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much improving that approach to the and humanity claim our praise, but the Bedford estate.

menns recommended are exceptionaof the importance of the buildings on bie. the Bedford and Foundling estates to the To defroy (as he adviser) every dog country and the proprietors, fome judg- fufpected of being bitten, would indeed ment may be forined by the following fully aufwer the purpose of security; but estimates, which are very nearly correct : equal fatety may be ohtained, without The duties already paid to government the loss of many of thete valuable anifor the articles consumed in the build- mals. Is it noi unjuft to involve the ings, amount to 84,500l. The house and harmless and noxious in the fame ruin, window dutics per annuin, 40,7001. The when it is in our power to discriminate war tax on property, per annum, 19,8001. -may we not transfer the famo mode of The new river coinpany gain by the in- reatoning, with propriety, to the unbitcreased service, per annum, 3,4501. The ten, but faspected, and the bitten dogs ? present value of the buildings erected is In the present cate nothing is more ob1,328,0001. The annual value, 125,7101.' vious, nothing more caly than this dira. And the present annual value of the crimination. It confilis iimply in tying ground-rents, 18,8391.

them up: the intected' will foon be dif It is presumed, that about one half the tinguithable buildings are completed on the Bedford I would take the liberty to refer your eftate, and two thirds on the Foundling readers to my Treatise on Hydrophobia, cftate. If, therefore, those proportions vol. i. p. 292-5, fecond edition, where be added to the fums already estimated, fuficient facts are recorded to establifa Some idea, may be formed of the revers the inference, and mark with some preLionary value to the proprietors; and if cition the interval between the bite and to these be added the duties and taxes on the commencement of the disease in the the other efcates before mentioned south dog tribe. It will be found, from the of the new road, the permanent taxes examples there adduced, that thirty days to the ftate cannot be lefs (according to is its longest period; though it often does their present ratio) than, for houses and not exceed the tielt. Lot the calculation, windows per annum, 100,0001.; for duties therefore, begin from the time the rabido and customs on the building articles, dog appeared in the place; and the length 200,0001.; for the war-tax on property of the continement will be apparent. per annum, 40,0001.; and in total of the To remove all uncertainty, however, the capital thus to be created, not lefs than dog may be kept on the chain a week 8,500,000!. ; exclusive of all confideration longer. This inconvenience cannot be of the advantages derived to the reve- thought grent. Food and water muft bo nue, manufactures, and commerce, by daily fupplied; and the person employed the fitting up and furaishing so vaft á to feed thiera thould always appranob with neighbourhood:

2.' caution, pulling the victuals towards December 1806.

them with forne fuitable instrument, to

svoid coming too near. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine By this advice I have favod feveral SIR,

condemned dogs, which were uleful tu N

in some of the provincial, a corre- have detected early difeafe in others, by ipondent lately, intimated, that several which dreadful effects, doubtless, had the perfons had, a few days before his com-' aniniats been at large, were prevented, as munication, sufferer from the bite of a several of your readers can testify. mad dog, and mentions a fatal instance. I prefume it to be altogether; unneTracing the progress of one of these cellary here to repeat, that in a very rabid dogs' afterwards into the country, early stage of hydrophobia dogs are ce be enumerates the several animals, and pable of cumununicating the difenfe. even some of the human species, lately They will eat, driok, answer the call, bitten in its flight froro village to vil fiwn on their matters, and fuffer themlage.

felves to be brudled, ns in perfect health, This writer very laudably cautions the wheti they are most dangerous compa public agrint careless indifference, by niods. This arises from the intervals imprudently delaying to obvinte danger between these fita, which characterite till hydrophobia appears in fume of these the complaint in the first days of its acanimals. `In all this, his sdingnitions tack. During the paroxylus, only, they


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ay at the person or animal near them; the creature's teeth. The ablution should when it fübfides, they become quiet and be prosecuted for an hour at least, withbarınlels. At this tage they are, how- out intermission. Though this be a comever, easily roused to anger.

