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that, bis principles being founded in hypotheses and bold assertions, have eferror, his deductions could not fail to be tranged him from the true interpretation incorrect. The severity of this attack of his text. He pursues the track of his is, however, foftened by complimentary opponent, seizes on the fame objects, allusions to biis talents, and experience in and makes thein fubfervient to the elumodern warfare.

cidation of his own system. Guifchard, Guischard then proceeds to exemplify in his reply, adus to the proofs he had his text by narrating some of the inolt already given ; and defcants on the fubrilliant actions of antiquity. He dif- tility of his adversary's affected learning. cuffes, circumftantially, the whole of These disputes, however, were very fertheir tactics, and frequently with expla- viceable to the general cause. nations altogether differing from the ex- MENIL DUPAND, inspired with a hope position by Folard. In a differtation on of being able to create and mature a the attack and defence of pofts, he is national system of war, undertook the full more contradictory in his affertions. extension and developement of Poland's Ile maintains that, in this relpect, our plans. lle forehodes events destined to theory and that of the ancients is the raise the arres of France to an height of same; but that the practice differs. This glory which thall exceed all human calis a difficult point to decide, the inven- culation; and contends, that his protion of powder having materially chan- posed inanæuvres 'are adapted to the ged our exercise. His analylis of Cæsar's character of his countrymen, who, nawars in Africa explains the obscurities of turally lively, want constitutional phlegin Hirtius.

to fustain a continued fire unthaken : In other memoirs, historical and cri- whereas edged weapons would suit their tica, Guischard discusses the campaigns impetuolity of temper, and contribute of Cæfar in Spain, when opposed by materially to fuccess. He contraits # Pompey's armies. Ile illustrates the column lo arıned with a battalion cosubject by learned notes on the Roman lumn; and infers from thence, that by method of conftructing bridges for the means of this mixture of arms (so much pallage of their troops ; on the method recommended by all matters of the art), of reconciling the calendar used by the former would posless a decided ad. Julius Cæsar with that of his predecel- vantage over the latter, by spirited and fors; on their military views; their geo- .active movements certainly practicable graphical knowledge, '&c. &c.

in the very heat of battle. With the This writer appears to be perfectly columns of the ancients he is perpetuconversant with the Greek and Latin ally finding fault ; but in his owii, he aflanguages.* His tranflations of Onofan- tures us, all their ardvantages are mited, der, of Arrian's Tactics, and partly of without any mixture of their defects. Julius Africanus, fupplementary to his His fyftem, however, bas a forinidable Memoirs, are creditable to his pen, and opponent in the author of A General claim the gratitude of literary as well Essay on Tactics. as military characters.

The judicious Marshal de PUYSEGUR, The Chevalier Lo-Looz takes up the a decided partifan of the ancients, has gauntlet thrown down by Guischard; he thrown fome important light on Milibegins by aílerting that war, as a science, tary Evolutions. 'In bis grand tactics, he is founded on felf-evident propofitions, appeals to the example of the Greeks, on theory fo demonstrative, that those who had military schools for the instruc: whom it is intended to instrućt should tion of youth in the theory of war; and learn to move by principle, infiead of afferts the poslibility of perfecting that being milled by conjecture often unfup- science without the aid of troops : for ported even by the appearance of pro- the positions being incontrovertible, and bability. lle describes Guischard as an

the principles geometrically true, no unficady guide, whose ignorance of Ro- other experience is, in his opinion, man tactics, added to luis extravagant effential to their operation than a perfect

undertanding of the eftabiified rules. On this account the King of Prussia

Puylégur, in opposition to Folard, is called him Quintus Icilius; after a Romances its present numbers

, is of a proportion

of opinion that a battalion, according to geral, one of whose mor skilful maneuvres he had imitated. Frederic took him into his ateconlistency to wheel without aukservice, and created him with esteem and wardness, and maneuvre with activity distinction.

and effect. He says, the cohorts resem

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bled our battalions; and that nations, ministry, and, with great candour, inott renowned for war, had timilar infti- points at the errors he committed. His tutions : fo that the present fyftem ema- plan of reform, which he unfolds with nates, as it were, from that of the an- becoming modesty, originated in moral cients. His parallel of Cæsar's wars in as well as political views; it compreSpain, and oi Turenne's with the Duke hends all the details of government, and of Lorraine, is the production of a fci- extends from the enliltınent of a private entilc general. His reflections on re- foldier to the retreat of an army. llis tirole molitary histories; his comparative opinions, founded on those of many geview of the French arıny in its original, neral officers, by exciting curiosity, give and in its prefent, ftate; his details, additional intereft to the work. His comp 'ebending the whole movement of Menoirs have been reviewed at large by an artsy, attelt equal judgment and ex- an anonymous writer, whom Mirabeau perience. In a supposed campaign be- in his Pruflian Military System, acknowtween La Seine and La Loire, he calls ledges to be a very able commentator. all his principles into action.

