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England, which at this period occupied fate of the Illand. Paoli, however, on Toulon, and waged war, with a degree of this occation, cheerfully yielded to the vigour and of bitterness, hitherto unex- force of circumstances, and was generous mupled in the annals of that kingdom. enough before his departure, to address a He accordingly invited the Britith Ad- valedictory letter to his countrymen, in ruiral, * who had been recently foiled in which he exhorted them tu cultivate the an expedition against bis native country, friendthip of the English, and remain to invade it anew, with a fleet, accom- firm in their allegiance to liis Majetty panied by a body of troops, to whom he Geore III. was prepared to give every possible suc- These loyal effusions, however, during couz, having been once more elected Ge- his ablence, were attended but with little neraliilimo, in a grand council of the na- effect; for the natives, naturally incontion. That officer, having firti dispatched stant, foon became disguited with their Colonel, now General Sir John Moore, new allies and protectors. Dazzled allo together with the late Major Kæhler, to at the same time, perhaps, with the fplenexamine into the prospects and resources dour of the victories of their country.nan, of the infurgents, an expedition failed Buonaparte in Italy, and determined, from the bay of Hieres, January 24, above all things, on a re-union with 1795, for the express purpose of driving France; it was at length deemed necefthe French out of the land. A body fary, on the part of the English troops, of troops having been landed under to evacuate an Iland, which has always Lieutenant General Dundas, the tower proved destructive to every nation conof Mortella was taken with foine diffi- nected with it either by friendihip or by culty; after which, Fornelli was attacked enmity. with fuccefs, and St. Fiorenzo having Meanwhile a fad reverse of fortune been evacuated, Bastia and Calvi, also, attended on Paoli; for, by the failure of a yielded to the victors.
commercial house at Leghorn, he loft the Immediately after this, a general Con- sum of five thousand pounds, which was fulta was alleinbled at Corte; and Paoli all that he poffeffed in the world. In adhaving been elected President, the Re- dition to this, the payments of his penpresentatives of the nation unanimouily lion had been suspended; and on his arvoted the union of Corsica with the Bri- rival in England, he was not received at tith Crown. This proposition having Court with lo much attention, as herebeen readily accepted, on the part of Sir tofore. Gilbert Elliot, (now Lord Minto,) then his About this period, he was visited hy Majesty's cominillioner, he was immedi- the author of this article, who found hin ately invested with the dignity of Vice- in an obloure lodging, above a shop in Roy. A new constitution was soon after Oxford-road, whence he at length refurined, which, if not exactly fuitable to moved into a linall house in Edgewarethe genius of the nation, must be allowed road, on the right hand side, a little beto have been exceedingly favourable to yond the turnpike. The remainder of Liberty; for these subjects now received his life is one entire blank, totally devoid is a boon, many of those very privileges of incidents, until death, which had been which the inhabitants of England bad preceded by a lingering illness, on Thurslong demanded in vain as a right, parti- day, February 5, 1807, in the 811t year Lalarly short parliainents, and an equal of his age. representation of the people,
Few foreigners, however distinguished, It might have been supposed, that the have been lo much careffed in England, triumple of Paoli was complete, and his as the late General Pascal Pagli. By kappiness placed on fucla a permanent living in habits of familiarity with men balis, as never to be either ruffled or dif- of letters, his name and exploits acquired turbed during the remainder of his life. fresh celebrity; and Boswell
, GoldBut the fact, which proved directly the smith, Johnton, Macaulay, Barbauld, reverse, tends not a little to dernonitrate and Lord Littelton, although differthe murability of hunan happiness. A ing in almost every thing else, most jeniousy, bow jultly founded we are un- cordially united in his praise. Abroad able to determine, soon after took place too, his reputation was greatly refpected; between the British Viceroy, aod the and the eulogiuins of luch a man as Corbcan Chief, the result of which was Rouflenu, then in the zenith of his repuundoubtedly connected with the firture tation, was alone fufficient to ensure re
putation throughout the rest of Europe. Lord Hood.
While lis laurels were itill green, it
was usual to compare Paoli to Timoleon, the Deity, * and also affected on all ocand Epimanondas; and it was appolitely cations, arter the manner of the heroes of remarked by an English minitier, that old, to be furrounded by dogs, of a parthe faine thing might have been said of ticular breed, which were indeed necefhim, as had been forinerly uttered by lary to preserve liim from affallipation. the Cardinal de Retz, in respect to the It is not a little remarkable, that Core famous Montrose, “that he was one of fica, an Inand which seems to have been those men, who are no longer to be found equally despised both by the ancients any where, but in tlic Lives of Plutarch." and inoderns, thould have produced two
That the Corsican Chiet, was a great men, one of whoin engaged the attention man, cannot well be denieri; but it is the of all Europe, towards the middle of the opinion of thole, who have enjoyed an lait century, while another teeins, unhapopportunity of ttudying his character, that pily for the repose of mankind, deftined he was a politician rather than a soldier; to regulate its fate, at the beginning of that be done in council more than in the pretent. arms; and that the leading feature of his public condući, was a certain degree of Italun policy, which taught hiin to retine suaded an uncivilized nation, that the received
That this amiable Chief should have pero and speculate on every event.
