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{pondent on the same important subject, propriety, however beautiful. To this in your last number, afforded me great objection Fenelon has very properly anpleasure; and I trust the friends of hu- iwered, that Homer did not create the furnity will pay all proper attention to gods whom he has introduced in his che encouraging arguments he fuggetts. poem, but has described them as he Tis even to be lamented, that since the found thein. His mythology was, no abore letters appeared in your excellent doubt, the mythology of Greece, and he Miscellany, this country, and mankind only followed the traditions of his counin general, have lott the most dillin- try. The era of the Trojan war apguilhed champion of civil and religious proached the age of the gods and demiliberty, and by consequence of humanity, gods. Several of the heroes concerned winch latter ages has produced. But, in that war were reputed to be the chilfurely, bis mantle is left behind, and dren of these gods. Of course, the trahas inspired his frieuds with some portion ditionary tales relating to them were of his humane benevolent fpirit. Thofe blended with the fables of the deities. who wish to abolish the Nave-trade, will, These popular legends Homer adopted; even for contillency's fake, will to pre- and in his bands they produce a fine efpent all wanton acts of cruelty towards fect. His lytiem of machinery, often the brute creation. Their work will be lofty and magnificent, is always prightly only balf done and imperfect, if this is and amusing. It adds contiderably to omitted.

the vumber of his pertonages; and the The present time is peculiarly favour- very circunstance with which he is reable for such humane efforts. A new proached of having given to his divine parliament will foon mcet, in the election characters a mixture of human frailtics, of which (according to your ftatement, by rendering them as interetting to the p. 387,) the friends of liberty, and of reader as the human actors, increases course of humanity, bave moli laudably the interest of the poem. His battles, and successfully exerted themselves. his councils, and his descriptions, are Surely then a new parliament, and in diversified by the frequent intervention their frit fellions too, will not refuse to of the gods'; and the alternate trandipals a law so congenial to the very first tions from earth to heaven, and from requirements of our holy religion, and heaven to earth, give relief to the mind the want of which is afl'uredly a national in fuch a continued scene of blood and disgrace!

tlaughter. I am, Sir, your's, &c.

If the mythology of Horner was not Nov. 7, 1806.

SENEX: invented by him, the use he has inade of

it is entirely his own. But though he LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERA

has employed bis celettial machinery, in TURE.-No, IV.

general, with admirable art and judg. ment, yet in foine iuliances it cannot be

denied that he has tranfgrefled the wellU NDER the fame head of charac- known rule of Horace :

ters, we are now to notice the gods of Homer, or his machinery. This, Nec Deus interfit, niß dignus vindice nodus

Inciderit. as we have already observed, is considered the inust difficult part of the epic. The gods are introduced upon the flage In the Ilind it forms a very considerable more frequently than is neceffary, and part of the poem, and for this reason are often employed in offices too frivoHomer is become the tandard of poetic lous and below the dignity of their natheology. It is evident, that this ma- ture. To exemplify this obfervation by chinery was not invented by him. It is, one instance: it appears to be no very therefore, with great injuitice, that he honourable function for Minerva, to be has been accused of having debased the come the charioteer of Diomed; but religion of his country, by representing when the is described as affunning the its deities under the most difyraceful co- rcins, and plying the lath, ber divinity lours, and subject to all the infirmities is absolutely degraded. 'There are neca and pallions of the human race. This fionally triting, and even ridiculous, alhas been urged ayninst him by La Motte, tercations among the gods, particularly a cold declamatory writer, who, without the quarrel between Jupiter and Jono. one poctical spark in his own coinpofition, it must also be admitted, that notwithwas unwilling to praise it in others, and standing the credulity of the Grecks, and eager to condemn crery deviation from the exteutive licence of fiction which 1