MOTTIN DE LA BALME was the man TuxPix and Guibert were cotem- who firit dispelled our false notions on porary, and are celebrated, although cavalry operations: bis elementary treaibey confiantly differ from each other. tife thereon is highly applauded both at The one is a zealous defender of un- home and abroad. His opinions are wiedy battalions, heavy squadrons, re- preferred to those of Folard, de Puységur, doubts, &c. and recommends the use of and even M. de Saint Germain. Ile pikes and other two-edged weapons. thinks we thould have a very fuperior Guibert, on the other hand, rejects this stud, if we paid more attention to our practice. Each of them appreciates the breed of horses. ucluevements of the King of Pruflia, but Pezay is author of Maillebois' Camdifferently. Their works, however, prove paigns in Italy. The plates, although them to be experienced officers.' 'Tur- very incorrect, have hitherto been very pi, like Folard, is deficient in elegance, uteful in developing the military operaprecifion, and method. Guibert is ner- tions in a country to frequently the voas, methodical, and accurate; his theatre of our arms. The first volume Eray on Tactics, in a general scale, is contains the Italian wars, as translated uaverfally admired, and proves him to from the Latin of Buonamici, whom be a found patriot. The freedom, nay Pezay calls a mercenary and bombattic boldnefs, of his preface, which he dared fcribbler; although he is generally efm print at a time when every man's teemed an clegant, learned, and even public opinions were regulated by cau- impartial writer. The latter's ignorance ton, ure teltimonials of his independent in Latin is so great, that he gives interspint, whicla proclaimed the truth at the pretations diametrically opposite to the expence of his advancement; the lan- meaning of his author, and then cafis guage is very beautiful. Ile fupports an odium on his unoffending original. hislykiem by a very clear and well drawn- BOUR.UT's Historical Memoirs of the up analysis of Turenne's, de Luxem- Seven Years' War, describe accurately bourg's, and the King of Prullia's most the causes of our humiliating ill fortune temurable actions. Nor has he been during that memorable period ; and we less fuccessful in determining the import- receive the exposition with the more ence of a ttanding army in a great em- confidence, as the author was in the pire like France, co-equal with her secrets of the cabinet, and privy to all berghbours. this work, entitled a De- the dispatches and plans sent to the feuse of Modern Warfare, in refutation ariny; many of which had been digested of Menil Durand, contains many excel by himself. An easy coinprehensive style, lent criticisins, and confirms the uufhaken and admirable precition, diftinguilla this julependence of his principles.

work, which coinprises a faithful narraMSIZERAT displays a perfect know- tive of the war, and a true description of ledge of ancient languages, as well as the country. tatrics. llis works are much esteemed MIRABEAU's Military Pruffian Svjiem Ly foreigners.

ranks him among military hiftorians. The Memoirs of the Count De St. Ger- He developes, very circumftantially, the wars are written with all the timplicity organization, the constitution, and tacof the ancients; he recounts many of tical principles of the Pruflian arıny: It Ele projects le bas formed during his is a complete work, and more descrip

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tive

OF

cive than any other of the military systein For the Monthly Magazine.
of Frederic II., which fytiem all the GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES IN
powers of Europe seem difpored to ini- TIE BACK SETTLEMENTS
tate. The whole of the work tends to NORTH AMERICA.
Mew, that Mirabeau is a great warrior, Objervatims on certain Parts of the
as well as a molt eloquent and profound Country in Louisiana ; by ANTHONY
politician.

SOULARD, E19. Surveyor-General of
The Revolution has already been the Upper Louiluna.

CHE the interest naturally attaching events unknown, is, however, so truly important, gives celebrity to the clailed amongit the largest rivers. It is patriotic zeal of our countrymen, who an object of attonishment to every body. (amid changes fo rapid, and disasters fo The unintiructed admire the rapidity of universal, that the impression of the its fiream, its extraordinary length, the existing hour was frequently lost in the salubrity of its waters, and their uncommore eventful contemplation of tlie hour mon colour. The experienced traveller, to come) have rescued from oblivion alionished at the riches scattered along ample inaterials to record our national its banks, and looking into futurity, beglory. This praise, however, does not holds this rival of the Nile palling through attach to all our historians. Soine of the countries as fruitful, as populous, and mott able, even, have inagined that a more extensive than those of Egypt. hasty but faithtul sketch was as much as The moli lucid narrative can afford but could be expected from the moment; an imperfect idea of the riches accumuwhile others, in contemplating the vait lated on its Mores. pićture in perspective, but without being The Miffuuri unites with the Miflillippi able to groupe the variety of its features, about fisieen miles above the town of St. have merely fetched the inost prominent Louis, in about the 40th degree of north among them; and with the graceful latitude. After this junction, they run touches of science and reflection, have about 1200 miles before they fall into leisurely given an impoling grandeur to the Gulf of Mexico. But as this part of their painting.

