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muft therefore rank him with the “ I take it that there is no real poverty, lightened" maltitude whom I bave al- but that which arises out of the sterility ready found to be wonderfully editied by of the foil, or the imperfections of nature. that performance, merely because they Artiticial poverty is of two kinds, one had not found leisure to investigate its arites out of the injudicious arrangements merits.
of government, the other out of the vices The direct object of “Common Senfe," of the people. It would be an intult to if I understand him right, is to prove that the understanding of your readers, to atthe dittreties of the country arile princi- tempt proving that we have no complaint pally from the occupation of extentive, to make on account of fterility, or even instead of small, farins; and this is an opi- for any temporary scarcity connected nion to prevalent, that if it be not true, with bad seasons.' We have abundant it may be attended with confequences proofs of the liberality of our resources; not less fatal to our future welfare, than and the increating extent of our granaour former crrors have been destructive ries and our flocks, serves to thew that of our future comforts. It is importantly the value of our land does not diminish true, that no fully can be greater than with the number of those who farm thein. " to create and continue an evil, for the The poverty of which we complain then pleasure of attempting to cure it;" and is wholly artificial, and our attention ile public will be greatly indebted to should principally be directed to asceryour correspondent for coinmencing this tain what portion of it is to be attributed difcntion, if it should lead to fuch, an ex- to the government, and what part of it wination of the subject, as will inake it the people create for themselves. understood. Till it Thall be taken up by I have in a Tract lately published, enfoine abler inquirer, I beg leave to fund titled " The Wants of the People, and guli three reasons for bei.eving, that no the Means of the Government,” offered a part of our dittrelles arife out of the en- tew defultory hints upon this subject; grofling of farins.
but it would be improper in this paper to First, because we have no satisfactory wander from the immediate inquiry as to data to determine the proportion that the effects of engrossing farms. Your the number of agricultural poor of the correspondent has expressed himself very
present day, bears to the same class of clearly, when he says, that, in consequence . poor at the tiine when farms were not 10 of one hundred and twenty farms being
cugroffed; and witbout such data, there is reduced to fixty, tixty fanilies have been great reason to believe that the increase reduced to depend on the parish-rates; of paupers is principally among the de- but is there any man of reflection in the pendents upon commerce and manufac- kingdom, who does not see that this is a tures.
merc fophifm? If fixty persons out of a Secondly, because the occupation of hundredi and twenty become dependent extensive farms, has tended to improve upon their parishes, it is because the agriculture, and to increase the produce other fixty have found means to do the of the foil.
work of a hundred and twenty; and it is Thirdly, because since the period when to the desterity and skill which contrives thic practice of engrossing farms cond- to cultivate the foil with halt the number menced, the manufactures and commerce of hands, that they must attribute their of the country have encreased to an ex- poverty. This is the only rational mode teat that has found employment for a of accounting for it; for if the difpoffefmuch greater number of persons, than gon of their farms were the only change those who have been discharged from in all the relative circunfiances, the fimagricultural employments.
ple amount of the mischiet would be, that There is one omifiiou that most persons one man poflefled of lixty farms, with his seem to be guilty of, wlw form opivions family, would be added to the population rrative to the poor; they do not distin- of a ipot in addition to the former inhaguith real, from artificial poverty; and bitants, whilst the fixty occupants of his until that distinction become the balis of farin would be reduced to live as lathe inquiry, it is oflittle consequence whe- bourers, instead of farır.ers. Now fupther we compliinent ourselves as “ wite poling the condition of the labourers of tła:estonn," “ profound philosophers," or the district to have been precisely such as "patriotic feriators;" we shall only ape it ought to have been prior to the change, the “ wisdom of our ancestors," whilt we the ejected farmers being in no worse creato as much confusion for posterity, as situation than their own labourers had dier “wisdom" has prepared for us, been in, when they worked with them as Voxinly Mac. No. 156.
superiors instead of equals, can be under time, that the soil cultivated, has been no necessity for becoming burdensome less productive in consequence. If such to parishes.
