same principle. Gaythe albuen fiom these juices, they be- Lussac has also found it iu recent, as Cum ideapable of fermentation, but on well as fossile ivory, and in the tusks of unitug albumen with them artificially, the wild boar. as that of the white of an aeg, for ex- Messrs. Fourcroy andi Vauquelin, on ample, ur of saccharme matter, termen- repeating there experiments, obtamed tation took place, which the other neces- this acid not only from the fusks, but sury circumstances concurred, in which from the teeth which had undergone a Cuen matter anar tu yeast was uni- change by dorang remunei lung uurder funuly deposited, which appca.cd to be ground, but they tailed a procuring it from the same parts in a recent, or even a comparative view of the cases in which in a fossile state, unless they had under- these fumigations not only prevented the gone such a change.
communication of the disease, but apM. Vauquelir. bas also been engaged, peared to assist in their cure when acduring the present year, in conducting a tually produced. series of accurate and interesting experi- M. Pinel has experienced similar sucments on hair. By dissolving it in wa- cess by the employinent of the same ter by means of Papin's digester, and af- mcans in the Hospital of Salpetriere; terwards examining the solution and its and the beneficial effects resulting from residuum, be succeeded in extracting its use in Madrid, as well as in other nine different substances; an animal places in Spain, have already been made matter similar to mucilage, two kinds of known to the public through the medium oil, iron in a peculiar state, some partie of different Spanish Journals. cles of oxyde of manganese, phosphate We next learn from M. Cuvier's report and a small portion of carbonate of that he himself was led by his cxperilime, a considerable portion of silica, and ments on the fossile grinders of elephants much sulphur. Black hair yielded an to examine others in a recent state; and oil of the same colour, while red liair an occasion having presented itself in the produced a reddish-coloured oil, and course of a few years of dissecting two white one wholly colourless. The last elephants, nearly full grown, he was by contained always an excess of sulphur, that means enabled to observe with greatand the white, in particular, magnesian er precision the growth of the iceti ili phosphate.
these animals, and thence to deduce cone Besides these theoretical researches, clusions respecting dentition in general. chemical principles have been applied to The anatomy of large animals, be obmany useful practical purposes; among serves, may justly be considered as a which M. Cuvier mentions a mode of kind of natural inicroscope, which asimitating Roman alum, discovered to- sists in dscovering that of the sınaller wards the conclusion of the former year, kind. It was with a view to confirm the and which has succeeded so completely doctrine of the late John Ilunter, that that the alum manufactured in this mann M. Cuvier was induced to enter into this ner is sold at the same price as the genu- investigation, at least so far as regards ine Roman alum. This method merely the osseous portion of the teeth. It is consists in calcining and re-crystalliz- not furnished with vessels, nor formed ing the common alum, in order to de- by intus-susception, like true boues, but prive it of its super-abundant acid. M. by a successive transudation of layers Curaudeau contends, however, that it is produced by the pulp of the teeth, and also necessary to oxygenize the small which lie orer each other. The enamel portion of iron usually contained in alum, is deposited above by the membrane to its maximum. But a mémoir lately which envelops the young tooth, and is published by Messrs. Thenard and Board' attached to it by a species of crystallizahas perfectly cleared up this subject; tion; in fine, a third substance, peculiar from this we learn that a thousandth part to some herbivorous animals, is depoof iron will sensibly influence the effects sited after the enamel, but by the same of alum as a mordant; and it is to deprive membrane, which changes its nature at it even of this small quantity to which a certain period. the efforts of our manufacturers ought This third sobstance was first discochiefly to be directed.
vered by M. Tauon, who has termed it The oxygenation of the iron appears the osseous corter, but who couceives it to extremely well calculated to answer this le formed by the ossification of the capintention, since it renders it insoluble in sular membrane. This intelligent anatithe acid.
unist, M. Cuvier informs us, has comida The application of the oxygenated vicated to the Institute, during the premuriatic acid gas to the destruction or cor- sent year, the results of some well.de rection of contagious miasmata, has, we vised experiments on the tecth of the are informed by M. Cuvier, been much cachalot, and on those of the crocodile, extended during the present year, and from which it appears that the first buio its beneficial effects contirmed by various no enamel, but only an osseous cortet, extensive triols. M. Desgemeites bas, They are easily distinguished from cara in particular, constantly employed it in other, because the enamel is touch the Military Hospital of Val-de-Grace; barder, and dissolves entirely in acids, and be has transiniited to the Institute without leaving any gelatinous parenches
ma. Neither the tusks of the elephant, The same indefatigable anatomist has at nor the grinders of the morse and the present nearly ready for publication a work dugong, have any other covering. on the Diseases of the Eye, from which it
From this Report we farther learn that appears that he has made several new M. Tenon has presented to the Institute and interesting observations on the parts a work on this subject, in which he has connected with that organ. been engaged for more than twenty-five M. Cuvier concludes his Report by anyears, and wherein he had anticipated M. nouncing the re-publication of several Cuvier himself, as well as Mr. Everard valuable works, and anong others, a new Home, and other British anatomists, in edition of Dumas' Physiology, and M. most of their observations on the man- Barthé's Elements of the Science of ner in which the teeth of elephants de- Man, cay, and are replaced.
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