their mythology allowed, and of which from nature, giving a plain rehearsal of Homer bas su largely availed hiinfelf, what paffed, or was supposed to pass, in there are some incidents in the Iliad ra- conversation between the perions of ther too marvellous even for the poei's whom the author treats. In progress of own age, and which have too ludicrous time, when the art of writing was inore an effect for the gravity of the epopea. studied, it was thought more elegant to It may be fufficient to mention the mira- compress the fubitance of conversation culous gift of speech conferred on the into thort distinct narrative, made by the horfes of Achilles. Perhaps the undis poet or historian in his own perfon, and tirguishing admirers of Homer will fa- to reserve direct fpceches for folemn octasty themselves by resolving the whole casions only. The fpeecles of Homer into a fupernatural incident, and justity are however, upon the whole, characit by a miracle of a fimilar nature re- teristic and lively; and to them we owe, corded in the facred writings. But the in a great ineasure, that admirable dilcauses of fuch a phenomenon were by play which he has given of human nano ineans limilar, nor can we admit it in ture. But it is in the descriptive parts the forrer cafe as a fusticient reason for of his narrative that he more particularly breaking through the order of nature, excels. They are sometimes representaand encroaching upon the prerogative of tions of such scenes as we ourselves may the human species. The pallage in the have beheld. At others, they are mere21it book, where the river Scamander ļy fictitious, but always pleasing. The attacks Achilles, and threatens to over- defcription of the light ariling from the whelm hin with lus waves, till Vulcan, fires of the Grecian camp, in the eighth at the instigation of Juno, comes down book, beginning with this line, from heaven to chalise the infolence of Scamander, whole waters he scorches 25 8*87° sy oupava asgx ¢ 250TV au pi selarny, and dries up with fire, is another inci- exhibits as beautiful and exquisite a night dent equally ludicrous, as exceeding the scene as is to be met with in ancient or utmost boundary of fiction. But these modern poetry. The celebrated translaextravagancies must be attributed to that tion, or rather iinitation, or Pope is too wildness and irregularity of itnagination well known to be transcribed, but it vics which have distinguilhed every great genius with the Griginal in fplendour of diction from Homer to Shakespeare, and deferve and poetical ornament, Of fifiitious the fame epithet of Splendida peccata feenery there is a striking pecimen in which tbe ancient Fathers of the Christian the faine book, in the sublime and picchurch bestowed on the virtues of the turesque description of the almiylity heathen. Indeed, moit of the faults of thunderer scaling the heavens, darting Homer must be ascribed to this exube- through the skies with the rapidity of rance of fracy, and may be compared lightning, and seating inimself at lait on to the apoftate angels in Milton, who, his throne in awful majefiy, while the though with “ faded fplendour wan," heavens and the earth tremble under his Hill exhibited “excess of glory obscur, feet. There is also a remarkable examed." Under the third and last head in which tion in the lamentations of Achilles,

ple of vivacity and strength of descripwe are to consider the Iliad, we must when brooding over the injury done him notice the narration, the imagery, and by Ayamemnon in depriving him of his the sentiments. In his narrative of fair captivo. Indignation, griel, and events, we have already remarked that disdain rend his heart, which seenis ready Homer is concise, spirited, and rapid. to burst with the conflict of impetuous In his speeches he must be admitted to

paflions. be tedious. But they should be confi

-αυταρ Αχιλλεύς dered as flowing froin the characters, as

Δακρυσας έταρων αφαρ εζετο νοσφι λιαςθεις perfect or defective in proportion as they. Giv episos moncos, dew att evne FOTO, agree or difegree witli tie 1nanners of Πολλα δε μητρι φιλη εεησατο χειρας οξέγους, those who utter them. There is much

Lib. i. 1. 348. inore dulogue in lower than in Virgil. Not fo his loss the great Achilles ne ; What Virgil informs us of by two words But fad, retiring to the founding fore, of narration, Homer brings about by a O'er the broad margin of the deep he hung, speech. Such a ftyle as this is the most That kindred deep from whence his mother umple and artless form of writing, and

sprung i mult therefore undoubtedly have beca There, bathed in tears of anger and disdain, the most ancient. It is copying directly Thus loud lamented to the formy main,

The Mexthly Mac. No. 135.


Ζευ πατερ και

les yeux,

The imagery of Homer is, in general, the image exquisitely tender, and gives grand, awful, and beautiful.