a position thould be advanced, I thould be The fupposition of “Common Senfe," glad to learn the grounds upon which it that of uniting two farms into one, in- might be maintained; but if it thould apfiead of a hundred and twenty into two, pear that there is no reafon for tuch an renders the evil ftill less; for if each far- opinion, it will be proved beyond all kind mer was fully occupied before in attend- of doubt, that the consolidation of farms ing his one hundred and ten acres, he is advantageous, rather than injurious, by cannot now attend his two hundred and raising an equal gnantity of produce with twenty, without availing himself in some half the labour, and consequently at much Shape or other of the service of his ejected less expence. neighbour; and then upon what pretence The evil arising from the diminution of can that neighbour become burdensome agricultural labourers, is again met by the to the parish? It is evident that the time increased quantity of labour, demanded ple engroßment of farms has no tendency for manufacturing and commercial purto encrease paupers, and that the dil poses, which has engaged a number equal treffes of the people are to be attributed to that of the cultivators discharged; and to some other caule.
this circumstance peremptorily calls upon This cause may be faintly traced in the every person, to inquire whether the maNarrative of “Common Sense's," “ In- nufacturing and commercial paupers be telligent Farmer," where he represents ‘not much more numerous than the agrione man "who already manages five cultural paupers, before he gives a decihundred acres by means of a single Mep- live opinion upon this lubject. herd,” and another man “ already pof- To the inquiry luggested by your corfessed of nine farms, yet taking fix other respondent, there can be no objection; farms,” to divide between thein; for, if the House of Coinmons would be as inthese five hundred acres bad continued di- nocently employed in catering for the vided into four farms, there must have facts, that he is desirous of knowing, as been four thepherds employed, as one it most likely will be in any other way; thepherd conld not have served four but I cannot see the necesity for it, bematters; and therefore, four men would cause, it is already notorious enough, that have found employment intiead of one. the nuinber of farmers has very greatly Now, with fubinitsion to “Common decreased within these twenty years, and Senle," I beg leave to suggeft, that the we have not only an adınillion of the fact, real cause of his complaint is not against but an illustration of its consequences, in the engrossinent of Farms, but againit the the inprovement of Sir John Sinclair's Skill and improveinents which have de- estate in the north of Scotland. That vised the means of diminishing, labour. eminent agriculturiit, to whom the counTo regard this change as an evil, would, try is under incxpreffible obligations, however, evince a want of diligence itates, that he was desirous of increasing highly culpable in any person delirous of a flock of five hundred ewes, by various forming a correct opinion upon the fub- annual augmentations, until it should ject. Labour is in itfelt an evil, and the amount to len thousand ; and for this, very first article in the Christian religion and other purposes, he found it neceffary teaches us to regard it as such; “ Because to enlarge the farra he already held, to thou haft done this, in the sweat of thy twenty-live thousand acres. This design brow shalt thou eat bread.” Tu diminith was opposed by the circumstance of the labour, therefore, is a positive good; and land being occupied by eighty farmers, if it be made productive of mischievous whom it becaine neceffary to difpoliefs
. consequences, it is because we have They were however ejected, and with adopted an erroneous mode of appropri- their families, to the number of five hunating the advantages we acquire. dred, were obliged to submit io quit their