the courle is well known, I thall confine General ALEXANDER BERTHIER's Nar- myself to the Miflouri. rative of Bonaparte's Campaigns in Egypt, I have ascended this river about 1800 presents the compendious account of an miles, without perceiving any diminution event which littory will record as one of of its breadth or velocity. the most memorable on our modern The principal ftreams which fall into annals. The author's style is as rapid as the Miflouri, as you ascend it, are the the inovements he describes, yet every Gasconade, the Osage, the two Chartdetail is perfect. Method regulates his tons, the Grand River, the River of the objects, correctness describes them; and Plains, the Nichinan, the Batoney, the the whole borrows a plealing variety from Great and Little Nimahas, the Platte, a happy combination of moral reflections the Sioux, the Running Water, and and defcriptive talent.

others. The subject is always harmonised by For 75 miles above its junction with the language, and contains a diversity of the Miflillippi, there are different setule tone and inflection, which adds greatly ments of American families, especially to the general interest of the work. at Bonhomme, Femme Ofuge, &c.; be

An elegant style, intelligent observa- yond these the banks are inhabited by tion, excellent geographical and topo- lavages only. The Great and Little graphical details on the nature of the Otages, settled at 120 leagues on the feat of war, and unbiased opinions, are waters called by their respective names, the real merits of a Summary of Mili- the Cams, the Otas, the Paris, the tary Events, by MATTHIEU Dumas; Loups or Panis Mahas, the Mahas, the beginning with the diffolution of the Pincas, the Ricaras, the Mandanes, and congress of Raftadt, and closing with the the Sioux. The latter tribe bas no fixed 18th Brumaire. This work (notwithitand- habitation on the Miflouri, but vitit ing fome inaccuracies admitted by the it regularly for the purpose of hunting. author) will form, hereafter, a perfect The borders of the Millouri are alter. treature to those who may be disposed nately forests and meadows, or cleared to write the history of that period of the plains. The higher we go up this river, war,

the more common are uhele plains; and

they

5

1

they seem to enlarge every year, in con- hement fire. I have seen them take hold fequence of the fires which overrun them of red-hot irons and burning coals, withain autumn. Thele tires are kindled either out suffering any inconvenience. by the Indians or the white hunters, The lands in the neighbourhood of the fometimes by accident, and at others Missouri are excellent; and, when culfor the purpose of favouring their hunt- tivated, are capable of yielding all the ing.

productions of the temperate climates, The water of the Mifouri is turbid, and even some of the hot oncs : such as and deposits a sediment of very fine sand, wheat, maize, and every kind of grain : which readily falls to the bottom. This common and sweet potatoes; hemp, admixture, which renders it unpleasant which seems to be an indigenous vegetato the fight, diminishes not in the least ble: even cotton fucceeds there, though its wholesomeness. Experience has prov. not so well as farther fouth ; and the ed it to be more falubrious than that of raising of it answers a good purpose the Ohio and the Upper Millilippi. for the families already settled on the

The rivers and streams that empty river, for from a tield of about two acres into the Missouri below the Platte, are they obtain a crop sufficient to clothe clear and lipid ; but above that river a fainily, they are as turbid as the Mifouri itself. The natural meadows are a great reThis muddiness is caused by the fandy source for them. These aiford excellent banks or hills of white earth through or pasture, and require but little labour to down which they run. The bed of the clear them. After one year's exertion, a Mitsouri is interrupted by thoals, fome- man may enjoy his fields duly prepared tinues of sand, and sometimes of gravel, for crops. Brick and potter's earths are which frequently change place, and con- very common; and the true Chinese sequently always render the navigation kaolin is reported, by good judges, to be uncertain. Its general course is north, a there,—that substance to which porcelain quarter north-welt.

owes its peculiar fineness. And there To give a precile idea of the incalcu- exit on the borders of this grand river lable riches scattered along the lides of falt-springs enough to furnith falt