It may it a peculiar propriety. perbaps be urged, that the fimilies occur It is also in sentiment that Homer has too often, and sometimes interrup! the principally excelled. This remark, oricourse of his narration. He was so na- ginally made by Longinus, is verified by turally poetical, that he saw all the fen- a variety of pasages in the Iliad. An timents and actions of men through the example of fublimity of sentiment ocmirror of some corresponding image. curs in the 17th book, in the abrupt and His mind, teeming withi poetical allu- striking prayer of Ajax, when the Grefious, potleiled a greater elevation than cian army is enveloped in sudden and delicacy, and was more capable of abun- impenetrable darkness : dance chan choice. He is to prolific in

αλλα συ ρυσαι υπ'ηερος μιας Αχαιων, , images, that he may be said to have fup- nosnoor d'al@pav, dos d'c98adfecisiv adfai'. plied every poet wlio has fucceeded him. Εν δε φαιει και ολεσσον, επει να του ευαδιν ούτως. He has more daring figures, and more

L. 645. striking metaphors, than any other. But

-Low of earth and air, it is wonderful witb what propriety his o King ! O father! hear my humble prayer; expreflions are always suited to his ideas. Dispel this cloud, the light of heaven reThey are never too big for the senfe,

ftore ; but are great in proportion to the gran- Give me to see, and Ajax alks no more. deur of the sentiment. It is the fenti- If we must perish, we thy will obey; ment that firells the diction, which riles But let us perith in the face of day. with it to exact proportion. Such aro This pallage, thus unnecessarily amthe arrow impatient to be on the wing, a plified by Pope, has been more briefly weapon thirsting to drink the blood of and more energetically rendered by Boithe enemy. These are what Aristotle leau. justly calls living words. The most beau- Grand Dieu! chasse la nuit qui nous couvrc tifal figures are what we have already mentioned; the fires in the camp com- Et combats contre nous à la clarté des cieux, pared to the moon and stars by night; Paris going to battle, to the war-borse

We have another instance of fublimity prancing to the river; the comparison of sentiment in the beginning of the of Achilles, in the 22d book, to the dog- 8th book, in the speech of Jupiter in the tar; and above all

, the following beau. interior deities. The pallage is too long tiful fimile on the death of Euphorbus, for transcription ; but the reader is altos Oιαν δε τρεφει εργος ανηρ εμθηλες ελαιης

nithed at the awful denunciations against Χωρω εν οιοπολω, όθ'άλης αναβεύρυχεν ύδωρ, the offenders, and the bold dehance Κολων τηλεθαν, το δε τε πνοια, δονεεσι which he gives to the power of all the Παντοιων ανεμων, και τε βρυει ανθεϊ' λευκα gods combined against him. The idea ελθων δεξαπινης ανεμος, συν λαιλαπί πολλη, contained in the two following lines, is Βοθρα τ'εξεςρεψε, και εξεταννυσ' επι γαιη. one of the grandeft that can be presented

Lib, 17, 1. 53. to the human imagination: As the young olive, in some fylvan scene, Αλλ' ότε δη και εγω πρωφρων εθελοιμι ερυτσαι,

, Crown'd by fresh fountains with eternal green, Ausn xiv yaon spusaspe', aut rs Badass*. Lifts the gay head in snowy flowrets fair,

- If I but stretch this hand, And plays and dances to the gentle air : When lo! a whirlwind from high beaven in

I heave the gous, the ocean, and the land. vades

It bears a strong resemblance to the reThe tender plant, and withers all its fades: presentation which is given us in the It lies uprooted from its genial bed,

Ŝacred Writings of the power of Jehovah, A lovely ruin, now defaced and dead.