Suppose the position of “Common habitations. llere then is an inconveSenfe," were incontrovertibly proved, nience to eighty families, but what are that « our definite extension of foil fur- the effects upon the public? Why, that, nishes employment and independence to instead of an “inconliderable number of not more than half the number of persons, cattle and a few red deer," that were which it did twenty years ago, and that raised by these finall farmers, and which this number is annually diminishing," it supplied them with a bare fubfilteace, gives no rational cause for the increase of the proprietor was enabled to produce poverty, unless it be proved at the fame food for a population fo great, that, to 11duce them to come and eat it, he builds tempted to be palliated, is to be found in a new town, that they may be ready upon a fundamental error in the order of fothe ipot. “Wherever a number of inha- ciety, wirich makes every tiep that the bitants are collected together," says the country advances in improveinent and patriotic baronet, "they become a mar- pienty, injurious to the labourer, in exact ket for the agricultural productions of proportion as it is advantageous to the the neighbourhood, wlich, of courte, in- other claffes of the community. crentes the demand." From this conti- April 4, 1807. Your's, &c. deration he was induced to build the new Office of Tranquillity, John Boxe. town of Thurso on his own ettate, which Albion-jirect, Blackfriar's Bridge. . he fays, " on account of the cheapness of provnions," added to certain "other con- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. veniencies, niuit induce persons of mo- “SIR, derute incomes to settle there." In this the rear Monthly Magazine, page 236, inttance the ejected farmers were not injured, for the proprietor bad occation for under the title of «i Prepositions are mereall their services in his extensive improve- ly ujed to avoid quejlions likely to be put merits, and, to attach them to his employ, for ihe sake of obtaining circumftantial built each family a cottage, to which he statements," (and which is only a fmall annexed a garden and two Scotch acres part of a very interesting correspondence, of land. The increase of agricultural on the mechanism of language, with produce gave fpirit to the general im- which I have been favoured by the auprovements, and the consequence was, thor of the “ Evenings of Southill,") that employment was found for a great there is an important omillion, occafioned number of other labourers, who were in- probably, by halte in tranfcribing, which vited to come and people the new colony. I am very desirous thould be supplied as
duce U u2
Whether the inhabitants of this settle- soon as poflible. ment be alluent, or indigent, I do not The purport of that paper, is to exa know; but I will venture to atfirm, that plain, how the preposition by, placed be. if there be the flightest tendency to pau- fore any of the reflective pronouns, as perism among them, it does not result by myself, is used to denote erclufio, in froin the engrofinent of the farin. Whilft, regard to all other individuals not menhowever, I differ with “ Com.non Sense, tioned, and that it may sometimes not as to the cause of the evil, I am painfully only denote rrclufion, but ttand fo: near : obliged to acknowledge at once its ex: thus, by myself, may mean near mulelf. iltence and its magnitude; and I wish I The former of these fignifications is fully did not at the same time see reason to explained in the paper in question, but fear, that it will rather increase than di- the latter is not even alluded to, owing to minith, unless we take a much more en- the omission of the following paragraph : larged view, than any perfons feem, at « The reader of the Evenings of preleut, difposed to take of the subject. Southill is to recollect that I only pro
This paper is already too long to war- feiled to investigate every one of the exránt my going into my own opinions amples which Dr. Johnson adduced to upon the evil; yet I thould not be dealing his feveral divisions of by. I have, howfarly by your correspondent, if I were tè ever, in the pages of the inveltigation, coutent myself with merely contradicting introduced here and there fome examples him. It is an affair in which we are all on circumstances which the Doctor had interested, and the poorer we are, the not noticed. The division 6 (Evenings of greates our interest is. Every degree of Southill, p.80) and the examples adduced, frankness thould therefore be encouraged would fufticiently thew, that he fort of that bas a tendency to diffipate the con- by, therein elucidated, might introduce a fufion, in which discullions upon the pau- pronoun of the class, generally considered per fylteu hare hitherto been involved. as reflective, such as mujelf, ourjitres, &c. Slould this introduction to the subject as well as any other pronoun or any noun: meet a favourable reception, I will in a but, as not one of the passages, quoiet, future paper endeavour to prove, that presents any of those pronouns generally though the vices of the people, and the called reflective, I ain going to difcufs un injudicious arrangements of government, example of the kind. Let us contider both infirumentally tend to create a great this combination of words, "Come and number of paupers, the true cause as fit by myself," with an emphasis upon my mell of the pauperism complained of, as felf, instead of, "Come and by me," of the fyttern by which its evils are at- with an emphasis upon me." I thall corso Sider either of the two constructions as associate, fince by may mean proximity used to one or several, by a person, who of place, and by myje!