. for the the Miflouri, would require unlimited country when it ihall become inhabited, knowledge. The low bottoms are co- and a great deal to spare. vered with huge trees, especially the Saltpetre is found very abundantly in poplar and cotton trees, large enough for numberless caverns near the Mislöuri

. firit-rate canoes; the sugar-maple; the The rocks are generally calcareous; red and black walnut, so useful to join though there is one which is peculiar to ers; the red and white elm; the three- this river. It is of a blood-red colour, thorned acacia, of which impenetrable compadi, yielding to a tool, hardening in hedges may be inade; the ofier; the red the air, and receiving the neatelt polithi

. and black mulberry; the lime-tree, aud The natives nuake their pipes of it. The the horse-cliefmut: all of which are very strata are fo extensive, that there is any plentiful. Red and white oak, fit for quantity that may be wanted for other vellels, and all other forts of timber, pine, purpofes. There are also quarries of and (on the stony mountains) cedar, are marble; but we know as vet little more common productions.

than its colour, which is veined red. It I find it impoflible to enumerate all is said there is a boly of gypsum there; the trees which are yet unknown in other and this would not be difficult to explore. countries, and with whose uses and qua- Vulcanic productions are also found, lities we are as yet unacquainted. The evincing the existence of burning mounsmaller plants are still more numerous : tains in foriner times, or in tituations I, however, touch that article superfi- now unknown. cially, for want of sufficient botanical in- The thort stay usually made ainong the Sorination. The Indians know the vir- savage nations, has hitherto been unfalues of many of them. Some are used vourable to the acquirement of correct io heal wounds, others to poisou arrows; information concerning the mines and fome again for dyeing colours; and they ores near the Miflouri : we know with employ certain vegetable simples to cure certainty of none other than those of radically and promptly the venereal dif- iron, lead, and cual; but from the aceale. They conceal trom us, with great counts given by the Indians, there can care, a plant which renders them for be no doubt that tin, copper, and silver, fuine boments infenuble of the inolt ve- are found in thote parts; and particles

of

of gold are fuid to have been picked up this tinie are received from the Indians on the surface of the earth, and in the and the hunters, in exchange for goods bottoni of brooks.

and merchandize, and are exlubited in The productions of the Miffouri at the following table :

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This table, which is made as correct written folely about the Missouri, I think as pollible on an average of lifteen years, I ought, at the same time, to give an thus gives an amount of 77,971 dollars, account of the mines and licks of salt without mentioning mulqualhes and unar- which lie in the famne latitudes on the tins. Calculating at the falue rate, the branches of the Arkansas. value of the goods carried up the Mif- At about 300 iniles from the village of fouri and exchanged for this peltry, the Great Osages, in a welverly direction, wou:d be 61,250 dollars, reckoning the atier having crossed leveral streams of charges to ainount to a quarter part of the Arkansas, the traveller comes to a the worth of the articles. From this it low bottom, surrounded by bills of a raft follows, that the trade ailords an annual extent, This valley is about 15 miles profit of 10,721 dollars, or about a profit across. The foil is a black fand, very of 27 per cent.

fine, and to hard, that horses scarcely If the Millouri trade, badly regulated, leave any tracks on it. During the hot and without encourageinent, gives anzu- and dry seafon, vapours rite from this ally such a protit, there can be no doubt botton, which condense and fall back of its increale, if encouraged by govern- upon the black fand, covering it with a ment. It must be observed, that the layer of exceedingly white and fine falt, price fixed in the preceding table is that about half an inch thick. The rails current at the Illinois. If the London walls away this accumulation. At about price were taken, deducting freight and 18 miles from this botton, he meets with charges, the profit would appear much lines of lal gem on the very surface of greater. liibe Miliouri, left to the fin- the earth. The Indians, who are per vages, and having but a lingle branch of fectly acquainted with it, are obliged to trade, atfords such great returns in pro- make use of levers to break it up, aud portion to the capital cmployed in it, looten it. At about 45 miles distance what night we not expect froin indivi- from the latt mentioned place, ti the duals or companies with large funds, aid- fouth, there is a second mine of fal gem, ed by a numerous population, and de- of the fame nature with the fift. They voting themfelves to other forts of traffic. only differ in colour; the forner being Some of these, I am bold to say, may white, and the other of a reddill huet. be undertaken with a certainty of luce further fouth, and fill upon the streams ccis, when we conlider the riches at of the Arkantas, there is a falitie, which forded by its banks, and of which may be contidered as one of the most I have endeavoured to sketch an our interesting phenomena of nature. line.

On the declivity of a finall bill, there Although it was my intention to have are five lioles, about a foot and a half 10

dumneter,

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