when he is laid “ to weigh the hills in It is impoflible to select a finer image fcales, and the modutains in a balance, froin nature to represent the untimely and to take up the itles as a very little death of a young warrior, celebrated for thing." There is a remarkable perity his beauty. Though Pope has in a great between pailages in Homer, and thote meafure preserved the delicacy and beau- in the Scriptures; and Duport, in heid ty of the original in his trantlation of Gnomologia Horerica, bas collected inthe above pallage, lic has onnitted the numerable inftanees of this fort. Ac fine circumtiance of a man rearing the cording to Gale, Horner took many of wide-spreading olive with care in a foli- bis fctions from some red Scripture tri Aary field, a circunliauce which reodus ditions, which he gathered up wulft lie



was in Egypt, and which we may collect latitude, and profundity, and as an exfrom bis ityle and the affinity of many of cellent over-plus famous for height. It his expressions with the Scripture lan- was a maine poynt of wisedoine to ground guage.' Sir Walter Raleigh goes still far- hier upon Faith, for thee is the more ther, and allerts" that it cannot be likely to stand sure: the great croffe in doubted but that Homer had read over the middle certainly hath bin, and is yet, all the books of Moles, as appears evi- oininous to this churches relaration.' ş. dently trom many places stolen from Paul called the church the piilar of truth, thence word for word.”

and surely had they not beene found, they had failen before this time. The

head of this churcb háth ben twice For the Monthly Magazine,

troubled with a burning fever, and so the LONDINIANA,

city, to keep it from a third danger, let

it stand without a head. I can but adCRIPPLECATE.

mire the charity of former times, to 1480.

N this yeare Edmund Shaw, build fuch famous temples, when as

goldsmith, and mayor of Lon these ages cannot find repaire to them } dion, newlie builded Creplegate from the but then the world was all church, and foundation, which gate in old time had

now the church is all world : then chabene a prison, whereunto such citizens rity went before, and exceeded preachand other as were arrested for debt (or ing; now there is much preaching, nay like trespasses) were committed, as they more than ever, yet lette charity; our be now to the counters, as maie

forefathers advanced the church, and by a writ of King Edward II. in thcfe kept their land: these times loose their words: “ Rex vic. London falutem. Ex lands, and yet decay the churches. I gravi querela capti et detenti in prisona cause it fo much loved the church.

honour antiquity so much the more, bekoftra de Creplegute, pro xli quas corain Radulpho Sandwico, tum cultode civi. There is more reason to fufpect the pretatis netræ London, et I. de Blackewell cife puritaine devoyd of charity, than culode recognit, debitorinn, &c.

the simple ignorant fraught with good Holindhed, p. 703.

workes." I thinke truly in this one ponat, the ends of their actions were for good,

and what they aimed at was God's glory Sir Robert Cotton told Weerer of a and their owne happines. They builded : chelt of lead, found in Radcliffe-field, in temples, but our degenerating age can Stepoey parih; the upper part garnilled say, come let us trike thein into our mich scallop thells and a crotister border: hands and potless them : amongst many At the head and foot of the cottin stood others, this cannot be fayd to be the two jars, three feet long; and on the rarest, though the greateit

. Puritaines tides a number of bottles of glittering are blown out of the church with the med eartb, fome painted, and inany great loud voice of the organs; their zealous ptials of glass

, foine six fome eight fquare, spirits cannot indure the mulicke, nor having a whitill liquor in them. Within the multitude of the surpliccs, because the chest was the body of a woman, as they are rclickes (they tay) of Rome's the surgeons judged by the scull. On fuperftition. Here is that famous place either side of her were two fceptres of for ferinons, not by this fećt frequented, ivory, eighteen inches long, and on her because of the title tho Crojė. The breait a little figure of Cupid nently cut middle ile is much frequented at noone in wliite ttone. And among the bones with a company of Hungarians, not were two pieces of jet, with round heads walking fo much for recreation as neede; in form of nails, three inches long,

(and if any of these mezte with a yonGough, Sep. Mon, vol. i. p. 64, Weever ker, that hath his pockets well lined Fun. Mon. p. 30.

with filver, they will relate to him the OLD ST. PAUL's.

meaning of Tycho Brahe, or the North In a curious little volume of the time Star ; and never leave flattering him in of Charles I. entitled “ London and the his own words, and flicke as clole to Countrey carbonadoed," is the following him as a bur uppone travailer's cloake; defcription" of S. Paules church." and never leave til he and they have