/, may stand for withes the sitting not to be near or by neur mylelt, which does not seem to jinsome other person in the company, but ply exclufion. . This objection is also reto be by or near him in preference to any moved by the grand principle already one elle. On the least reflection, it will mentioned; for it proves, that in the phrale be evident, that, in by myself or by me, the Come und fit by myself, every individual word by is, as to value, different tiom the not my felt would be excluded in regard by which I have discussed before, and to the manner in which I requefied him that by myself is something more than a to come and fit; and, at the fame time, redundant expreflion, however emphati- it shews that Dr. Johnson had attributed cally uttered, in regard to myself, by the to by alone a force of exclusion, to wbich perton. It is evident also that myje!f is every prepotition was really entitled. And not here a reflective pronoun, and yet indeed, if any person thould remain tiit excludes every one, who is not the per- lent, after saving Come and fit, he would son that utters the above combination of be alkeil, where? or, how? and his anwords. Indeed, if the person had faid: swer would probably be, here or there, “ Coine and fit by THAT TABLC,” (point- (pointing to the place); or he would reing to it) every place not about that ia- ply, by me or by myself, near ine or near ble would have been excluded, tince I myself, &c. have proved, (see Monthly Magazine, p. To conclude, it must be granted, I 236) that every sort of prepolition may think, that my friend Salmon was the introduce a noun or pronoun to be view- first who discovered the principle, that ed, as excluding all individuals, that are whatever is, in a sentence, presented as not represented by that noun or pronoun.” governed by one and the same preposition,
Confidering the detached form in which actually excludes every individual not the above paragraph appears; it seems' mentioned as un associale. And, I trust, proper
to add a few explanatory remarks. it will also be allowed that he is free froin In the first place it should be observed, the blame which attaches to Dr. Johnson that it was Dr. Johnfon who considered and other philologists, for having imagined by myself, 8c. as excluding every other that by, and all other prepositions, had individual; but the author of the Even- not always the power of excluding from ings of Southill has given to that fort of their adjusts, all the individuals not imby the value of associate, and, anticipating plied in the adjuncts themselves. objections to this meaning, is desirous of
J. PAYNE, removing them. It may be asked, how, in the phrase, I shall dine by myself, myrelf
can For the Monthly Mugazine. be considered as an associate to I. This ob
JOURNAL of u voyage performed in the jection is easily removed by the author's
INDIAN SEAS, to MADRAS, BENGAL, grand principle, “Prepositions are mere
CHINA, &., &c., in HIS MAJISTY's ly used to avoid questions likely to be put
SHIP CAROLINE, in theyears 1803-4-5, for the sake of obtaining circumstantial
interpersed with thart DESCRIPTIVE statements." Now, after having said, I
SKETCHES of the PRESENT STATE of the jhall dine, if any person were to ask me
principal SETTLEMENTS of the INDIA with whom? I, having no companion or associate, nould be forced to reply no
Communicuted to the NONTILLY MAGAZINE body, or I alone. Therefore, as by mySelf is equal to I alone, it follows of courle, by an OFFICER of that save.
TE tiarted from Malacca on the
becomes a sort of negative affociate, or course for the straits of Sincapore, where no associate at all, merely because my- we arrived in two days with a light and Self means here the very individual al- pleafant breeze; we came to an anchor ready represented by I, and is introduced in the middle of these firaits for the purin the very place where a real affociate pose of collecting the couroy, a part of inight have been mentioned; baving with which we bad left behind at Malacca, to for its prefix, as would be the case in the repair the damages they had receiv cu in 'phrase I shall dine with my brother, in- the ttraits by lightning. ite:d of, I Mall dine by myself.