intimation of future events from above, is Among bois countrymen die was adorer?; but little surprising; but that he should have and to support his superiority, he made allo persuaded one of the inhabitants of an ute of those arts which have usually colightened country, is absolutely unaccount. pailed under the name of pious frunds. able" Let it be recollected, however, that There, perhaps, appeared indispensably some of the countrynien of Mr. Boswell, at necetary. for the government of barba- that very period, actually believed in jecimiento riaus! Accordingly, like Numa, he pre- Jigbt. tended to a direct communication with
PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES,
NATIONALINSTITUTE OF FRANCE. quence of putrefaction or fermentation. REPORT of the COMMITTEE, on the ques- The second class includes those, in which
TION, " Whether those Manufactories the artist, operating by the aid of fire, from which a disagreeable Smell arijes developes and evolves in air or vaponr may prove injurivus to Heulth"
various principles, which are more or less Tubelets, or very confiderable.com viE solution of this problem is, disagreeable to respire, and reputed more
or less injurious to health. sequence, as, from the great confidence After having examined the nature of reported in the decisions of the National the principal manufactories, againit which Institute, it will probably form the bafis of conliderable prejudice has been excited laws upon which the regulations of the po- at different tünes, and at different places, kice depend: and lince in Paris the fate of the reporters infer, that there are but the most useful eftablithments, and the few, the vicinity of which is dangerous exiftence of many arts, has hitherto de- to health. “ ljence,” say they, we pended on the award of individuals ; cannot too ftrongly exhort those magifand that fome, driven to a distance from trates who have the health and safety of materials, from workmen, or consumers, the public committed to their charge, to by prejudice, ignorance, or jealousy, disregard unfounded complaints, which continue to maintain a difiuvantaveous are too frequently brought againft differstruggle agaimt imuumerable obitacles, by ent establishments, daily threaten the which their growth is opposed.
profperity of the boneft manufacturer, To arrive at the true folution of the check the progrets of induftry, and enproblem, the report takes a view of the danger the fate of the art itfelt. leveral arts agaiuit which a clamour bas “The magiftrate ought to be ou his 'been raised, and it divides them into guard againfi the proceedings of a rett two claffes. The first comprises all those, leis and jealous neighbour; be Dould the procerles of which allow acriform carefully dittinguill what is only dilacorations to cfcape from them into the greeable or inconvenicnt, from what is janvuoding atmosphere, either in caufe- dangerous or injurious to healih; in
dort, Murt, he thould be fully aware of this ammoniac, leather, starch, or any other truth, that by listening to complaints of article by which vapours, very inconvewis nature, not only would the ettablill- nient to the neighbours, or danger of teent of several utiful arts in Irance be fire or explotions, are to be eltablished, prevented, but we should intensibly drive it would be wite, jutt, amd prudent, to out of our cities, the farriers, carpen- lay it down as a principle, that they are ters, joiners, braliers, coopers, founders, not to be adınitted into cities, or near weavers, and all those occupations which dwellings, without special authoriiy ; are more or less disagreeable to their and that if perfons veglect to comply neighbours. The right of toleration has with this indispentable condition, their been ettablished by time and necetlity; manufactories may be ordered to be relet us Lot doubt, therefore, but our moved without any indemnification, manufactures, when grown older, and “ It follows, from our report: 111, better known, will peaceably enjoy the That caigut inanutaciories,' læystalls, fame advantage iu society: in the mean ticeping or hemp, and every ettáblillos time we are of opinion, that the class ment in which aniinal or vegetable matought to avail itself of this circumtiance, ters are heaped together to putrify in to put them in a particular manner un- large quantities, are injurious to health, der the protection of government, and and ought to be remote from towns and derlare publicly that the manufacture of every duelling-house. 2dly, That manuacids, fal-ammoniac, Pruflian blue, fugar factories, where disagreeable imells are of lead, white lead, starch, beer, and occalioned through the action of tire, as leather, as well as blaughter-houses, in the making of acids, Prussian blue, are not injurious to the health of the and tal-ammoniac, are dangerous to the vicinity, when they are properly con- neighbours only from want of due preduted.