mendable prophylactic within every one's Having this curforily stood advocate power immediately after an injury of for the canine, it may be supposed that this kind, yet total reliance inuti not be I include the feline race within the pale implicitly placed in its elficacy. As foon of my mercy.

as the attitance of a surgeon can be proMon under this disease, though at- cured, it will be incumbent on the tacked at intervals with fits of delirium, wounded person to call for his aid. The in which he may do mischief to byttaud- destruction of the bitten part will be neers, if not restrained, is no more to be cessary. considered mad, or the object of terror, Among the various means of accomstan any one under a fit of delirium in plishing this, the potential cautery is to an highly inilainmntory fever. The bite be preferred. It is the quickest in ache may unconfeioutly' inflict will be at- tion; and it is also the nature of this tended with no more evil consequences, vegetable alkaline caustic, prepared in zhan if it had been given under a fit of the usual way with lime, to liquify on cominon anger.

The faliva copioully the part, and spread, further indeed than roaping from his mouth, threatening fuf- is generally wanted in cominon cales. focation, has been, and (I confidently This is one reason why I recommend it. believe) may be handled with as little Another is, on account of this very lic danger' as tbe saliva of those in perfect quifaction, which makes it penetrate health.

deeper, and therefore more likely to It may perhaps be expected, after arreft every particle of inserted poison. mentioning the unfounded doctrine rela- In this property of 'melting and peneure to the communicability of the con- rating almolt intiantaneoully, though plaint by man to his fellow, and after rendering it inconvenient in other cafes, encouraging the commiferating neighbour lies its preference 'here. Slaugh after fearlessly to approach and allitt in flaugh may be reinoved by retouching, moothing, by fympathy and attentions, till we are fatisfied that all is destroyed, the last hours of agonized existence, that wherever the tulk had entered. I would fubjoin some hints on the pre- The lunar eaustic has been used, but vaution of a mulady which no burnan found to fail, even in the hands of the ngacity has ever, in a single iniauce, late Mr. John Hunter. In communicatbeca able to cure.

ing formerly with me on this subject, be Suppofe a bite to be just inflicted by doubted, indeed, whether every part had, the accidental encounter of a rabid ani- in the instance then under review, been buni, and no medical alittance within fufficiently cauterized. But he was an immediate reach, (or, at least, such at- accurate, not a careless or timid operatendance for several hours, or even a tor; and I apprehend that it was to the day, not to be procured,) let not the nature of the caustic to which the failure fufferer be so much overpowered by ter- was folely attributable. It penetrates Tor and apprehension as to prevent his but little, forms a hard eschar, and is taking itbmediate measures for his fafety. sometimes days before it falls off to leave Let a rough coarse cloth be directly ap- a new furface for retouching. The knife plied to wipe the wound, and clear it has been likewise found to fail; and, from the falien adhering to the furface. Perhaps, through the difficulty ot deftroyTo encourage the bleeding, however, will ing by it every particle of libre inoculatbe useless; bot ablution at this time be ed with the faliva, Cordes a more certain fafeguard. This I Respecting internal medicines at this would recomiend to be pursued with time, I om lilent. There is as yet no perfeverauce, firft with warm water, and disease in the system, and internal reineafterwards with cold. It thould be pour- dies cannot remove a nou-entity: Hav: ed orer the part from a veffel held at ing said this, I need go no further to futne difauce, to take the advantage of deprecate the long catalogue of noftrums gravitation. By thus impresling with with which the world has been inundated there force, its particles will link deeper for centuries, as cures or preventives of into the interfices of the fibres, with hydrophobia. Your's, &c. greater hopes of diffolving and walking

R. HAMILTON. sway she faliva left in these recelles by Ipfwich, January 23, 1807.

In the poems

For the Monthly Magazine. every biographer, in the absence of re. THE LYCEUM OF ANCIENT gular history, has not failed to exbibit an

LITERATURE.-No. JI. hypothens of his own. OF THE LIFE, AGE, AND COUNTRY OF which are indisputably Homer's, he has HOMER.