The ttraits of Sincapore are formed by It may also be objected, that in such a a cluster of innumerable little islands, combination of words as by myself, &c. lying off the moli fouthern part of the the prepolition by is not always equal to Muay peninsula. They are coverered with woods, have a great variety in their scene, however, now began to Mift, fhapes, and indented on all sides with and our misery to commence. plentant litttle bays and landy coves, On thc 2d of October, the lky assumed a where the finest turtle is found in great very unusual appearance; the skirts of the plenty. The patlage between these horizon feemed as if they were tinged íslands is in fuine places so narrow with blood; the black portentous clouds that we might have almost chucked a bif- that hung over us, looked as it surcharcuit on thore; yet the water was deep, ged with electric fluid, and ready every clear, and finooth as velvet. There can inftant to burst on our heads! scarcely be a more beautiful picture, than lu the evening the lightning gleamed the light of a tleet of thips winding with such vivid flathes through the air, through this roinantic group of wlands. that it was painful to look around; ftill, The natives came off in their canoes however unaccompanied with thunder. laden with turtle, some of which wcighed The rain now began to pour down in such ihree or four hundred pounds, and these torrents, that it actually appeared to be they fold for a dollar or two a-piece; we of course has alderman's fure every day
precipitated froin the heavens en mulje,
deluging every part of the thip:while we continued in these straits.
" Mean time in fable cincture, shadows vast, At length having got the thips all to
Deep ting'd and damp, and congregated clouds, gether (00 the 22d), we burried away,
And all the vapory turbulence of beaven, fcaring that the north-east monsoon Involve the face of things." might set in, or at least that we might be battled between the two monsoons.
It had now continued calm for some The next day patled to the northward
hours, but foon 'the gale commenced ; of Pedra Branca, a rock lying off point
and laited, with some interruptions and Romania, and so called by the Portu- various alterations, for four fuccellive guese, on account of its being covered
days. The wind was firit from the westwith the white excrements of birds ; it 'ward, but in the course of the typhoon it bas fome rcfemblance to the Bass rock in
blew from every point of the compass! the Firth or Forth. Here the Chinese
As it was, however, generally in our feas conmence, and thips generally take
favour, we fcudded great part of the time, a departure from this rock, or point
and of course made a noit rapid proRomania, when proceeding to China.
grefs: Next day (twenty-fourth of September)
It is impossible to describe the unpleapafied Pulo Aore and Pulo Timon, two
fantness (I may say misery) of our lituaillands lying in 101° of eart longitude, tion during this period. The first twentyaud of contiderable height; at this place four hours of the gale demolished tables, we expected to fall in with Linois, when
chairs, crockery-ware, and almost every we would have furprized bim a little with cooking utentil we had on board, so that the force we now had (a seventy-tour, a
we could scarce get as much suitenance fifty-gun hip, two frigates, and a Noop as would keep foul and body together! of war): as there were no appearances,
To add to our comforts, we had genehowever, of an enemy, the line of battle raily a quantity of water walhing about Ihip here took leave ot us, and returned
our legs in the gun-rooin; while the to India.
feams of the ship (coming from a hot We this day loft fight of land, and country) were so open, that the water fiteered for China with a pleasant breeze came pouring down through the decks on and compact convoy; the weather con- cur heads! lined uncommonly fine for the next five
The frequent fhifting of the wind rai. days, when we made Pulo Sapata, a sed such a crofs tumultuous sea, that it very singular rock standing up like a pillar broke over us in all directions, causing in the middle of the Chinese feas; it is the ship to labour with ondetcribable viope pendicular all round, and white like lenceDover chilis, with innumerable flocks of “ Through the black night that fits immense birds hovering round it, and feems as if around, placed here by Providence as a mark to Lah'd into foam, the fierce conflicting brine guide mariners through those seas, where Seems o'er a thousand raging waves to burn ! so many bidden dangers abound.
Mean-time the mountain billows to the clouds Ilitherto we had been sailing on velvet, In dreadful tumult swell'd, furge above surge, and with winds much more favourable
Burst into chaos with tremendous roar!” than we had reason to expect at this late On the 4th, we experienced a consider. period of the south-west monsoon : the able interinission of the gale, and to