cautions; and that the care of govern- We cannot fay as much for the teep- ment should extend only to an active ing, of hemp, making catgut, layitalls, and enlightened fuperintendance, having aud, in general, establishments where a for its objects the 'iinprovement of their large quantiiy of animal and vegetable procelles, and of the managernent of the matter is subject to humud putrefaction: fire, and the maintenance of cleanliin all these cases, besides the disagrec. nels. Billy, That it would be worthy a able fine!l which they exhale, miarmata, good and wife government, to make remore or less deleterious, are evolvert. gulations, prohibiting the future etlab!las
“ We must add, that, though the ma- ment of any manufacture, the vicinity of nufactories of which we have already which is attended with any etientind in(poken, and which we have contidered as convenience or danger, in towns and not injurjous to the health of the neigh near dwelling-houses, without special allo buurtood, ought not to be removed, yet thority previoully obtained. In this class aluminiftration should be requelued to may be comprized the manufactories of watch over thein ftrictly, and consult poudrette (dry night foil), leather, and with well-informed persons for prescribing itarch; founderies, melting-houses for to the conductors the most proper mea- tallow, Naughter-houses, rag warehoufes, fures for preventing their smoke and manufactories of Pruffian blue, varnithi, (mell from being diffused in the vicinity. glue, and fal-ammoniac; potteries, &c." Tlus end may be attained by improving These conclusions were adopted by the the procelies of the manufactures, rait- Institute, and addressed to government, ing the outer walls, so that the vapours with an invitation to make their the balis may pot be diffused anyong the neigha of its decisions, bours ; improving the management of the fires, which may be done to fuch a ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, point that all the finoke ball be burnt donte tire-place, or, ktepulted in the M... RATTHEWS has laid before tunnels of long chimnies; and maintain- upon the Marine Baroineter, made during ing tbe utinof cleanliness in the inanu- the exardination of the coasts of New llol factories, fo that nothing thall be left to landi, and New South Wales, in the years putrify in thein, and all the refuse capa- 1801, 2, and 3. After detailing a variety ble of fermentation be lutt in deep wells, of examples, the result of inuich accurate and presented from any way inconmod- obfervation, we find that a change of wind mg the neighbours,
from the northern, to any point in the “ We thalt obferre, too, that when Southern half of the compals, caused the AW tuanufacturies of Pruffian blue, lule mercury tu rile, iud a contrary changes to fall, and that the mercury stood considers and if higher, that it would be well frorn ably higber when the wind was from the the southward, or would blow fresh; and fouth side of east and west, than in similar if it was up to 30-30, both. The falling weather it did when the wind canie from of the mercury to 30:10, was an indicathe north-lide; but until it is known what tion of a breeze from the north-eaftward; are the winds that occafioned the mer- and its descent below 30 inches, that it cury to ascend, and what to descend, would spring up or lift round to the upon the other coasts of Australia, it will weltward. probably be not agreed, whether it rose In a general summary of the winds on in consequence of the south-winds, bring- the cast coast, those that came from the ing in a more dense air from the polar fouth and east, caufed the inercury to regions, and fell on its being displaced by rise and stand highest. The winds from that which came from the tropic; or north-eati, kept the mercury up above whether the rise and higher standard of 30 inches on the castern coatt, and caused the mercury was wholly, or in part, oc- it to rise after all other winds, except cafioned by the first being sca-winds, and those from the south-eastward; but on the the descent because those from the north- fouth coast, the mercury fell with them, ward came from off the land.
and flood considerably below 30 inches. The beight, at which the mercury ge- During north-west winds, the mercury gerally stood upon the fouth coast, de- food lower than at any other time upon icrves attention: it was seldom down to both coasts. Moderate winds from the 29:40. Of one hundred and fixty days, fouth-westward, with fine weather, caused from the beginning of December, to a descent of the mercury on the east May, it was nearly one-third of the time coast; and during their continuance, it above thirty inches; and the second tiine was much lower than with winds from of paling along the coast, from the 15th the north-eaftward; but upon the fouthof May, to the 1st of June, it only once coast it rose with south-west winds, and descended to 29.96, and that for a few ltood much higher than when they came hours only ; its average standard for these from the opposite quarter. sisteen days being 30:25. Upon the The greatest range of the mercury on caliern half of the coatt beyond Cape the east coast, was from 29.60 to 30:36 at Catatirophe, in March, April and May, Port Jackson; and within the tropic, the mercury ftood higher than it did on from 29.88 to 30:30; whilft upon the the westersi balf in Deceinber, January coast the range was from 29:42 to 30:51, and February: the average standard of in the western part, where the latitude the first was 30.09, but that of the latter very little exceeds that of Port Jackson. only 29-94. At the Cape of Good Hope, After a puinber of very interesting and the mean height of the barometer, during important remarks, Mr. Flinders coneighteen days in October, and November, cludes with fome general reinarks upon sas 30:07. The height of the mercury the barometer, which, from his own exwas taken at day-break, at noon, and at perience, he conceives may be useful to eight in the evening.