no where spoken directly of himself; nor VERY historical account of Homer was there in his time any historian (at E

must be short, as it can only be an least, we know of none,) to record his useless repetition of uncertain facts, and name and the events of his life. Hero, unfounded conjectures. There is no writ- dotus alone (who, by his own account, er who has so much engaged the attention lived about 400 years after Homer) bas of posterity, and of whose real history transmitted to us fomething like a prowe are less informed. An admirer of this bable narrative : but probable only in great poet would say, that he relembles this, that, divested of those fabulous dethe Deity, who is known to us only by fcriptions and incidents which abound in his works. We know not where he was other writers, it is a fimple narrative of born, inor (with any degree of precision) circumstances, which might have comat what time he lived. If we consider posed the life of any other man as well him in the light in which he is tranfınitted as of Homer. It relis upon as meagre a to us by ancient writers, we must be con- foundation, and is as little supported by tented to pass from one absurdity to an- authority, as any of the rest. It is mi other; and, in the multiplied and con- nute and trifling, defiitute of colouring, tradictory accounts, substitute fabulous imagination, and invention; conifting atertion for rational narration. It may only of details which might have formel satisfy the sceptical reader to be informed the life of any obscure grammarian, it na by Suidas, that no less than ninety cities where betrays the importance of the subclaimed the honour of having given him jećt, nor the admiration due to fuch a birth. In Eustathius, we read that he poet; and offers nothing corresponding wa, born in Egypt, and that he was with the idea we entertain of Homer. If nursed by a priestess of Ilis, from whom therefore, in common with so many others, he imbibed honey instead of milk. In we take from Herodotus all that we mean Heliodorus, that he was the fon of Mer- to say hittorically of Homer, it is not cury, Others afcribe to him a direct and that we believe his account to be entitled lineal descent from Apollo. But there to much greater credit than that of any were the extravagant theories of men, other ancient, but because it has beeri who, unable to express how much they more generally followed, and is in truth adınired the poet, have exceeded all the only one deserving of serious obfers bounds of probability in their accounts of vation. him. The mind, apparently dazzled by Houer, according to him, was born such excellence, loses the common idea at Smyrna, about 106 years after the of the man in the imaginary fplendour of tiege of Troy, and 622 before the expepertection; and unwilling that he Mould dition of Xerxes into Greece. Histucher ever be mentioned in a language beneath is not mentioned; but bis mother Criits conception, gives us table for history, theis proving with child in coniequence The poetical genealogy, which may be of an illicit comection, the was sent to seen in Suidas, proves that the advocates Smyrna, a colony froin Coma. Somefor Greece even surpafled the others in time after her removal, accompanying a exaggerated fiction, in proportion as the proceflion of women to a festival celerefinement of the Greeks was fuperior to brated near the river Meles, she was on, that of the Egyptians. Gods, goddefles,' expectedly delivered of Hoiner, to whom muses, kings, and heroes, are linked in the gave the name of Meleligenes, from this wonderful descent. Every writer who the place of his birth. Iu process of las pretended to give us an account of time, under the tuition and inspection of Homer, however he may differ from Phemius, who had married his mother, others in his narrative, is equally studious he advaneed with such rapidity in all the in afcribing to him a celestial origin, and arts and improvements of his age, and the most marvellous adventures. Eu- betrayed such extraordinary intelligence, Stathius, Heliodorus, Hermias, Diodorus as to become the couļmon wonder, not Siculus, Suidas, Plutarch, and Elian, only of his countrymen, but of all the offered to the mind only confused and strangers wlim resorted to Smyrnih, fitcontradictory compilations of the most tracted by its profperoas trade. Homer abfurd allegories. His Life feems to have appears to have poltelled a great desire of been invented, rather than written ; and informning himself of the manners and