“Oh Domus antiqua, a fit object for faluted the Greene Dragon, or the Swanne pitty, for charity; further reported of behind the thàmbles,—where I leave ihan knowne, it is a compleat body, for them.) Well, there is fome hope of reit hath the three dimentions of longitude, storing tlus churoda to its former glory;




the great summes of money bequeathed, it may acquit itself boldly and valianty are foue probabilities; and the charity in real engageinents, it will run these of fome good men already, in cloathing hazards in Tham ones.” and repayring the inside, is a great en- Finibury, or Moor fields, were at this couragement; and there is a speech that period but a valt morals. the houses that are about it must be pulled down, for Paules church is old Here, according to Stowe, died, enough to fiand alone. Here are pray- February 3d, anno 1399, John of Gaunt, ers uiten, but finister fufpition doubts Duke of Lancalier. more formal than zealous; they thould It seems from the following passage in not be worldly, because al church-men'; Stowe's Annals, that the gardens here there are none dumbe, for they can were famous for produciny fine firaw1peake loud enough. I leave it and berries. He says, speaking of Richard III. them, wilhing all might be amended.” “ And after a little talking to them, he FINSBURY FIELDS,

faid to the Bishop of Ely, My Lord, you Fitzstephen, who wrote his Descrip- have very good strawberries at your

Gartion of London before 1182, is very ac- den in Holborn, I require you to let me curate in describing the winter anuse- have a messe of thein Gladly, my Lord, ments of the Londoners in Finsbury quoth he, would to God I had foine betfields; and particularly mentions a spe- ter thing as ready to your pleasure as cies.of ikaiting. The following is a tran- that; and therewith he sent in all halte dation of the pasage :

his servant for a mesle of strawberries." “ When that vait lake, which waters This circunstance has been minutely the walls of the city toward the north, copied by Shakespeare in his play of is hard frozen, the youth in great num- Richard III, where he puts the following bers go to divert theinfelves on the ice. words in that prince's mouth. Some taking a small run for an increment “ My Lord of Ely, when I was last in of velocity, place their feet at the pro

Holbourne, per distance, and are carried Niding lide- I saw good strawberries in your Grace's

garden there, ways a great way; others will make a large cake of ice, and seating one of their

I do beseech you send for some of them." companions upon it, they take hold of During the civil war, this house was one another's hands, and draw him converted into an hospital, as appears by along; when it fometimes happens, that an entry in Rushworth, vol. ii. part iv. moving swiftly on fo flippery a plain, page 1097. “ The Lords concurred they all fall down headlong. Others with the Commons, in a meflage fent up there are who are ftill more expert in to their Lordflips for Ely Ilouse, ju flolthese amusements on the ice; they place bourne, to be for the use of the fick and certain bones, the leg-bones of some ani- maimed foldiers.”Grofi's Antiquities of mal, under the foles of their feet, by England and Wales. tying them round their ankles, and then taking a pole thod with iron into their STREETS IN LONDON IN THE SAXON TIMES.

London is mentioned in Bede as the hands, they pull themselves forward by metropolis of the East Saxons in the year firiking it against the ice, and are carried 604, lying on the banks of the Thames

, along with a velocity equal to the flight of a bird, or a bolt discharged from a

“the emporium of many people coming cross-bow. Sometimes, two of them thus

by sea and land."* furnithed agree to ttart opponite one to don is conveyed " at the ancient fiony

In a grant, dated 889, a Court in Lon. amther, at u grcat distance; they meet; edifice, called by the citizens hwæț manclevate their poles, attack and Atrike each des tone, from the public freet to the other, when one or both of them fall

, wall of the fame city."t Fron this we and not without some budily hurt; and learn that so early as 889, the walls of even atter their fall, they thall be carried

London esilied. a good dittance from cach other by the rapidity of the motion; und whatever in London, called Ceolinundinge linga,

In 857 we tind a conveyance of a place part of your head comes upon the ice, not far from the Welt Gate. Tinis Welt it is fire to be laid bare to the kull

: Cate may have been either Temple Bar Very often the leg or the arm of the

or Holborn Bars. party that falls, it lie chances to light

Ethelbald, the Mercian King, gave a upon thein, is brokeu: but youth is an aye ambitious of glory, fund and covet- * Beje, !. , c. 3. † Heming, 42. ous of vićtory; aud ibat ir tuture times ans. 43.


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