feamen. (1.) It is not so much the abFrom other observations, Mr. Flinders folute, as the relative beight of the inerfound the barometer of great use to him, cury, and its state of riling and falling, in the investigation of the dangerous part that is to be attended to in forming * of the eaftern coast, where the thip was judgment of the weather that will succommonly surrounded with rocks, thoals, ceed; for it appears to stand at different ‘idands, or coral reefs. Near the main heights, with the same wind and weather, land, if the sea-breeze was dying off at in different latitudes. (2.) In the open night, and the mercury descending, he sea, the changes in the weather, and the made no fcruple of anchoring near the strength of the wind principally affect the fhore; knowing there would either be a barometer; but near the thore, a change calm, or a wind would come off the land; in the direction of the wind seems to but if the mercury kept up, he stretched affect it full as much, or more than either off, in the expectation that it would be of those causes taken Gingly. (3.) It is freshing up in a few hours. Among the upon the southi and east coats of any barrier reefs, when the wind was dying, country in the fouthern, or north and away, the barometer indicated with al-' east coasts in the northern hemisphere, moto certainty, from what quarter it where the effect of sea and land 'winds would next spring up. If the mercury upon the barometer is likely to be most ftood about 30:15, and was rising, the confpicuous.. (4.) In the open sea, the proper trade wind might be expected: mercury ands higher in a teady breeze of several days continuance, from what- rection, or a return of fine weather; or crer quarter it comes, provided it does not if the wind is light and variable, it may blow hard, than when the wind is vari- foretell its encrease to a steady breeze, able fruin one part of the compass to an- especially if there be any casting in it; other; and perhaps it is on this account, and a fall may prognoiticate a strong as well as from the direction of the wind, brecze. Most fearnen are tolerably good that the mercury fauds higher within the judges of the weather, and this judgment, tropics, than, upon the average, it ap- aliitted by observation upon the quick or pears to do in ihofe parallels where the flower riling or falling of the mercury, kinds are variable, and occationally blow and upon its relative hieight, will in most with violence.
cales enable them to tix upon which of " The barometer,” says Mr. Fimers, these changes are about to take place, " seems capable of affording to much and to what extent, where there is only assistance to the courmander of a Drip, in one; but a combination of changes will warning him of the approach and termi- be found more difficult, especially where nation of bad weather, and of changes in the effect of one upon the baroineler is the direction of the wind, even in the counteracted by the other. There are present itate of meteorological knowledge, fome combinations of changes, in which that no ufficer, in a long voyage, thould
no alteration in the barometer could be be without one." Experience is required expected, as a little experience will render to understand its language, and it is ne
evident: the barometer alone therefore, cessary to compare the state of the mer- is not of itself fuflicient, but in allifting cury with the appearance of the weather, the judgment of the seainen, it is capable before its prognostications will commonly of rendering very important services to be understood; for a rise may forctel an narigation. abatement of wind, a change in its di
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL,
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign. Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully received. ME
R. Geli., whose Topography of Troy and in which the indelicacies of the
is already in the hands of every original have been softened and adapted antiquary and admirer of Homer,will thort- to the refined taste of the English publy favour the public with an account of the lic. This new tranflation will speedily interesting island of Ithaca, its geogra- appear, illustrated by ONE HUNDRED exphy, antiquities, tatural productions, quiitely beautiful engravings; and will Lanners and cuiloms of its present in- confequently be one of the most elegant habitants, &c. &c. This work, which books in our language. will form a quarto volume, is to con- Sir William OUSELEY is 'preparing tain a variety of inaps, plans, and other for the press an Englith tranllation of the engravings, representing the ancient ci- celebrated Perlian work, intitled Nozatalel of Ithaca, the city of Bathi, the hat al Coloub, and quoted by Dr. llerports of Polis, Frichias, Mauroga, the belot, M. de Sacy, and other learned rock called Homer's School; with an Orientalists, under the name of the Peraccurate geographical survey, and a ge- fan Geographer. Sir Williaın bad tranfderal map of this celebrated illand. lated, several years ago, different parts
Le Sage's novel of Gil Blas bas, by of this valuable work; but as none of the concurrent testimony of a century, the manuscripts which he poffefled, or been determined to be the best produc- bad an opportunity of inspecting, were tun of its kind; and yet we have never perfect: some wanting the chapter on potrebed muy translation of it which has the rivers of Persia, others the part tot ceated disgutt by its obscemty and which describes the mountains and mines, vulgarity. That which bears the name otlters the sections on the roads and the of Dr. Smollet is a libel on his literary ti ayes from one city to another, he was fame, and it is more than probable that induced to defer the publication until an le mercis tent his nanue to it. A new accurate and perfect manuscript thould tranuutiou has just beco finished by Mr. be found. Having been fortunate Nani, in which the numerous idioins enough to obtain one, le las completed « Le Sage have been carefully reudered, his translation, supplied all the defects, Alustaly Mac. No. 154.