cullums euftoms of different nations : this he pared again for Athens ; but landing at judyed would be of coniderable use in los, he was taken ill, died, and was buthe defigu bie had already formed, of mak. ried on the sea-shore, * ing poetry the great buiineis ot' his life, · Such is the account we have of HoBut a detoxion in his eyes, which after- mer, as supposed to have been transinitwards occationed total blindness, coin ted to us by Herodotus. But this is pelled him o reinain for fome time in attributing to him a strange anachronism, Itraca, w bere he is said to have collected of which he could scarcely have been thote siories of Ulysses, which became guilty : by placing Homer 622 years bethe ground-work of the Odyssey. He fore the expedition of Xerxes; wherers then returned to Sinyrna; where, falling he hinself, who was alive at the tiipe of wto poverty and neglect, he relieved his that expedition, tells us, in his history, neceifities by begging, and reciting his that Homer lived only 400 years before verles. At Cuma, in consequence of him. This fingular inconGiftency has been fume success in this einployment, he was noticed by modern writers; bit tras not encouraged to address the goverment fup ferved to convince them of the impollibia majotenance; but was antwered, that lity of ever ascertaining the age in which if they made it a custom of taking all the he lived, nor prevented them from advans Ourgo, or blind strollers, under their cing the mofi fingular paradoxes in fupprotection, their city would in a little port of their opinions. In general, they time be filled with fuch useless creatures. seem to take their rise from an error To this circunstance the unfortunate coinmon to both ancient and modern cribard owed his name. Irritated at his tics, of ascribing to Homer a inuchr ear. difuppointment, he departed for Phocæa; lier period than that in which he really and on leaving Cuma, prayed the Gods existed. What has chiefly led them into that there might never arise among his a belief of this high antiquity of the poet, countrymen a poet to celebrate to un- has been the simple, rough, and often grateful a people. At Phocæa he applied favage manners of his herves; and a more intensely to poetry, and obtained groundlefs fuppofition, that he has des the protection of Theftorides, who pro- fcribed the customs prevalent in his own med him lubbstence upon condition that age. It has been suggested, that the firit be thould be permitted to transçribe his interesting stories he had heard when a poems. But in protecting the poet, he had no other view than to obtain from

* It is observed, however, by the philo. luim as many of his pieces as he could, sopher Proclus, in his Life of Homer, that said when he had collected a fufficient those who affert the poet to have been blind, number, he departed for Chios, and appear to be themselves injured in their iothere opened a school, where he recited tellectual part ; for Homer saw more than the verses of Hoiner as his own, and any mortal that cver existed. He adds, that obtained infinitely greater enolument it seems Homer died when he was an eld and fame than the origiual author him- man; Since the knowledge of things, which felf. Homer was sometimne after inform be possessed in lo transcendant a degree, evinces ed of the ftratagem, and resolved to fail also to those who fancy ltomer to have been

the longevity of its polsesfor. In opposition himself for Chos to detect the impofture. poor, Proclus obferves that he mu have But he remained sometime at Boliffus, been very rich; and that this is evident from where be composed some of his lighter the long journeys which he undertook both pieces, particularly the Batrachomnyoma- by lani and Tea, which are attended with chia. At Chios he met with unusual great expence, and especially at those times, fuccess; and after defeating the iniqui- when sea-voyages were dangerous, and the uus project of Theftorides, he himself intercourse of mankind with each other was maintained a fourilbing school. Having by no means easy. bow attained furie degree of ease in his

Should it however be inquired, how the circumstances, the marricd, and continue report of Homer being blind became so unisi at Chios for fome years. It was then verial, if lie was not to in reality, Proclus that he is fupposed to linve written his cllewhere informs us that, conformably to the greater poens; and his fatne, no longer times in which Homer lived, he was said to

tragical mode of writing adopted in those confined to Jonia, quickly spread into be blind because he withdrew hi Yelf from Greece. Having complimented the city sensible objects, and solely directed his atef Athens in fotne of his verses, he retention to tuch as are intellectual and divine. ceived an invitation to vilit it, which he for, according to this philofophet, the poems accepted and passed a winter at Samos, of Homer are replete with the highest inja lue way thither. In the spring he pre tellectual knowledge.


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boy were of the exploits at Troy, and This conclusion will appear the more
that he had finillied both his poems about reasonable, when we conlider the lan-
half a century after the town was taken. guage of Homer, wbich, with the excepu
But the manners which he describes can- tion of a few wosds, isequal to the Greek
not be adduced as a proof of the age in of the present times. The forination of
which he lived; for by the rules of his the language into Tenses, Cafes, and
art as an epic poet, it would have been Numbers, was already perfect and com-
absurd is, writing of an ancient event, pleted. This evidently proves that this
he had not adapted the characters of his Greeks had, long before his time, arrived
personages to the times in which he laid at a coufiderable state of improveineut,
the plan of his poems. Virgil, who wrote It was impossible that the language should
fo long after him, gives the same forple attain such excellence, as to require litule
manners to his heroes. All tragic poets, amendment or addition, unless those who
in ancient and in modern times, have spoke it had also acquired egual excel
endeavoured to suit the manners and fen- lence in the arts of focial life and of civil
tinents of their characters to the coune government. It is the real perception of
try and the æra in which they are sup- things, which gives birth to their respece
posed to have lived. Why then hould tive ideas in the mind, and these again to
we suppose that Horner might not do the outward expresiions, by words combined
fame? and that, though living himself in iuto significant sentences. That the use
* polifhed age, he had the good sense of a language to exprefs all the improve
not to ascribe to the rough warriors of ments of civilization, would procede the
Ilium the refined inanners of his own actual birth and progress of civilization
contemporaries. It was easier for him itself, is a paradox that no man can urge
to give to his herpes the less polished cast who has not adopted some hypothelis,
of an age long before his own, than to inconlilient with the real truth. 'Homer,
have anticipated, in idea, a state of re: certainly wrote in the dialect which pre-
finement in language, in metre, and in vailed in Asia, down to the most improved
the arts, which Greece could not have times of the Grecian colonies there. And
attained till & considerable time atier, we cannot fuppose that the language of
There are such internal evidences in his thote Ionic fettlers, should become any
poems of refinement, as stand in direct way fixed and pure, till long after the leće
contradiction to the roughness of his tlement of the colonists themselves. But
characters. The invocation of the Mufes without entering any further into this dif-
in the second book, demonftrates that pute, it is enough to lay, that we mutt
he lived long after the liege of Troy; still have recourse to the Aruodelian
and this would seein almost incontrover: marble, which affords the best computa-
zibly corroborated by an expression wbich tion of those early ages ;--and this, biy
he uses, and which has been noticed by placing Homer when Diogenetus ruled in
Velleius Paterculus," that mankind was Athens, makes him flourith a little before
but half so strong in his age, as in that the Olympiads were establithed; about
of which he wrote." This expression, three hundred years after the taking of
grounded on the fuppofed gradual dege- Troy, and one thousand before the chris
neracy of our nature, discovers the long tian era.
interval between the poet and his sub- The question respecting the Country of
ject. The various articles of elegance Homer, is one of still greater difficulty.
and luxury described in the Odysley, be. The internal evidence of the Poems inay,
tray a much later age than is ufually and, as we bave seen,

occalionally do, serve afligned him; and iufer that he muit to contradict those affertions, whiçli allign have lived in more civilized tiines than him a period inconlistent with the clos can be consistent with the simplicity gance of his language, and the refinernent wliich he attributes to his beroes. The of his ideas. Bot the number of places appearances of luxury, asid elegance in which have disputed the honour of having the Æneid, are nothing compared to given him birth, renders it impotlible at those in Homer; and although tlic Greck this distance of time, fatisfactorily to at: orders of architecture Inight not then certain the precise place. To inention be jovented, yet the ideas of magnifi- all the ciues and provinces which les çence conspicuous ir: his palaces might verally set up a claims, to collect all the have been borrowed from the practice of ridiculous affertions and documents which much later periods than those he describes, have been advanced as proofs from each, from times more polished in auts, as well would require the minute cucivility and as more civilized in inanders.

patient elaboration of his ancient com.


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